Trinidad and Tobago Population: 1,225,225

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 Background
First colonized by the Spanish, the islands came under British control in the early 19th century. The islands' sugar industry was hurt by the emancipation of the slaves in 1834. Manpower was replaced with the importation of contract laborers from India between 1845 and 1917, which boosted sugar production as well as the cocoa industry. The discovery of oil on Trinidad in 1910 added another important export. Independence was attained in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing. The government is coping with a rise in violent crime.

 Geography
Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt
Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Geographic coordinates: 11 00 N, 61 00 W
Area: total: 5,128 sq km land: 5,128 sq km water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Delaware
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 362 km
Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Terrain: mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
Land use: arable land: 4.87% permanent crops: 4.29% other: 90.84% (2011)
Irrigated land: 36 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
Current Environment Issues: water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s) adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Ethnic groups: Indian (South Asian) 40%, African 37.5%, mixed 20.5%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.8% (2000 census)
Languages: English (official), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), French, Spanish, Chinese
Religions: Roman Catholic 26%, Protestant 25.8% (Anglican 7.8%, Baptist 7.2%, Pentecostal 6.8%, Seventh-Day Adventist 4%), Hindu 22.5%, Muslim 5.8%, other Christian 5.8%, other 10.8%, unspecified 1.4%, none 1.9% (2000 census)
Population: 1,225,225 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 19.5% (male 121,713/female 116,764) 15-24 years: 13.6% (male 86,514/female 80,397) 25-54 years: 47.1% (male 299,207/female 278,043) 55-64 years: 10.7% (male 65,195/female 66,033) 65 years and over: 9.1% (male 48,102/female 63,257) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 42.5 % youth dependency ratio: 29.6 % elderly dependency ratio: 12.9 % potential support ratio: 7.8 (2013)
Median age: total: 33.9 years
male: 33.4 years female: 34.4 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.09% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 14.07 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 8.42 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -6.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 14% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: PORT-OF-SPAIN (capital) 57,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 46 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 25.74 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 27.08 deaths/1,000 live births female: 24.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.96 years
male: 69.09 years female: 74.91 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 42.5% (2006)
Health expenditures: 5.7% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 1.18 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density: 2.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved: urban: 98% of population rural: 93% of population total: 94% of population unimproved: urban: 2% of population rural: 7% of population total: 6% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved: urban: 92% of population rural: 92% of population total: 92% of population unimproved: urban: 8% of population rural: 8% of population total: 8% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.5% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 15,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 29.3% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 4.4% (2000)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.8% male: 99.2% female: 98.5% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years
male: 12 years female: 12 years (2004)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 10.5%
male: 8.8% female: 12.9% (2008)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Port of Spain geographic coordinates: 10 39 N, 61 31 W time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 9 regions, 3 boroughs, 2 cities, 1 ward regions: Couva/Tabaquite/Talparo, Diego Martin, Mayaro/Rio Claro, Penal/Debe, Princes Town, Sangre Grande, San Juan/Laventille, Siparia, Tunapuna/Piarco borough: Arima, Chaguanas, Point Fortin cities: Port of Spain, San Fernando ward: Tobago
Independence: 31 August 1962 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Constitution: 1 August 1976
Legal system: English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Anthony CARMONA (since 18 March 2013) head of government: Prime Minister Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR (since 26 May 2010) cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives, for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 February 2013 (next to be held by February 2018); the president usually appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives election results: as the only candidate nominated, Anthony CARMONA elected president; sworn in on 18 March 2013; percent of electoral college vote - 100%
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (31 seats; 16 members appointed by the ruling party, 9 by the president, 6 by the opposition party to serve a maximum term of five years) and the House of Representatives (41 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Representatives - last held on 24 May 2010 (next to be held in 2015) election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - NA; seats by party - UNC 21, PNM 12, COP 6, TOP 2 note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly with 12 members serving four-year terms; last election held in January 2013; seats by party - PNM 12
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Judicature (consists of a chief justice for both the Court of Appeal with 12 judges and the High Court with 24 judges) note - Trinidad and Tobago can file appeals beyond its Supreme Court to the Caribbean Court of Justice, with final appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the parliamentary leader of the opposition; other judges appointed by the Judicial Legal Services Commission, headed by the chief justice and 5 members with judicial experience; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement normally at age 65 subordinate courts: Courts of Summary Criminal Jurisdiction; Petty Civil Courts; Family Court
Political parties and leaders: Congress of the People or COP [Prakash RAMADHAR] Democratic Action Congress or DAC [Hochoy CHARLES] (only active in Tobago) Democratic National Alliance or DNA [Charles CARSON] (coalition of NAR, DDPT, MND) Movement for National Development or MND [Garvin NICHOLAS] National Alliance for Reconstruction or NAR [Lennox SANKERSINGH] People's National Movement or PNM [Keith ROWLEY] Tobago Organization of the People or TOP [Ashworth JACK] United National Congress or UNC [Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin ABU BAKR]
International organization participation: ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): scarlet ibis (bird of Trinidad); cocrico (bird of Tobago)
National anthem: name: "Forged From the Love of Liberty" lyrics/music: Patrick Stanislaus CASTAGNE note: adopted 1962; the song was originally created to serve as an anthem for the West Indies Federation; it was adopted by Trinidad and Tobago following the Federation's dissolution in 1962
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Neil PARSAN chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490 FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130 consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Thomas SMITHAM embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port of Spain mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port of Spain telephone: [1] (868) 622-6371 through 6376 FAX: [1] (868) 822-5905
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 Economy
Trinidad and Tobago has earned a reputation as an excellent investment site for international businesses and has one of the highest growth rates and per capita incomes in Latin America. Economic growth between 2000 and 2007 averaged slightly over 8%, significantly above the regional average of about 3.7% for that same period; however, GDP has slowed down since then and contracted during 2009-2011 due to depressed natural gas prices and changing markets. Growth had been fueled by investments in liquefied natural gas, petrochemicals, and steel with additional upstream and downstream investment planned. Trinidad and Tobago is the leading Caribbean producer of oil and gas, and its economy is heavily dependent upon these resources but it also supplies manufactured goods, notably food products and beverages, as well as cement to the Caribbean region. Oil and gas account for about 40% of GDP and 80% of exports, but only 5% of employment. Oil production has declined over the last decade as the country focused the majority of its efforts on natural gas. However, declining reserves, lack of government investment in the sector, and the changing global gas market raises concern for the long-term growth of the country's energy sector. Although Trinidad and Tobago enjoys cheap electricity from natural gas, the renewable energy sector has recently garnered increased interest. The country is also a regional financial center with a well-regulated and stable financial system. Other sectors the Government of Trinidad and Tobago targeted for increased investment and projected growth include tourism, agriculture, information and communications technology, and shipping. The economy benefits from a growing trade surplus with the US. The US is Trinidad and Tobago's leading trade partner. The previous MANNING administration benefited from fiscal surpluses fueled by the dynamic export sector; however, declines in oil and gas prices have reduced government revenues, challenging the current government's commitment to maintaining high levels of public investment. Crime and bureaucratic hurdles continue to be the biggest deterrents for attracting more foreign direct investment and business.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $27.14 billion (2012 est.) $27.03 billion (2011 est.) $27.74 billion (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $25.28 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.4% (2012 est.) -2.6% (2011 est.) 0.2% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $20,400 (2012 est.) $20,400 (2011 est.) $21,100 (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 24.8% of GDP (2012 est.) 24.7% of GDP (2011 est.) 36.6% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 58.1% government consumption: 17.1% investment in fixed capital: 15.6% investment in inventories: -25% exports of goods and services: 96.6% imports of goods and services: -62.4% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 58.1% government consumption: 17.1% investment in fixed capital: 15.6% investment in inventories: -25% exports of goods and services: 96.6% imports of goods and services: -62.4% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: cocoa, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry; sugar
Industries: petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, food processing, cement, cotton textiles
Industrial production growth rate: -0.5% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 615,800 (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 3.8% manufacturing, mining, and quarrying: 12.8% construction and utilities: 20.4% services: 62.9% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate: 5.6% (2012 est.) 5.5% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 17% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $7.654 billion expenditures: $7.933 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 30.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 40.3% of GDP (2012 est.) 41.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.2% (2012 est.) 5.1% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: $2.677 billion (2012 est.) $2.26 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $13.61 billion (2012 est.) $14.86 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas, methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, cereal and cereal products, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus fruit, vegetables, flowers
Exports - partners: US 40.3%, Argentina 6.9%, Chile 6.8%, Jamaica 4.9%, Spain 4.3% (2012)
Imports: $8.317 billion (2012 est.) $9.992 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: mineral fuels, lubricants, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals, live animals
Imports - partners: US 30.8%, Colombia 13.9%, Brazil 7.6%, Gabon 5%, Canada 4.1% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $9.897 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $10.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $4.557 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $4.84 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $102 billion (31 December 2008 est.) $12.44 billion (2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $3.829 billion (2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $14.73 billion (31 December 2011) $12.16 billion (31 December 2010) $11.15 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TTD) per US dollar - 6.391 (2012 est.) 6.4094 (2011 est.) 6.3755 (2010 est.) 6.3099 (2009) 6.2896 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 7.271 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 102
Electricity - consumption: 7.102 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.429 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 99.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 135,900 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 55,240 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 56,540 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 728.3 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 165,100 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 41,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 148,600 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 242.3 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 42.46 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 22.08 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 20.38 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 381.1 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 49.93 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 292,000 (2011) country comparison to the world: 117
Cellular Phones in use: 1.825 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: excellent international service; good local service domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 170 telephones per 100 persons international: country code - 1-868; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to US and parts of the Caribbean and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana (2011)
Broadcast media: 5 TV networks, one of which is state-owned, broadcast on multiple stations; multiple cable TV subscription service providers; multiple radio networks, one state-owned, broadcast over about 35 stations (2007)
Internet country code: .tt
Internet hosts: 241,690 (2012)
Internet users: 593,000 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 4 (2013) country comparison to the world: 189
Airports (paved runways): total 2
over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 257 km; condensate/gas 11 km; gas 1,567 km; oil 587 km (2013)
Roadways: total 8,320 km
paved: 4,252 km unpaved: 4,068 km (2000)
Merchant marine: total 4
by type: passenger 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1 registered in other countries: 2 (unknown 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port of Spain, Scarborough oil terminals: Galeota Point terminal
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 Military
Military branches: Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (TTDF): Trinidad and Tobago Army, Coast Guard, Air Guard, Defense Force Reserves (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Trinidad and Tobago citizenship and completion of secondary school required (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 341,764 females age 16-49: 317,899 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 269,824 females age 16-49: 261,735 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 8,164 female: 7,503 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 0.6% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary and limiting catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's exclusive economic zone; in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; Guyana has also expressed its intention to include itself in the arbitration as the Trinidad and Tobago-Venezuela maritime boundary may extend into its waters as well
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis
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