Uzbekistan Population: 29,473,614

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 History
Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991 upon the dissolution of the USSR, the country has gradually lessened its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base. Uzbekistan’s first president, Islom KARIMOV, led Uzbekistan for 25 years until his death in August 2016. The political transition to his successor, then-Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV was peaceful, but sidelined the constitutional process where the chairman of the Senate would have served as the acting president. MIRZIYOYEV, who won the presidential election in December 2016, has sought to improve relations with Uzbekistan’s neighbors and proposed wide-ranging economic and judicial reforms.

 Geography
Along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
Location: Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 64 00 E
Area: total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km

Size comparison: about four times the size of Virginia; slightly larger than California
Land Boundaries: total: 6,893 km border countries (5): Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2,330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,314 km, Tajikistan 1,312 km, Turkmenistan 1,793 km
Coastline: 0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Maritime claims: none (doubly landlocked)
Climate: mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use: agricultural land: 62.6% arable land 10.1%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 51.7% forest: 7.7%
other: 29.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 42,150 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani
Ethnic groups: Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Languages: Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1% note: in the Karakalpakstan Republic, both the Karakalpak language and Uzbek have official status
Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Population: 29,473,614 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 24.22% (male 3,658,960/female 3,480,659)
15-24 years: 19.22% (male 2,874,982/female 2,790,128)
25-54 years: 43.95% (male 6,444,288/female 6,510,741)
55-64 years: 7.54% (male 1,049,876/female 1,171,369)
65 years and over: 5.06% (male 637,408/female 855,203) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 49.7%
youth dependency ratio: 42.7%
elderly dependency ratio: 7%
potential support ratio: 14.3% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 28.1 years
male: 27.6 years
female: 28.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.93% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 16.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 36.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.45% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: TASHKENT (capital) 2.251 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 23.4 (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 36 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 22.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.8 years male: 70.7 years
female: 77 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.78 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 64.9% (2006)
Health expenditures: 5.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 2.53 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density: 4.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 98.5% of population
rural: 80.9% of population
total: 87.3% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1.5% of population
rural: 19.1% of population
total: 12.7% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.15% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 32,700 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,600 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 14.3% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 4.4% (2006)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: O'zbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "uz" (self) and "bek" (master) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) to give the meaning "Land of the free"
Government type: presidential republic; highly authoritarian
Capital: name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence: 1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
Constitution: several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992; amended several times, last in 2014 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (interim president from 8 September 2016; formally elected president on 4 December 2016 to succeed longtime President Islom KARIMOV, who died on 2 September 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 13 December 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of both chambers of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis) elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to 7 years, and reverted to 5 years in 2011); election last held on 4 December 2016; prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011, but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president

election results: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Khatamjon KETMONOV (NDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURADOV 2.4%, other 1.8%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of the Senate (100 seats; 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats; 135 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed and 15 indirectly elected by the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan; members serve 5-year terms) note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV

elections: last held on 21 December 2014 and 4 January 2015 (next to be held in December 2019)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 52, National Rebirth Party 36, NDP 27, Adolat 20, Ecological Movement 15
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 34 judges organized in civil, criminal, and military sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); Higher Economic Court (consists of 19 judges) judge selection and term of office: judges of the 3 highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for 5-year terms subject to reappointment

subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts
Political parties and leaders: Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Harakati) [Boriy ALIKHANOV] Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Narimon UMAROV] Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV] National Revival Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik Partiyasi) [Sarvar OTAMURATOV] People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or NDP [Hotamjon KETMONOV] (formerly Communist Party)
Political pressure groups and leaders: no significant opposition political parties or pressure groups in Uzbekistan
International organization participation: ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): khumo (mythical bird); national colors: blue, white, red, green
National anthem: name: "O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV

note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Baxtiyor GULOMOV (since 18 July 2013)
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela L. SPRATLEN (since 21 January 2015)
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
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 Economy
Uzbekistan is a landlocked country with more than 60% of the population living in densely populated rural communities. Since its independence in September 1991, the government maintained its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbekistani agriculture remains largely centered on cotton; Uzbekistan is the world's fifth largest cotton exporter and sixth largest producer. Uzbekistan's growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments, and export of natural gas, gold, and cotton provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings. In 2015, Russia’s Gazprom announced it would reduce its natural gas imports from Uzbekistan but Tashkent continues to export natural gas to China and Chinese investments in the country have substantially increased. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government continues to intervene in the business sector and has not addressed the impediments to foreign investment in the country. In the past, Uzbekistani authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbekistani laws and have frozen and seized their assets. At the same time, the Uzbekistani Government has actively courted several major US and international corporations, offering financing and tax advantages. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. Recently, lower global commodity prices and economic slowdown in neighboring Russia and China have been hurting Uzbekistan's trade and investment and worsening its problem of currency shortage.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $202.3 billion (2016 est.) $190.8 billion (2015 est.) $176.7 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $66.8 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2016 est.) 8% (2015 est.) 8.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $6,500 (2016 est.) $6,200 (2015 est.) $5,800 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 30.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 31% of GDP (2015 est.) 31.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 55.3%
government consumption: 17.2%
investment in fixed capital: 24.4%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 28.6%
imports of goods and services: -28.5% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 55.3%
government consumption: 17.2%
investment in fixed capital: 24.4%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 28.6%
imports of goods and services: -28.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
Industries: textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 17.8 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 25.9%
industry: 13.2%
services: 60.9% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.9% (2016 est.) 5% (2015 est.) note: official data; another 20% are underemployed
Population below poverty line: 17% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 36.8 (2003) 44.7 (1998)
Budget: revenues: $21.09 billion
expenditures: $21.23 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 31.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 8.3% of GDP (2015 est.) 7.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.5% (2016 est.) 10% (2015 est.) note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012
Current account balance: $64 million (2016 est.) $93 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $11.11 billion (2016 est.) $11.35 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles
Exports - partners: Switzerland 25.8%, China 17.6%, Kazakhstan 14.2%, Turkey 9.9%, Russia 8.4%, Bangladesh 6.9% (2015)
Imports: $11.61 billion (2016 est.) $11.81 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals
Imports - partners: China 20.8%, Russia 20.8%, South Korea 12%, Kazakhstan 10.8%, Turkey 4.6%, Germany 4.4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $14.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $15.75 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $13.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA (31 December 2012) $715.3 million (31 December 2006)
Exchange rates: Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar - 2,963.7 (2016 est.) 2,569.6 (2015 est.) 2,569.6 (2014 est.) 2,311.4 (2013 est.) 1,890.1 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 53 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 48 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 13 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 86.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 13.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 60,130 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 27,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 360 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 600 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 67,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 64,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 4,367 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 61.74 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 47.04 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 14.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 109 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 21.783 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 75 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas

domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed-line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchange

international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic (2015)
Broadcast media: government controls media; 14 state-owned broadcasters - 10 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are re
Internet country code: .uz
Internet users: total: 12.498 million percent of population: 42.8% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 53 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 33
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 20

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 10,401 km; oil 944 km (2013)
Railways: total 3,645 km
broad gauge: 3,645 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 86,496 km
paved: 75,511 km
unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
Waterways: 1,100 km (2012)
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Termiz (Amu Darya)
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 Military
Military branches: Armed Forces: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces (2016)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-month or 1-year conscript service obligation for males; moving toward a professional military, but conscription in some form will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities; note - widely considered to have one of the strongest militaries in Central Asia, although it is untested (2016)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 86,703 (2015)
Illicit drugs: transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
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