Sao Tome and Principe Population: 186,817

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 History
Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with African plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. While independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The country held its first free elections in 1991, but frequent internal wrangling between the various political parties precipitated repeated changes in leadership and two failed coup attempts in 1995 and 2003. In 2012, three opposition parties combined in a no confidence vote to bring down the majority government of former Prime Minister Patrice TROVOADA. The new government of Prime Minister Gabriel Arcanjo Ferreira DA COSTA is entirely composed of opposition party members with limited experience in governance. The recent discovery of oil in the Gulf of Guinea promises to attract increased attention to the small island nation.

 Geography
The smallest country in Africa; the two main islands form part of a chain of extinct volcanoes and both are mountainous
Location: Central Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, just north of the Equator, west of Gabon
Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 7 00 E
Area: total: 964 sq km
land: 964 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: more than five times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 209 km
Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
Terrain: volcanic, mountainous
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Sao Tome 2,024 m
Natural resources: fish, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 9.06%
permanent crops: 40.62%
other: 50.31% (2011)
Irrigated land: 97 sq km (2003)
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Sao Tomean(s)
adjective: Sao Tomean
Ethnic groups: mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)
Languages: Portuguese (official)
Religions: Catholic 70.3%, Evangelical 3.4%, New Apostolic 2%, Adventist 1.8%, other 3.1%, none 19.4% (2001 census)
Population: 186,817 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 44% (male 41,791/female 40,381)
15-24 years: 19.6% (male 18,552/female 18,054)
25-54 years: 30% (male 27,448/female 28,667)
55-64 years: 3.4% (male 2,863/female 3,452)
65 years and over: 3% (male 2,550/female 3,059) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 81.8 %
youth dependency ratio: 75.6 %
elderly dependency ratio: 6.1 %
potential support ratio: 16.3 (2013)
Median age: total: 17.6 years
male: 17.2 years
female: 18.1 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.94% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 36.05 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 7.68 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -8.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 62.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.01% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: SAO TOME (capital) 60,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.4 note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2009 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 70 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 50.48 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 52.51 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.86 years
male: 62.61 years
female: 65.14 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.81 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 38.4% (2008/09)
Health expenditures: 7.2% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.49 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
Hospital bed density: 2.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 89% of population
rural: 88% of population
total: 89% of population

unimproved:
urban: 11% of population
rural: 12% of population
total: 11% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 30% of population
rural: 19% of population
total: 26% of population

unimproved:
urban: 70% of population
rural: 81% of population
total: 74% of population (2010 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 9.5% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 14.4% (2009)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 69.5%
male: 80.3%
female: 60.1% (2008 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2010)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe
local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe
local short form: Sao Tome e Principe
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Sao Tome
geographic coordinates: 0 20 N, 6 44 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 2 provinces; Principe, Sao Tome

note: Principe has had self government since 29 April 1995
Independence: 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1975)
Constitution: approved March 1990, effective 10 September 1990
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law base on the Portuguese model and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Manuel Pinto DA COSTA (since 3 September 2011)

head of government: Prime Minister Gabriel Arcanjo Ferreira DA COSTA (since 12 December 2012)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 July and 7 August 2011 (next to be held in 2016); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president

election results: Manuel Pinto DA COSTA elected president in a run-off election; percent of vote - Manuel Pinto DA COSTA 52.9%, Evaristo CARVALHO 47.1%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (55 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 1 August 2010 (next to be held in 2014)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADI 26, MLSTP-PSD 21, PCD 7, MDFM 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of NA judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 5 judges, 3 of which are from the Supreme Court) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the president of the republic and elected by the National Assembly for 5-year terms

subordinate courts: Court of First Instance; Audit Court
Political parties and leaders: Force for Change Democratic Movement or MDFM [Tome Soares da VERA CRUZ] Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Patrice TROVOADA] Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Rafael BRANCO] New Way Movement or NR Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Delfim NEVES] Ue-Kedadji coalition other small parties
Political pressure groups and leaders: Association of Sao Tome and Principe NGOs or FONG other: the media
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, CD, CPLP, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National anthem: name: "Independencia total" (Total Independence)
lyrics/music: Alda Neves DA GRACA do Espirito Santo/Manuel dos Santos Barreto de Sousa e ALMEIDA

note: adopted 1975
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ovidio Manuel Barbosa PEQUENO
chancery: 1211 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-2075, 2076
FAX: [1] (202) 775-2077
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Sao Tome and Principe; the Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the islands
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 Economy
This small, poor island economy has become increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence in 1975. Cocoa production has substantially declined in recent years because of drought and mismanagement. Sao Tome and Principe has to import fuels, most manufactured goods, consumer goods, and a substantial amount of food, making it vulnerable to fluctuations in global commodity prices. Over the years, it has had difficulty servicing its external debt and has relied heavily on concessional aid and debt rescheduling. Sao Tome and Principe benefited from $200 million in debt relief in December 2000 under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program, which helped bring down the country's $300 million debt burden. In August 2005, the government signed on to a new 3-year IMF Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) program worth $4.3 million. In April 2011 the country completed a Threshold Country Program with The Millennium Challenge Corporation to help increase tax revenues, reform customs, and improve the business environment. Considerable potential exists for development of a tourist industry, and the government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The government also has attempted to reduce price controls and subsidies. Potential exists for the development of petroleum resources in Sao Tome and Principe's territorial waters in the oil-rich Gulf of Guinea, which are being jointly developed in a 60-40 split with Nigeria, but any actual production is at least several years off. The first production licenses were sold in 2004, though a dispute over licensing with Nigeria delayed the country''s receipt of more than $20 million in signing bonuses for almost a year. Maintaining control of inflation, fiscal discipline, and increasing flows of foreign direct investment into the oil sector are the major economic problems facing the country.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $408.6 million (2012 est.) $392.1 million (2011 est.) $374.1 million (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $264 million (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2012 est.) 4.9% (2011 est.) 4.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,400 (2012 est.) $2,300 (2011 est.) $2,300 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 20.4% of GDP (2012 est.) 15.2% of GDP (2011 est.) -12.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 126.3%
government consumption: 13.9%
investment in fixed capital: 48.7%
investment in inventories: -1.6%
exports of goods and services: 15.5%
imports of goods and services: -64.9% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 126.3%
government consumption: 13.9%
investment in fixed capital: 48.7%
investment in inventories: -1.6%
exports of goods and services: 15.5%
imports of goods and services: -64.9% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, copra, cinnamon, pepper, coffee, bananas, papayas, beans; poultry; fish
Industries: light construction, textiles, soap, beer, fish processing, timber
Industrial production growth rate: 5.5% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 52,490 (2007)
Labor force - by occupation: note: population mainly engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing; shortages of skilled workers
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 66.2% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $105.5 million
expenditures: $131.8 million (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 39.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 83.5% of GDP (2012 est.) 80.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.6% (2012 est.) 14.3% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$85.1 million (2012 est.) -$77.6 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $11.7 million (2012 est.) $12.1 million (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: cocoa 80%, copra, coffee, palm oil
Exports - partners: Netherlands 32.7%, Belgium 21.4%, Spain 10.8%, Nigeria 5.7%, US 5% (2012)
Imports: $121.6 million (2012 est.) $119.6 million (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, food products, petroleum products
Imports - partners: Portugal 63%, Gabon 6% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $51.58 million (31 December 2012 est.) $51.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $299.5 million (31 December 2012 est.) $230.9 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: dobras (STD) per US dollar - 19,068 (2012 est.) 17,623 (2011 est.) 18,499 (2010 est.) 16,209 (2009) 14,900 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 32 million kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 209
Electricity - consumption: 29.76 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 14,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 57.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 42.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 903.5 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 889 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 150,300 Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 8,000 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 204
Cellular Phones in use: 115,000 (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: local telephone network of adequate quality with most lines connected to digital switches

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 65 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 239; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)
Broadcast media: 1 government-owned TV station; 1 government-owned radio station; 3 independent local radio stations authorized in 2005 with 2 operating at the end of 2006; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code: .st
Internet hosts: 1,678 (2012)
Internet users: 26,700 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 2 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 206
Airports (paved runways): total 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 320 km
paved: 218 km
unpaved: 102 km (2000)
Merchant marine: total 3

by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 2

foreign-owned: 2 (China 1, Greece 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Sao Tome
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 Military
Sao Tome and Principe's army is a tiny force with almost no resources at its disposal and would be wholly ineffective operating unilaterally; infantry equipment is considered simple to operate and maintain but may require refurbishment or replacement after 25 years in tropical climates; poor pay, working conditions, and alleged nepotism in the promotion of officers have been problems in the past, as reflected in the 1995 and 2003 coups; these issues are being addressed with foreign assistance aimed at improving the army and its focus on realistic security concerns; command is exercised from the president, through the Minister of Defense, to the Chief of the Armed Forces staff (2005)
Military branches: Armed Forces of Sao Tome and Principe (Forcas Armadas de Sao Tome e Principe, FASTP): Army, Coast Guard of Sao Tome e Principe (Guarda Costeira de Sao Tome e Principe, GCSTP); also called "Navy"), Presidential Guard (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service; 17 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 39,182
females age 16-49: 39,845 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 27,310
females age 16-49: 29,279 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 2,076
female: 2,003 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 0.5% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
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