Zambia Population: 14,222,233

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 History
The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the [British] South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his abrupt death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who subsequently won a special presidential byelection in October 2008. Michael SATA was elected president in September 2011.

 Geography
Landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
Location: Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 S, 30 00 E
Area: total: 752,618 sq km
land: 743,398 sq km
water: 9,220 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 5,664 km
border countries: Angola 1,110 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zimbabwe 797 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Terrain: mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 4.52%
permanent crops: 0.05%
other: 95.44% (2011)
Irrigated land: 1,559 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
Current Environment Issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
Ethnic groups: African 99.5% (includes Bemba, Tonga, Chewa, Lozi, Nsenga, Tumbuka, Ngoni, Lala, Kaonde, Lunda, and other African groups), other 0.5% (includes Europeans, Asians, and Americans) (2000 Census)
Languages: 11 Bantu languages (Bemba (official) 30.1%, Nyanja (official) 10.7%, Tonga (official) 10.6%, Lozi (official) 5.7%, Chewa 4.9%, Nsenga 3.4%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (official) 2.2%, Kaonde (official) 2%, Lala 2%, Luvale (official) 1.7%), English (official) 1.7%, other 22.5% (2000 Census)
Religions: Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous beliefs 1%
Population: 14,222,233 (July 2013 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 46.2% (male 3,300,339/female 3,271,389)
15-24 years: 20% (male 1,423,026/female 1,425,654)
25-54 years: 28.5% (male 2,042,023/female 2,009,511)
55-64 years: 2.9% (male 193,758/female 213,927)
65 years and over: 2.4% (male 147,705/female 194,901) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 97 %
youth dependency ratio: 91.8 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.2 %
potential support ratio: 19.4 (2013)
Median age: total: 16.7 years
male: 16.5 years
female: 16.8 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.89% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 42.79 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 13.17 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 39.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 4.15% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: LUSAKA (capital) 1.413 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.2 (2007 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 440 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 68.58 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 74.16 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 62.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 51.51 years
male: 49.93 years
female: 53.14 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.81 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 40.8% (2007)
Health expenditures: 5.9% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Hospital bed density: 2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 87% of population
rural: 46% of population
total: 61% of population

unimproved:
urban: 13% of population
rural: 54% of population
total: 39% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 57% of population
rural: 43% of population
total: 48% of population

unimproved:
urban: 43% of population
rural: 57% of population
total: 52% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 13.5% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 980,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 45,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 3.6% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 14.9% (2007)
Education expenditures: 1.4% of GDP (2008)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 61.4%
male: 71.9%
female: 51.8% (2007 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 7 years
male: 8 years
female: 7 years (2000)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 23.4% (2005)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Lusaka
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
Independence: 24 October 1964 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Constitution: 24 August 1991; amended in 1996 to establish presidential term limits
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Michael Chilufya SATA (since 23 September 2011); Vice President Guy SCOTT (since 30 September 2011); the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Michael Chilufya SATA (since 23 September 2011); Vice President Guy SCOTT (since 30 September 2011)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 September 2011 (next to be held in 2016); vice president appointed by the president

election results: Michael Chilufya SATA elected president; percent of vote - Michael SATA 43.3%, Rupiah BANDA 36.2%, Hakainde HICHILEMA 18.5%, other 2.0%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (158 seats; 150 members are elected by popular vote, 8 members appointed by the president, to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 20 September 2011 (next to be held in 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PF 60, MMD 55, UPND 28, ADD 1, FDD 1, independents 3; seats not determined 2
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 9 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president and ratified by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: High Court; magistrate's courts and local courts
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI] Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI] Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA] Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Nevers MUMBA] National Restoration Party or NAREP [Elias CHIPIMO] Party of Unity for Democracy and Development or PUDD [Dan PULE] Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA] United National Independence Party or UNIP [Tilyenji KAUNDA] United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): African fish eagle
National anthem: name: "Lumbanyeni Zambia" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA

note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song "God Bless Africa," is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Palan MULONDA
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mark C. STORELLA
embassy: Ibex Hill, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (0) (211) 357-000
FAX: [260] (0) (211) 357-224
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 Economy
Zambia's economy has experienced strong growth in recent years, with real GDP growth in 2005-12 more than 6% per year. Privatization of government-owned copper mines in the 1990s relieved the government from covering mammoth losses generated by the industry and greatly increased copper mining output and profitability to spur economic growth. Copper output has increased steadily since 2004, due to higher copper prices and foreign investment. In 2005, Zambia qualified for debt relief under the Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiative, consisting of approximately US$6 billion in debt relief. Poverty remains a significant problem in Zambia, despite a stronger economy. Zambia's dependency on copper makes it vulnerable to depressed commodity prices, but record high copper prices and a bumper maize crop in 2010 helped Zambia rebound quickly from the world economic slowdown that began in 2008. Zambia has made some strides to improve the ease of doing business. A high birth rate, relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, and market distorting agricultural policies have meant that Zambia''s economic growth has not dramatically decreased the stubbornly high poverty rate.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $24.36 billion (2012 est.) $22.7 billion (2011 est.) $21.24 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $20.52 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7.3% (2012 est.) 6.8% (2011 est.) 7.6% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,700 (2012 est.) $1,700 (2011 est.) $1,600 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 15.3% of GDP (2012 est.) 21% of GDP (2011 est.) 26.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 59.5%
government consumption: 26%
investment in fixed capital: 19.5%
investment in inventories: 1.1%
exports of goods and services: 36.6%
imports of goods and services: -42.7% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 59.5%
government consumption: 26%
investment in fixed capital: 19.5%
investment in inventories: 1.1%
exports of goods and services: 36.6%
imports of goods and services: -42.7% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seed, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
Industries: copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
Industrial production growth rate: 4.9% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 5.956 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 85%
industry: 6%
services: 9% (2004)
Unemployment rate: 14% (2006 est.) 50% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line: 64% (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 38.8% (2004)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 50.8 (2004) 52.6 (1998)
Budget: revenues: $4.256 billion
expenditures: $5.256 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 20.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 33.1% of GDP (2012 est.) 29.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.6% (2012 est.) 8.7% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.048 billion (2012 est.) $215 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $8.589 billion (2012 est.) $8.672 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: copper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
Exports - partners: China 42.2%, South Africa 7.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 7.2%, South Korea 5.3%, India 4.5%, Egypt 4.5%, UAE 4.4% (2012)
Imports: $7.361 billion (2012 est.) $6.454 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners: South Africa 36.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 21.3%, China 10.1%, Kuwait 5.7% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $3.042 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $2.324 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $5.048 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $4.36 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $4.009 billion (31 December 2011) $2.817 billion (31 December 2010) $2.804 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar - 5.1 (2012 est.) 4.9 (2011 est.) 4,797.1 (2010 est.) 5,046.1 (2009) 3,512.9 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 10.2 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 92
Electricity - consumption: 7.704 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 110 million kWh (2010)
Electricity - imports: 33 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.679 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 99.6% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 10,790 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 9,664 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 19,260 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 21.18 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 17,570 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 2.416 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 85,700 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 149
Cellular Phones in use: 8.165 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: among the best in sub-Saharan Africa

domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms

international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel (2010)
Broadcast media: state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 1 TV station and is the principal local-content provider; several private TV stations; multi-channel subscription TV services are available; ZNBC operates 3 radio networks; about 2 dozen private radio stations; relays of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible in Lusaka and Kitwe (2007)
Internet country code: .zm
Internet hosts: 16,571 (2012)
Internet users: 816,200 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 88 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 63
Airports (paved runways): total 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 80

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
Pipelines: oil 771 km (2013)
Railways: total 2,157 km

narrow gauge: 2,157 km 1.067-m gauge

note: includes 891 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2008)
Roadways: total 91,440 km
paved: 20,117 km
unpaved: 71,323 km (2001)
Waterways: 2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Mpulungu
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 Military
Military branches: Zambian National Defense Force (ZNDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, National Service (paramilitary youth organization) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: national registration required at age 16; 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; grade 12 certification required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 3,041,069
females age 16-49: 2,948,291 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,745,656
females age 16-49: 1,688,670 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 158,592
female: 158,805 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.8% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 14,871 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 5,963 (Rwanda) (2012)
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis
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