Chad Population: 11,193,452

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 History
Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare, as well as invasions by Libya, before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the insurgents. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant insurrection in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. DEBY in 2011 was reelected to his fourth term in an election that international observers described as proceeding without incident. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority.

 Geography
Landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel
Location: Central Africa, south of Libya
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E
Area: total: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than three times the size of California
Land Boundaries: total: 5,968 km
border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Djourab 160 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
Natural resources: petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
Land use: arable land: 3.82%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 96.16% (2011)
Irrigated land: 302.7 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Current Environment Issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
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 People
Nationality: noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
Ethnic groups: Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3% (1993 census)
Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
Religions: Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)
Population: 11,193,452 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 45.2% (male 2,565,613/female 2,494,020)
15-24 years: 20.4% (male 1,107,121/female 1,178,946)
25-54 years: 27.6% (male 1,393,498/female 1,693,233)
55-64 years: 3.9% (male 188,558/female 242,559)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 137,590/female 192,314) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 103.3 %
youth dependency ratio: 98.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9 %
potential support ratio: 20.4 (2013)
Median age: total: 17 years
male: 15.9 years
female: 18.1 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.95% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 37.99 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 14.85 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -3.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 21.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: N'DJAMENA (capital) 1.079 million (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 18.2 (2004 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 1,100 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 91.94 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 97.64 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 86.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 49.07 years
male: 47.95 years
female: 50.22 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.8 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 4.8% (2010)
Health expenditures: 4.5% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
Hospital bed density: 0.43 beds/1,000 population (2005)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 70% of population
rural: 44% of population
total: 51% of population

unimproved:
urban: 30% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 49% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 30% of population
rural: 6% of population
total: 13% of population

unimproved:
urban: 70% of population
rural: 94% of population
total: 87% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 3.4% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 210,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 11,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 2.7% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 33.9% (2004)
Education expenditures: 2.9% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 35.4%
male: 45.6%
female: 25.4% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 8 years
male: 10 years
female: 6 years (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
local short form: Tchad/Tshad
Government type: republic
Capital: name: N'Djamena
geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 22 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Constitution: passed by referendum 31 March 1996; a June 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990)

head of government: Prime Minister Djimrangar DADNADJI (since 21 January 2013)

cabinet: Council of State; members are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last election held on 25 April 2011 (next to be held by 2016); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 83.6%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 8.6%, Nadji MADOU 7.8%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February 2011 (next to be held by 2015); note - legislative elections, originally scheduled for 2006, were first delayed by National Assembly action and subsequently by an accord, signed in August 2007, between government and opposition parties

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ART 133, UNDR 11, others 44
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 15 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges term NA

subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad or ART, an alliance among the ruling MPS, RDP, and Viva-RNDP Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR] National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE] National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO] Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH] Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman] Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA] Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: rebel groups
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): goat (north); lion (south)
National anthem: name: "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)
lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD

note: adopted 1960
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Maitine DJOUMBE
chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mark M. BOULWARE
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] 2251-70-09
FAX: [235] 2251-56-54
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 Economy
Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. Economic conditions have been positive in recent years, with real GDP growth reaching 13% in 2010 because of high international prices for oil and a strong local harvest. GDP growth for 2012 was 5%. However, Chad's investment climate remains challenging due to limited infrastructure, a lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption. At least 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. The government of Chad is determined to improve agricultural production through modernization and mechanization over the next three years, and hosted a national Rural Development Forum in 2012 to promote investment in agriculture. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. Remittances are also an important source of income. The Libyan conflict disrupted inflows of remittances to Chad's impoverished western region that relies on income from Chadians living in Libya. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves - estimated at 1.5 billion barrels - in southern Chad. Chinese companies are also expanding exploration efforts and have completed a 311-km pipeline and the country's first refinery. The nation's total oil reserves are estimated at 1.5 billion barrels. Oil production came on stream in late 2003. Chad began to export oil in 2004. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $21 billion (2012 est.) $19.99 billion (2011 est.) $19.89 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $10.81 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2012 est.) 0.5% (2011 est.) 13% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,000 (2012 est.) $1,900 (2011 est.) $1,900 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 28% of GDP (2012 est.) 30.2% of GDP (2011 est.) 27.7% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 66.5%
government consumption: 11.9%
investment in fixed capital: 31.9%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 41%
imports of goods and services: -52.1% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 66.5%
government consumption: 11.9%
investment in fixed capital: 31.9%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 41%
imports of goods and services: -52.1% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels
Industries: oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate: 10.6% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 4.293 million (2007)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 80% (2006 est.) industry and
services: 20% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 80% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 30.8% (2003)
Budget: revenues: $2.748 billion
expenditures: $2.979 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 25.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 33.1% of GDP (2012 est.) 43.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.2% (2012 est.) -4.9% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.965 billion (2012 est.) -$2.386 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $4.144 billion (2012 est.) $4.306 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil, cattle, cotton, gum arabic
Exports - partners: US 82.5%, China 6.7% (2012)
Imports: $2.761 billion (2012 est.) $2.696 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners: China 19.8%, Cameroon 19.7%, France 15.8%, Saudi Arabia 5.4%, US 4.1% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.174 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $968.1 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $1.793 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.821 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $4.5 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar - 510.53 (2012 est.) 471.87 (2011 est.) 495.28 (2010 est.) 472.19 (2009) 447.81 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 95 million kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 196
Electricity - consumption: 88.35 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 31,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 123,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 115,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1,817 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 1,754 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 290,900 Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 31,200 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 175
Cellular Phones in use: 3.666 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high costs and low telephone density

domestic: fixed-line connections for less than 1 per 100 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of only about 35 per 100 persons

international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media: 1 state-owned TV station; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; about 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2007)
Internet country code: .td
Internet hosts: 6 (2012)
Internet users: 168,100 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 59 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 82
Airports (paved runways): total 9
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 50
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
Pipelines: oil 582 km (2013)
Roadways: total 40,000 km


note: consists of 25,000 km of national and regional roads and 15,000 km of local roads; 206 km of urban roads are paved (2011)
Waterways: (Chari and Legone rivers are navigable only in wet season) (2012)
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 Military
Military branches: Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT): Ground Forces (l'Armee de Terre, AdT), Chadian Air Force (l'Armee de l'Air Tchadienne, AAT), National Gendarmerie, National and Nomadic Guard of Chad (GNNT) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 20 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service, with a 3-year service obligation; 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a parent or guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age of 21 (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,090,244
females age 16-49: 2,441,321 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,183,242
females age 16-49: 1,395,811 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 128,723
female: 128,244 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.6% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 306,960 (Sudan) (2012); 83,751 (Central African Republic) (2013) IDPs: 90,000 (majority are in the east) (2012)
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Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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