Togo Population: 7,756,937

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 History
French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has been in power almost continually since 1967 and its successor, the Union for the Republic, maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and condemnation from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.

 Geography
The country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 1 10 E
Area: total: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land Boundaries: total: 1,880 km border countries (3): Benin 651 km, Burkina Faso 131 km, Ghana 1,098 km
Coastline: 56 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain: gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 67.4% arable land 45.2%; permanent crops 3.8%; permanent pasture 18.4% forest: 4.9%
other: 27.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 70 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Current Environment Issues: deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
Ethnic groups: African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Languages: French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Religions: Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%
Population: 7,756,937 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.44% (male 1,573,363/female 1,563,267)
15-24 years: 19.34% (male 749,002/female 751,571)
25-54 years: 32.58% (male 1,255,524/female 1,271,804)
55-64 years: 4.27% (male 156,249/female 175,089)
65 years and over: 3.37% (male 112,845/female 148,223) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 81.8%
youth dependency ratio: 76.8%
elderly dependency ratio: 5%
potential support ratio: 19.9% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 19.7 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 20 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.66% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 33.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 40% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.83% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: LOME (capital) 956,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 21 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 368 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 43.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 50.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 37 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 65 years male: 62.3 years
female: 67.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.43 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 15.2% (2010)
Health expenditures: 5.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 44.2% of population
total: 63.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 55.8% of population
total: 36.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 24.7% of population
rural: 2.9% of population
total: 11.6% of population

unimproved:
urban: 75.3% of population
rural: 97.1% of population
total: 88.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.4% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 106,300 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 5,100 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 6.4% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 16.2% (2014)
Education expenditures: 5.3% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 66.5%
male: 78.3%
female: 55.3% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years male: NA
female: NA (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique Togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
etymology: derived from the Ewe words "to" (water) and "go" (shore) to give the sense of "by the water"; originally, this designation applied to the town of Togo (now Togoville) on the northern shore of Lake Togo, but the name was eventually extended to the entire nation
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Lome
geographic coordinates: 6 07 N, 1 13 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
Independence: 27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Constitution: several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1992, effective 14 October 1992; amended 2002, 2007 (2016)
Legal system: customary law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister Komi KLASSOU (since 5 June 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE (UNIR) 58.8%, Jean-Pierre FABRE (ANC) 35.2%, Tchaboure GOGUE 4%, other 2%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (91 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 25 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - UNIR 46.7%, CST 28.9%, Rainbow Alliance 10.8%, UFC 7.7%, independent 0.8%, other 5.1%; seats by party - UNIR 62, CST 19, Rainbow Alliance 6, UFC 3, independent 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into criminal and administrative chambers, each with a chamber president and advisors); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges including the court president) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by decree of the president of the republic upon the proposal of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy, a 9-member judicial, advisory, and disciplinary body; other judge appointments and judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: Court of Assizes (sessions court); Appeal Court; tribunals of first instance (divided into civil, commercial, and correctional chambers; Court of State Security; military tribunal
Political parties and leaders: Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Dodji APEVON] Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA [Brigitte ADJAMAGBO-JOHNSON] National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE] Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO] Rainbow Alliance (a coalition including CAR and CDPA) [Brigitte ADJAMAGBO-JOHNSON] Save Togo Collective or CST (a coalition including: ANC and PSR) [Ata Messan Zeus AJAVON Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR [Abi TCHESSA] Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU] Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO] Union for the Republic or UNIR [Faure GNASSINGBE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): lion; national colors: green, yellow, red, white
National anthem: name: "Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)
lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH

note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Yokoudema KADOKALIH (since 26 October 2015)
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador David R. GILMORE (since December 2015)
embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
mailing address: B.P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20521-2300
telephone: [228] 2261-5470
FAX: [228] 2261-5501
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 Economy
This small, sub-Saharan economy depends heavily on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for a significant share of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is among the world's largest producers of phosphate and seeks to develop its carbonate phosphate reserves. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Togo completed its IMF Extended Credit Facility in 2011 and reached a Heavily Indebted Poor Country debt relief completion point in 2010 at which 95% of the country's debt was forgiven. Togo continues to work with the IMF on structural reforms. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo’s 2015 economic growth remained steady at 5.4%, largely driven by infusions of foreign aid, infrastructure investment in the port and mineral sectors, and improvements in the business climate. Foreign direct investment inflows have slowed in recent years.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $11.61 billion (2016 est.) $11.02 billion (2015 est.) $10.46 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $4.52 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.3% (2016 est.) 5.4% (2015 est.) 5.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,500 (2016 est.) $1,500 (2015 est.) $1,500 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 18% of GDP (2016 est.) 18.2% of GDP (2015 est.) 13.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 107%
government consumption: 16.2%
investment in fixed capital: 21%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 49.3%
imports of goods and services: -93.5% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 107%
government consumption: 16.2%
investment in fixed capital: 21%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 49.3%
imports of goods and services: -93.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
Industries: phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Industrial production growth rate: 7.1% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 2.595 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 32% (1989 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 27.1% (2006)
Budget: revenues: $1.14 billion
expenditures: $1.377 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 25.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 63.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 67.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (2016 est.) 1.8% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$361 million (2016 est.) -$295 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $1.2 billion (2016 est.) $1.246 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports - partners: India 14.6%, Burkina Faso 11.3%, China 11.3%, Benin 9.6%, Ghana 9%, Lebanon 8.3%, Nigeria 6.1%, Niger 5.9% (2015)
Imports: $1.852 billion (2016 est.) $1.881 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports - partners: China 22.9%, Belgium 20.3%, Netherlands 11.9%, France 6.6%, India 4.8%, Singapore 4.4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $647.6 million (31 December 2016 est.) $574 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $1.173 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.034 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 605.7 (2016 est.) 591.45 (2015 est.) 591.45 (2014 est.) 494.42 (2013 est.) 510.53 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 100 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 86,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 21.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 78.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 13,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 12,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 1.8 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 4.657 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 62 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system

domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 60 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating

international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie (2015)
Broadcast media: 2 state-owned TV stations with multiple transmission sites; 5 private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with multiple stations; several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; (2007)
Internet country code: .tg
Internet users: total: 538,000 percent of population: 7.1% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 8 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 6

914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Railways: total 568 km

narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 11,652 km
paved: 2,447 km
unpaved: 9,205 km (2007)
Waterways: 50 km (seasonally navigable by small craft on the Mono River depending on rainfall) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 61

by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 38, carrier 3, chemical tanker 5, container 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 21 (China 1, Lebanon 6, Romania 1, Syria 6, Turkey 4, UAE 1, US 1, Yemen 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Kpeme, Lome
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 Military
Military branches: Togolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Togolese Army (l'Armee de Terre), Togolese Navy (Forces Naval Togolaises), Togolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Togolaise, TAF), National Gendarmerie (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year service obligation (2012)
Military expenditures: NA% (2012) 1.6% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 18,476 (Ghana) (2015)
Illicit drugs: transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem
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