Uzbekistan Population: 28,661,637

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 Background
Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves and increasing its manufacturing base. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.

 Geography
Along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
Location: Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 64 00 E
Area: total: 447,400 sq km land: 425,400 sq km water: 22,000 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than California
Land Boundaries: total: 6,221 km border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Coastline: 0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Maritime claims: none (doubly landlocked)
Climate: mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use: arable land: 9.61% permanent crops: 0.8% other: 89.58% (2011)
Irrigated land: 41,980 sq km (2005)
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Uzbekistani adjective: Uzbekistani
Ethnic groups: Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Languages: Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Population: 28,661,637 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.3% (male 3,718,802/female 3,539,436) 15-24 years: 21.1% (male 3,062,438/female 2,990,299) 25-54 years: 42.5% (male 6,043,922/female 6,128,173) 55-64 years: 6.4% (male 861,590/female 965,635) 65 years and over: 4.7% (male 576,908/female 774,434) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 49 % youth dependency ratio: 42.6 % elderly dependency ratio: 6.4 % potential support ratio: 15.7 (2013)
Median age: total: 26.6 years
male: 26.1 years female: 27.2 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.94% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 17.2 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 5.29 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 36.2% of total population (2011) rate of urbanization: 1.27% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: TASHKENT (capital) 2.201 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 23.8 (2006 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 28 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 20.51 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 24.32 deaths/1,000 live births female: 16.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.03 years
male: 70 years female: 76.25 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 64.9% (2006)
Health expenditures: 5.3% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 2.62 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density: 4.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved: urban: 98% of population rural: 81% of population total: 87% of population unimproved: urban: 2% of population rural: 19% of population total: 13% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved: urban: 100% of population rural: 100% of population total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 28,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 15.1% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 4.4% (2006)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4% male: 99.6% female: 99.2% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years
male: 12 years female: 11 years (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan conventional short form: Uzbekistan local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi local short form: Ozbekiston former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type: republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Capital: name: Tashkent (Toshkent) geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch) note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence: 1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
Constitution: adopted 8 December 1992; amended in 2002 and 2011
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet; elected president of independent Uzbekistan in 1991) head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008) cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of both chambers of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis) (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to seven years and changed back to five years in 2011); election last held on 23 December 2007 (next to be held in early 2015); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Asliddin RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom TOSHMUHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%, other 3.2%
Legislative branch: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an upper house or Senate (100 seats; 84 members elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members to serve five-year terms) and a lower house or Legislative Chamber (Qonunchilik Palatasi) (150 seats; 135 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, while 15 spots reserved for the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan) elections: last held on 27 December 2009 and 10 January 2010 (next to be held in December 2014) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 53, NDP 32, National Rebirth Party 31, Adolat 19 note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Islom KARIMOV
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 34 judges organized in civil, criminal, and military sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); Higher Economic Court (consists of 19 judges) judge selection and term of office: judges of the 3 highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for 5-year terms subject to reappointment subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts
Political parties and leaders: Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Harakati) [Boriy ALIXONOV] Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Ismoil SAIFNAZAROV] Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Muhamadyusuf TESHABOYEV] National Rebirth Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Milliy Tiklanish) [Akhtam TURSUNOV] People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or NDP [Lativ GULYAMOV] (formerly Communist Party)
Political pressure groups and leaders: there are no significant opposition political parties or pressure groups operating in Uzbekistan
International organization participation: ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): khumo (mythical bird)
National anthem: name: "O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan) lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Baxtiyor GULOMOV chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300 FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804 consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador George KROL embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093 mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450 FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
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 Economy
Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country; 11% of the land is intensely cultivated, in irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of the population lives in densely populated rural communities. Export of hydrocarbons, primarily natural gas, provided 18.5% of foreign exchange earnings in 2011 and 35.1% in the first nine months of 2012. Other major export earners include gold and cotton. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbekistani agriculture remains largely centered around cotton, although production has dropped by 35% since 1991. Uzbekistan is now the world's fifth largest cotton exporter and sixth largest producer. The country is aggressively addressing international criticism for the use of child labor in its cotton harvest. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. According to official statistics, Uzbekistan has posted GDP growth of over 8% per year for several years, driven primarily by state-led investments and a favorable export environment. Growth may slip in 2013 as a result of lower export prices due to the continuing European recession. In the past Uzbekistani authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbekistani tax laws and have frozen their assets, with several new expropriations in 2012. At the same time, the Uzbekistani Government has actively courted several major US and international corporations, offering attractive financing and tax advantages, and has landed a significant US investment in the automotive industry, including the opening of a powertrain manufacturing facility in Tashkent in November 2011. Uzbekistan has seen few effects from the global economic downturn, primarily due to its relative isolation from the global financial markets.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $106.4 billion (2012 est.) $98.54 billion (2011 est.) $90.98 billion (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $51.17 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 8.2% (2012 est.) 8.3% (2011 est.) 8.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,600 (2012 est.) $3,400 (2011 est.) $3,200 (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 55.7% government consumption: 16.6% investment in fixed capital: 23.5% investment in inventories: 4.9% exports of goods and services: 27.2% imports of goods and services: -27.9% (2011 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 55.7% government consumption: 16.6% investment in fixed capital: 23.5% investment in inventories: 4.9% exports of goods and services: 27.2% imports of goods and services: -27.9% (2011 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
Industries: textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
Industrial production growth rate: 7.7% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 16.74 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 25.9% industry: 13.2% services: 60.9% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.8% (2012 est.) 5% (2011 est.) note: officially measured by the Ministry of Labor, plus another 20% underemployed
Population below poverty line: 17% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 36.8 (2003) 44.7 (1998)
Budget: revenues: $17.08 billion expenditures: $16.86 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 33.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 8.8% of GDP (2012 est.) 9.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.7% (2012 est.) 12.8% (2011 est.) note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012
Current account balance: $3.284 billion (2012 est.) $4.52 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $16.65 billion (2012 est.) $15.03 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobiles
Exports - partners: China 18.5%, Kazakhstan 14.6%, Turkey 13.8%, Russia 12.8%, Ukraine 12.5%, Bangladesh 8.9% (2012)
Imports: $15.53 billion (2012 est.) $10.5 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals
Imports - partners: Russia 20.6%, China 16.5%, South Korea 16.3%, Kazakhstan 12.8%, Germany 4.6%, Turkey 4.2% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $16 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $15 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $8.072 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $8.382 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA (31 December 2012) $715.3 million (31 December 2006)
Exchange rates: Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar - 1,891.1 (2012 est.) 1,715.8 (2011 est.) 1,587.2 (2010 est.) 1,466.7 (2009) 1,317 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 52.53 billion kWh (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 49
Electricity - consumption: 42.9 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 11.66 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports: 11.58 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 12.4 million kW (2012 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 85.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 14.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 104,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 5,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 594 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 90,690 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 137,100 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 5,488 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 62.9 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 46.8 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 13.4 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 114.3 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 1.928 million (2011) country comparison to the world: 59
Cellular Phones in use: 25.442 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are growing rapidly, with the subscriber base reaching 25 million in 2011 international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan plans to establish a fiber-optic connection to Afghanistan (2009)
Broadcast media: government controls media; 11 state-owned broadcasters - 7 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; about 15 privately owned radio broadcasters are affiliated with the National Association of Electronic Mass Media of Uzbekistan, a government sponsored NGO for private broadcast media
Internet country code: .uz
Internet hosts: 56,075 (2012)
Internet users: 4.689 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 53 (2013) country comparison to the world: 89
Airports (paved runways): total 33
over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 13 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 4 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 20
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 under 914 m: 18 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 10,401 km; oil 944 km (2013)
Railways: total 3,645 km
broad gauge: 3,645 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2008)
Roadways: total 86,496 km
paved: 75,511 km unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
Waterways: 1,100 km (2012)
Ports and terminals: Termiz (Amu Darya)
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 Military
Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-year conscript service obligation; moving toward a professional military, but conscription will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 7,887,292 females age 16-49: 7,886,459 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 6,566,118 females age 16-49: 6,745,818 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 306,404 female: 295,456 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 3.5% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: undetermined (government forcibly relocated an estimated 3,400 people from villages near the Tajikistan border in 2000-2001; no new data is available) (2012)
Illicit drugs: transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
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