Virgin Islands Population: 102,951

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 History
The Danes secured control over the southern Virgin Islands of Saint Thomas, Saint John, and Saint Croix during the 17th and early 18th centuries. Sugarcane, produced by African slave labor, drove the islands' economy during the 18th and early 19th centuries. In 1917, the US purchased the Danish holdings, which had been in economic decline since the abolition of slavery in 1848.

 Geography
Important location along the Anegada Passage - a key shipping lane for the Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the Caribbean
Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates: 18 20 N, 64 50 W
Area: total: 1,910 sq km
land: 346 sq km
water: 1,564 sq km

Size comparison: twice the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 188 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: subtropical, tempered by easterly trade winds, relatively low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season September to November
Terrain: mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little flat land
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: sun, sand, sea, surf
Land use: agricultural land: 11.5% arable land 2.9%; permanent crops 2.9%; permanent pasture 5.7% forest: 57.4%
other: 31.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: several hurricanes in recent years; frequent and severe droughts and floods; occasional earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: lack of natural freshwater resources
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 People
Nationality: noun: Virgin Islander(s) (US citizens)
adjective: Virgin Islander
Ethnic groups: black 76%, white 15.6%, Asian 1.4%, other 4.9%, mixed 2.1% note: 17.4% self-identify as latino (2010 est.)
Languages: English 71.6%, Spanish or Spanish Creole 17.2%, French or French Creole 8.6%, other 2.5% (2010 est.)
Religions: Protestant 59% (Baptist 42%, Episcopalian 17%), Roman Catholic 34%, other 7%
Population: 102,951 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.2% (male 8,933/female 8,776)
15-24 years: 9.32% (male 4,316/female 5,279)
25-54 years: 38.51% (male 17,850/female 21,795)
55-64 years: 14.72% (male 7,284/female 7,873)
65 years and over: 20.25% (male 9,402/female 11,443) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 61.2%
youth dependency ratio: 32.8%
elderly dependency ratio: 28.4%
potential support ratio: 3.5% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 45.6 years
male: 45.9 years
female: 45.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.62% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 10.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 8.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -7.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 95.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.25% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: CHARLOTTE AMALIE (capital) 52,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 0.87 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 6.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 7.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80 years male: 77 years
female: 83.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 96.4% of population
rural: 96.4% of population
total: 96.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 3.6% of population
rural: 3.6% of population
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: United States Virgin Islands
conventional short form: Virgin Islands
former: Danish West Indies
abbreviation: USVI note: the myriad islets, cays, and rocks surrounding the major islands reminded Christopher COLUMBUS in 1493 of Saint Ursula and her 11,000 virgin followers (Santa Ursula y las Once Mil Virgenes), which over time shortened to the Virgins (las Virgenes)
Government type: presidential democracy; a self-governing territory of the US
Capital: name: Charlotte Amalie
geographic coordinates: 18 21 N, 64 56 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 3 islands at the second order; Saint Croix, Saint John, Saint Thomas
Independence: none (territory of the US)
National holiday: Transfer Day (from Denmark to the US), 31 March (1917)
Constitution: 22 July 1954 - the Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands functions as a constitution for this territory of the US; revised 1962, 2000 (2016)
Legal system: US common law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; note - island residents are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch: chief of state: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009)

head of government: Governor Kenneth MAPP (since 5 January 2015), Lieutenant Governor Osbert POTTER (since 5 January 2015)

cabinet: Territorial Cabinet appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Senate elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by an Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); under the US Constitution, residents of the Virgin Islands do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in the Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 4 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2018)

election results: Kenneth MAPP elected governor; percent of vote in runoff - Kenneth MAPP (independent) 63.9%, Donna CHRISTIAN-CHRISTIANSEN (Democratic Party) 36.1%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Senate (15 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority popular vote to serve 2-year terms)

elections: last held on 4 November 2014 (next to be held on 8 November 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA note: the Virgin Islands directly elects 1 member by simple majority vote to serve a 2-year term as a delegate to the US House of Representatives; the delegate can vote when serving on a committee and when the House meets as the Committee of the Whole House, but not when legislation is submitted for a “full floor” House vote; election of delegate last held on 4 November 2014 (next to be held on 8 November 2016)
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Virgin Islands (consists of the chief justice and 2 associate justices); note - court established by US Congress in 2004 and assumed appellate jurisdiction in 2007 judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Virgin Islands Senate; justices initially serve renewable 10-year terms; chief justice elected to position by peers for a 3-year term

subordinate courts: Superior Court (Territorial Court renamed in 2004); US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit (has appellate jurisdiction over the District Court of the Virgin Islands; it is a territorial court and is not associated with a US federal judicial district); District Court of the Virgin Islands
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party [Arturo WATLINGTON] Independent Citizens' Movement or ICM [Usie RICHARDS] Republican Party [Gary SPRAUVE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: AOSIS (observer), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UPU, WFTU (NGOs)
National anthem: name: "Virgin Islands March"
lyrics/music: multiple/Alton Augustus ADAMS, Sr.

note: adopted 1963; serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the US, "The Star-Spangled Banner" is official (see United States)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US)
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 Economy
Tourism, trade, and other services are the primary economic activities, accounting for nearly 60% of the Virgin Island's GDP and about half of total civilian employment. The islands host nearly 3 million tourists per year, mostly from visiting cruise ships. The islands are vulnerable to damage from storms. The agriculture sector is small, with most food being imported. Industry and government each account for about one-fifth of GDP. The manufacturing sector consists of rum distilling, electronics, pharmaceuticals, and watch assembly. A refinery on St. Croix, one of the world’s largest, processed 350,000 barrels of crude oil a day until it was shut down in February 2012, after operating for 45 years. Federal programs and grants, totaling $241.4 million in 2013, contributed 19.7% of the territory’s total revenues. The economy declined in 2013, due to decreases in exports resulting from the loss of refined oil products. Nevertheless, the economy remains relatively diversified. Along with a vibrant tourism industry, rum exports, trade, and services will be major income sources in future years. Tourism, trade, and other services are the primary economic activities, accounting for nearly 60% of the Virgin Island's GDP and about half of total civilian employment. The islands host nearly 3 million tourists per year, mostly from visiting cruise ships. The islands are vulnerable to damage from storms. The agriculture sector is small, with most food being imported. Industry and government each account for about one-fifth of GDP. The manufacturing sector consists of rum distilling, electronics, pharmaceuticals, and watch assembly. A refinery on St. Croix, one of the world’s largest, processed 350,000 barrels of crude oil a day until it was shut down in February 2012, after operating for 45 years. Federal programs and grants, totaling $241.4 million in 2013, contributed 19.7% of the territory’s total revenues. The economy declined in 2013, due to decreases in exports resulting from the loss of refined oil products. Nevertheless, the economy remains relatively diversified. Along with a vibrant tourism industry, rum exports, trade, and services will be major income sources in future years.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $3.792 billion (2013 est.) $4.143 billion (2012 est.) $4.288 billion (2011 est.) GDP (purchasing power parity): $3.792 billion (2013 est.) $4.143 billion (2012 est.) $4.288 billion (2011 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $5.075 billion (2013) GDP (official exchange rate): $5.075 billion (2013)
GDP - real growth rate: -5.4% (2013 est.) -13.8% (2012 est.) -7.5% (2011 est.) -5.4% (2013 est.) -13.8% (2012 est.) -7.5% (2011 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $36,100 (2013 est.) $39,300 (2012 est.) $40,500 (2011 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $36,100 (2013 est.) $39,300 (2012 est.) $40,500 (2011 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 63.6%
government consumption: 28% investment in fixed assets: 6.1%
investment in inventories: NA%
exports of goods and services: 69.3%
imports of goods and services: -66.9% (2013) household consumption: 63.6% government consumption: 28% investment in fixed assets: 6.1% investment in inventories: NA% exports of goods and services: 69.3% imports of goods and services: -66.9% (2013)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 63.6%
government consumption: 28% investment in fixed assets: 6.1%
investment in inventories: NA%
exports of goods and services: 69.3%
imports of goods and services: -66.9% (2013) household consumption: 63.6% government consumption: 28% investment in fixed assets: 6.1% investment in inventories: NA% exports of goods and services: 69.3% imports of goods and services: -66.9% (2013)
Agriculture - products: fruit, vegetables, sorghum; Senepol cattle fruit, vegetables, sorghum; Senepol cattle
Industries: tourism, watch assembly, rum distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, electronics tourism, watch assembly, rum distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, electronics
Industrial production growth rate: NA% NA%
Labor force: 50,580 (2012 est.) 50,580 (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 1%
industry: 19%
services: 80% (2003 est.) agriculture: 1% industry: 19% services: 80% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate: 13% (2014) 13% (2014)
Population below poverty line: 28.9% (2002 est.) 28.9% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $1.223 billion
expenditures: $1.551 billion (2013) revenues: $1.223 billion expenditures: $1.551 billion (2013)
Taxes and other revenues: 24.1% of GDP (2013) 24.1% of GDP (2013)
Public debt: 45.9% of GDP (2014) 45.9% of GDP (2014)
Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September 1 October - 30 September
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (2012) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (2012)
Exports: $2.627 billion (2013) $3.339 billion (2012) $2.627 billion (2013) $3.339 billion (2012)
Exports - commodities: rum rum
Imports: $2.694 billion (2013) $3.056 billion (2012) $2.694 billion (2013) $3.056 billion (2012)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials
Debt - external: $NA $NA
Exchange rates: the US dollar is used the US dollar is used
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 700 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 600 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 300,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 111,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 119,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 9.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system with total digital switching, uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay

domestic: full range of services available

international: country code - 1-340; submarine cable connections to US, the Caribbean, Central and South America; satellite earth stations - NA (2015)
Broadcast media: about a dozen TV broadcast stations including 1 public TV station; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services are available; 24 radio stations (2009)
Internet country code: .vi
Internet users: total: 57,000 percent of population: 54.8% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 2 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 2
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 1,260 km
(2008)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Charlotte Amalie, Christiansted, Cruz Bay, Frederiksted, Limetree Bay
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of the US
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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