Uruguay Population: 3,324,460

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 History
Montevideo, founded by the Spanish in 1726 as a military stronghold, soon took advantage of its natural harbor to become an important commercial center. Claimed by Argentina but annexed by Brazil in 1821, Uruguay declared its independence four years later and secured its freedom in 1828 after a three-year struggle. The administrations of President Jose BATLLE in the early 20th century established widespread political, social, and economic reforms that established a statist tradition. A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement named the Tupamaros, launched in the late 1960s, led Uruguay's president to cede control of the government to the military in 1973. By yearend, the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold over the government. Civilian rule was not restored until 1985. In 2004, the left-of-center Frente Amplio Coalition won national elections that effectively ended 170 years of political control previously held by the Colorado and Blanco parties. Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.

 Geography
Second-smallest South American country (after Suriname); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal for cattle and sheep raising
Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil
Geographic coordinates: 33 00 S, 56 00 W
Area: total: 176,215 sq km
land: 175,015 sq km
water: 1,200 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than the state of Washington
Land Boundaries: total: 1,648 km
border countries: Argentina 580 km, Brazil 1,068 km
Coastline: 660 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or edge of continental margin
Climate: warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Terrain: mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Catedral 514 m
Natural resources: arable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fish
Land use: arable land: 10.25%
permanent crops: 0.22%
other: 89.52% (2011)
Irrigated land: 1,810 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind that blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts
Current Environment Issues: water pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
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 People
Nationality: noun: Uruguayan(s)
adjective: Uruguayan
Ethnic groups: white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian (practically nonexistent)
Languages: Spanish (official), Portunol, Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier)
Religions: Roman Catholic 47.1%, non-Catholic Christians 11.1%, nondenominational 23.2%, Jewish 0.3%, atheist or agnostic 17.2%, other 1.1% (2006)
Population: 3,324,460 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 21.4% (male 361,589/female 349,257)
15-24 years: 16% (male 269,649/female 262,582)
25-54 years: 38.8% (male 635,252/female 655,518)
55-64 years: 9.9% (male 155,192/female 174,976)
65 years and over: 13.9% (male 183,450/female 276,995) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 56.2 %
youth dependency ratio: 34.1 %
elderly dependency ratio: 22 %
potential support ratio: 4.5 (2013)
Median age: total: 34.1 years
male: 32.4 years
female: 35.7 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.25% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 13.28 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 9.52 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 92% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: MONTEVIDEO (capital) 1.633 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 29 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 9.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 10.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.61 years
male: 73.47 years
female: 79.86 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.86 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 77% note: percent of women aged 15-50 (2004)
Health expenditures: 8.4% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 3.74 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 1.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.5% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 9,900 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 24.8% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 6% (2004)
Education expenditures: 2.9% of GDP (2006)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.1%
male: 97.6%
female: 98.5% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years
male: 14 years
female: 17 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 17.4%
male: 14.4%
female: 21.7% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay
conventional short form: Uruguay
local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay
local short form: Uruguay
former: Banda Oriental, Cisplatine Province
Government type: constitutional republic
Capital: name: Montevideo
geographic coordinates: 34 51 S, 56 10 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends second Sunday in March
Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
Independence: 25 August 1825 (from Brazil)
National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August (1825)
Constitution: 27 November 1966; effective 15 February 1967; suspended 27 June 1973; revised 26 November 1989 and 7 January 1997
Legal system: civil law system based on the Spanish civil code
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Jose "Pepe" MUJICA Cordano (since 1 March 2010); Vice President Danilo ASTORI Saragoza (since 1 March 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Jose "Pepe" MUJICA Cordano (since 1 March 2010); Vice President Danilo ASTORI Saragoza (since 1 March 2010)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with parliamentary approval (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 29 November 2009 (next to be held in October 2014)

election results: Jose "Pepe" MUJICA Cordano elected president; percent of vote - Jose "Pepe" MUJICA Cordano 54.8%, Luis Alberto LACALLE 45.2%
Legislative branch: bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (30 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; vice president has one vote in the Senate) and Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Senators - last held on 25 October 2009 (next to be held in October 2014); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 25 October 2009 (next to be held in October 2014)

election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Frente Amplio 16, Blanco 9, Colorado Party 5; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Frente Amplio 50, Blanco 30, Colorado Party 17, Independent Party 2
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of 5 judges) judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and appointed in joint conference of the General Assembly; judges appointed for 10-year terms, with re-election after a lapse of 5 years following the previous term

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; District Courts (Juzagados Letrados); Peace Courts (Juzagados de Paz); Rural Courts (Juzgados Rurales)
Political parties and leaders: Broad Front (Frente Amplio) - formerly known as the Progressive Encounter/Broad Front Coalition or EP-FA [Monica XAVIER] (a broad governing coalition that includes Popular Participation Movement (MPP), New Space Party (Nuevo Espacio) [Rafael MICHELINI], Progressive Alliance (Alianza Progresista) [Rodolfo NIN NOVOA], Socialist Party [vacant], Communist Party [Eduardo LORIER], Uruguayan Assembly (Asamblea Uruguay) [Danilo ASTORI Saragoza], and Vertiente Artiguista [Enrique RUBIO]) Colorado Party (Vamos Uruguay) [Martha MONTANER] Independent Party [Pablo MIERES] National Party or Blanco [Luis Alberto HEBER]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Chamber of Commerce and Export of Agriproducts Chamber of Industries (manufacturer's association) Exporters Union of Uruguay National Chamber of Commerce and Services PIT/CNT (powerful federation of Uruguayan Unions - umbrella labor organization) Rural Association of Uruguay (rancher's association) Uruguayan Network of Political Women other: B'nai Brith; Catholic Church; students
International organization participation: CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol)
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional" (National Anthem of Uruguay)
lyrics/music: Francisco Esteban ACUNA de Figueroa/Francisco Jose DEBALI

note: adopted 1848; the anthem is also known as "Orientales, la Patria o la tumba!" ("Uruguayans, the Fatherland or Death!"); it is the world's longest national anthem in terms of music (105 bars; almost five minutes); generally only the first verse and chorus are sung
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Alberto GIANELLI Derois
chancery: 1913 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313 through 1316
FAX: [1] (202) 331-8142
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Thomas H. LLOYD
embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo 11200
mailing address: APO AA 34035
telephone: [598] (2) 1770-2000
FAX: [598] (2) 1770-2128
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 Economy
Uruguay has a free market economy characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated work force, and high levels of social spending. Following financial difficulties in the late 1990s and early 2000s, economic growth for Uruguay averaged 8% annually during the period 2004-08. The 2008-09 global financial crisis put a brake on Uruguay's vigorous growth, which decelerated to 2.6% in 2009. Nevertheless, the country managed to avoid a recession and keep positive growth rates, mainly through higher public expenditure and investment, and GDP growth reached 8.9% in 2010 but fell to about 3.5% in 2012, the result of a renewed slowdown in the global economy and in Uruguay's main trade partners and Common Market of the South (Mercosur) counterparts, Argentina and Brazil. Uruguay has sought to expand trade within Mercosur and with non-Mercosur members. Uruguay''s total merchandise trade with Mercosur since 2006 has increased by nearly 70% to more than $5 billion while its total trade with the world has almost doubled to roughly $20 billion.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $54.67 billion (2012 est.) $52.67 billion (2011 est.) $49.83 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $49.4 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% (2012 est.) 5.7% (2011 est.) 8.9% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $16,200 (2012 est.) $15,600 (2011 est.) $14,800 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 16.5% of GDP (2012 est.) 16.3% of GDP (2011 est.) 16.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 68.5%
government consumption: 12.9%
investment in fixed capital: 21.4%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 26.1%
imports of goods and services: -29.4% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 68.5%
government consumption: 12.9%
investment in fixed capital: 21.4%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 26.1%
imports of goods and services: -29.4% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: soybeans, rice, wheat; beef, dairy products; fish; lumber, cellulose
Industries: food processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages
Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 1.691 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 13%
industry: 14%
services: 73% (2010 est.)
Unemployment rate: 6.1% (2012 est.) 6% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 18.6% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 34.4% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 45.3 (2010) 44.8 (1999)
Budget: revenues: $14.25 billion
expenditures: $15.63 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 28.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 58.5% of GDP (2012 est.) 59.6% of GDP (2011 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.1% (2012 est.) 8.1% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.189 billion (2012 est.) -$875.9 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $9.907 billion (2012 est.) $9.276 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: beef, soybeans, cellulose, rice, wheat, wood, dairy products; wool
Exports - partners: Brazil 18.5%, China 17.9%, Argentina 6.8%, Germany 4.3% (2012)
Imports: $12.22 billion (2012 est.) $10.7 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: refined oil, crude oil, passenger and other transportation vehicles, vehicle parts, cellular phones
Imports - partners: China 16.1%, Argentina 15.8%, Brazil 14.6%, US 8.9%, Paraguay 7.6% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $13.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $10.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $21.07 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $14.35 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $15.2 billion (31 December 2011) $14.8 billion (31 December 2010)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $345 million (31 December 2010 est.) $300 million (31 December 2009 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $231 million (31 December 2011) $238 million (31 December 2010) $219 million (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: Uruguayan pesos (UYU) per US dollar - 20.311 (2012 est.) 19.314 (2011 est.) 20.059 (2010 est.) 22.568 (2009) 20.936 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 9.5 billion kWh (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 94
Electricity - consumption: 7.96 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - exports: 18.9 million kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - imports: 470 million kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.516 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 38.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 61.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 38,720 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 43,370 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 51,100 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 6,093 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 22,060 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 80 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 86.4 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 7.265 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 964,900 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 80
Cellular Phones in use: 4.757 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: fully digitalized

domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; nationwide microwave radio relay network; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity has reached 170 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 598; the UNISOR submarine cable system provides direct connectivity to Brazil and Argentina; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media: mixture of privately owned and state-run broadcast media; more than 100 commercial radio stations and about 20 TV channels; cable TV is available; many community radio and TV stations; adopted the hybrid Japanese/Brazilian HDTV standard (ISDB-T) in December 2010 (2010)
Internet country code: .uy
Internet hosts: 1.036 million (2012)
Internet users: 1.405 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 133 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 43
Airports (paved runways): total 11
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 122

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 40
under 914 m: 79 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 257 km; oil 160 km (2013)
Railways: total 1,641 km
standard gauge: 1,641 km 1.435-m gauge (1,200 km operational) (2010)
Roadways: total 77,732 km
paved: 7,743 km
unpaved: 69,989 km (2010)
Waterways: 1,600 km (2011)
Merchant marine: total 16

by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 2, chemical tanker 3, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 8 (Argentina 1, Denmark 1, Greece 1, Spain 5)

registered in other countries: 1 (Liberia 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Montevideo
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 Military
Military branches: Uruguayan Armed Forces: Uruguayan National Army (Ejercito Nacional Uruguaya, ENU), Uruguayan National Navy (Armada Nacional del Uruguay; includes naval air arm, Naval Rifle Corps (Cuerpo de Fusileros Navales, Fusna), Maritime Prefecture in wartime), Uruguayan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Uruguaya, FAU) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age (18-22 years of age for Navy) for male or female voluntary military service; up to 40 years of age for specialists; enlistment is voluntary in peacetime, but the government has the authority to conscript in emergencies; minimum 6-year education (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 771,159
females age 16-49: 780,932 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 649,025
females age 16-49: 654,903 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 27,564
female: 26,811 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 0.9% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border
Illicit drugs: small-scale transit country for drugs mainly bound for Europe, often through sea-borne containers; law enforcement corruption; money laundering because of strict banking secrecy laws; weak border control along Brazilian frontier; increasing consumption of cocaine base and synthetic drugs
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