Swaziland Population: 1,403,362


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Autonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted in 1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s pressured King MSWATI III, Africa's last absolute monarch, to grudgingly allow political reform and greater democracy, although he has backslid on these promises in recent years. A constitution came into effect in 2006, but the legal status of political parties remains unclear. The African United Democratic Party tried unsuccessfully to register as an official political party in mid 2006. Talks over the constitution broke down between the government and progressive groups in 2007. Swaziland recently surpassed Botswana as the country with the world's highest known HIV/AIDS prevalence rate.

Landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa
Location: Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa
Geographic coordinates: 26 30 S, 31 30 E
Area: total: 17,364 sq km
land: 17,204 sq km
water: 160 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land Boundaries: total: 535 km
border countries: Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: varies from tropical to near temperate
Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m
highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m
Natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc
Land use: arable land: 10.08%
permanent crops: 0.86%
other: 89.06% (2011)
Irrigated land: 498.5 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: drought
Current Environment Issues: limited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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Nationality: noun: Swazi(s)
adjective: Swazi
Ethnic groups: African 97%, European 3%
Languages: English (official, used for government business), siSwati (official)
Religions: Zionist 40% (a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship), Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 10%, other (includes Anglican, Baha'i, Methodist, Mormon, Jewish) 30%
Population: 1,403,362 (July 2013 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 36.9% (male 261,954/female 256,144)
15-24 years: 22.4% (male 158,947/female 155,421)
25-54 years: 32.7% (male 234,805/female 224,703)
55-64 years: 4.2% (male 23,287/female 35,900)
65 years and over: 3.7% (male 21,042/female 31,159) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 70.4 %
youth dependency ratio: 64.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9 %
potential support ratio: 16.8 (2013)
Median age: total: 20.7 years
male: 20.4 years
female: 21.1 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.17% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 25.68 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 13.95 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 21.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.19% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: MBABANE (capital) 74,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.65 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.5 (2007 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 320 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 57.19 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 61.21 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 53.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 50.01 years
male: 50.44 years
female: 49.56 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.96 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 65.2% (2010)
Health expenditures: 6.6% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
Hospital bed density: 2.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 91% of population
rural: 65% of population
total: 71% of population

urban: 9% of population
rural: 35% of population
total: 29% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 64% of population
rural: 55% of population
total: 57% of population

urban: 36% of population
rural: 45% of population
total: 43% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 25.9% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 180,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 7,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 19.7% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 6.1% (2007)
Education expenditures: 8.2% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.8%
male: 88.4%
female: 87.3% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2011)
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Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland
conventional short form: Swaziland
local long form: Umbuso weSwatini
local short form: eSwatini
Government type: monarchy
Capital: name: Mbabane
geographic coordinates: 26 19 S, 31 08 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

note: Lobamba (royal and legislative capital)
Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
Independence: 6 September 1968 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 6 September (1968)
Constitution: signed by the king July 2005; went into effect 8 February 2006
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age
Executive branch: chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)

head of government: Prime Minister Barnabas Sibusiso DLAMINI (since 23 October 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Themba Nhlanganiso MASUKU (since 2008)

cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by the monarch (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among the elected members of the House of Assembly
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Libandla consists of the Senate (30 seats; 10 members elected by the House of Assembly and 20 appointed by the monarch; members to serve five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats; 10 members appointed by the monarch and 55 elected by popular vote; members to serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Assembly - last held on 19 September 2008 (next to be held on 20 September 2013)

election results: House of Assembly - balloting is done on a nonparty basis; candidates for election nominated by the local council of each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round
Judicial branch: highest court(s): the Supreme Court of the Judicature comprising the Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 5 justices) and the High Court (consists of the chief justice - ex officio - and at least 4 justices); note - the Supreme Court has jurisdiction in all constitutional matters note - the national constitution as amended in 2006 shifted judicial power from the monarch and vested it exclusively in the judiciary judge selection and term of office: justices of the Supreme Court of the Judicature are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission or JCS, a judicial advisory body consisting of the Supreme Court Chief Justice, 4 members appointed by the monarch, and the JCS head; justices of both courts eligible for retirement at age 65 with mandatory retirement at age 75 for Supreme Court justices and at age 70 for High Court justices

subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; National Swazi Courts for administering customary/traditional law (jurisdiction restricted to customary law for Swazi citizens)
Political parties and leaders: the status of political parties, previously banned, is unclear under the 2006 Constitution and currently being debated; the following are considered political associations African United Democratic Party or AUDP [Stanley MAUNDZISA, president] Imbokodvo National Movement or INM Ngwane National Liberatory Congress or NNLC [Obed DLAMINI, president] People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Swaziland Democracy Campaign Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions Swaziland Solidarity Network or SSN
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): lion; elephant
National anthem: name: "Nkulunkulu Mnikati wetibusiso temaSwati" (Oh God, Bestower of the Blessings of the Swazi)
lyrics/music: Andrease Enoke Fanyana SIMELANE/David Kenneth RYCROFT

note: adopted 1968; the anthem uses elements of both ethnic Swazi and Western music styles
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Abednigo Mandla NTSHANGASE
chancery: 1712 New Hampshire Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5002
FAX: [1] (202) 234-8254
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Makila JAMES
embassy: 7th Floor, Central Bank Building, Mahlokohla St., Mbabane
mailing address: P. O. Box 199, Mbabane
telephone: [268] 404-6441
FAX: [268] 404-5959
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Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland depends heavily on South Africa from which it receives more than 90% of its imports and to which it sends 60% of its exports. Swaziland's currency is pegged to the South African rand, effectively subsuming Swaziland's monetary policy to South Africa. The government is heavily dependent on customs duties from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), and worker remittances from South Africa supplement domestically earned income. Subsistence agriculture employs approximately 70% of the population. The manufacturing sector has diversified since the mid-1980s. Sugar and wood pulp were major foreign exchange earners; however, the wood pulp producer closed in January 2010, and sugar is now the main export earner. Mining has declined in importance in recent years with only coal and quarry stone mines remaining active. Customs revenues plummeted due to the global economic crisis and a drop in South African imports. The resulting decline in revenue has pushed the country into a fiscal crisis. Swaziland is looking to other countries, including South Africa, for assistance, but continues to struggle to meet its monthly payroll and fund government programs. With an estimated 40% unemployment rate, Swaziland''s need to increase the number and size of small and medium enterprises and attract foreign direct investment is acute. Overgrazing, soil depletion, drought, and floods persist as problems for the future. More than one-fourth of the population needed emergency food aid in 2006-07 because of drought, and more than one-quarter of the adult population has been infected by HIV/AIDS.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $6.345 billion (2012 est.) $6.441 billion (2011 est.) $6.424 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $3.751 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -1.5% (2012 est.) 0.3% (2011 est.) 1.9% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,900 (2012 est.) $6,000 (2011 est.) $6,100 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 7.6% of GDP (2012 est.) 0.6% of GDP (2011 est.) -2.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 85.5%
government consumption: 23.3%
investment in fixed capital: 10.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 51.7%
imports of goods and services: -70.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 85.5%
government consumption: 23.3%
investment in fixed capital: 10.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 51.7%
imports of goods and services: -70.8% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: sugarcane, cotton, corn, tobacco, rice, citrus, pineapples, sorghum, peanuts; cattle, goats, sheep
Industries: coal, wood pulp, sugar, soft drink concentrates, textiles and apparel
Industrial production growth rate: 0.3% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 457,900 (2007)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 70%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate: 40% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line: 69% (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 40.1% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 50.4 (2001)
Budget: revenues: $1.451 billion
expenditures: $1.438 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 38.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.4% (2012 est.) 6.1% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$3.8 million (2012 est.) -$280.9 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $2.005 billion (2012 est.) $2.011 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus and canned fruit
Imports: $2.152 billion (2012 est.) $2.108 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $741 million (31 December 2012 est.) $600.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $609.8 million (31 December 2012 est.) $604.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $203.1 million (31 December 2007) $203.1 million (31 December 2007)
Exchange rates: emalangeni per US dollar - 8.2031 (2012 est.) 7.2597 (2011 est.) 7.3212 (2010 est.) 8.42 (2009) 7.75 (2008)
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Electricity - production: 450 million kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 163
Electricity - consumption: 1.175 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010)
Electricity - imports: 597 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 130,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 67.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 32.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 4,567 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 4,898 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 1.113 million Mt (2010 est.)
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Telephones in use: 75,800 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 153
Cellular Phones in use: 766,500 (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: a somewhat modern but not an advanced system

domestic: single source for mobile-cellular service with a geographic coverage of about 90% and a rising subscribership base; combined fixed-line and mobile cellular teledensity roughly 60 telephones per 100 persons in 2011; telephone system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay

international: country code - 268; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Broadcast media: state-owned TV station; satellite dishes are able to access South African providers; state-owned radio network with 3 channels; 1 private radio station (2007)
Internet country code: .sz
Internet hosts: 2,744 (2012)
Internet users: 90,100 (2009)
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Airports: 14 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 149
Airports (paved runways): total 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 12

914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
Railways: total 301 km

narrow gauge: 301 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 3,594 km
paved: 1,078 km
unpaved: 2,516 km (2002)
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Military branches: Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (USDF): Ground Force (includes Air Wing) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; compulsory HIV testing required, only HIV-negative applicants accepted (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 344,038 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 201,853
females age 16-49: 175,477 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 16,168
female: 15,763 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 2.6% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2006, Swazi king advocated resorting to ICJ to claim parts of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal from South Africa
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