Senegal Population: 14,320,055

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 History
The French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s, and several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict. Nevertheless, Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was reelected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff with Macky SALL, whose term runs until 2019. A 2016 constitutional referendum reduced the term to five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms for future presidents.

 Geography
Westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Geographic coordinates: 14 00 N, 14 00 W
Area: total: 196,722 sq km
land: 192,530 sq km
water: 4,192 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land Boundaries: total: 2,684 km border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km, Guinea 363 km, Guinea-Bissau 341 km, Mali 489 km, Mauritania 742 km
Coastline: 531 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
Terrain: generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: fish, phosphates, iron ore
Land use: agricultural land: 46.8% arable land 17.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 29.1% forest: 43.8%
other: 9.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
Current Environment Issues: wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
Ethnic groups: Wolof 38.7%, Pular 26.5%, Serer 15%, Mandinka 4.2%, Jola 4%, Soninke 2.3%, other 9.3% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2010-11 est.)
Languages: French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
Religions: Muslim 95.4% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 4.2% (mostly Roman Catholic), animist 0.4% (2010-11 est.)
Population: 14,320,055 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.85% (male 3,011,233/female 2,981,128)
15-24 years: 20.36% (male 1,452,415/female 1,462,989)
25-54 years: 30.93% (male 2,031,035/female 2,398,788)
55-64 years: 3.91% (male 242,429/female 317,439)
65 years and over: 2.95% (male 189,201/female 233,398) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 87.6%
youth dependency ratio: 82.1%
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5%
potential support ratio: 18.2% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 18.7 years
male: 17.8 years
female: 19.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.42% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 8.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 43.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: DAKAR (capital) 3.52 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 21.4 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 315 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 50.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 56.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 44.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 61.7 years male: 59.7 years
female: 63.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.36 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 17.8% (2012/13)
Health expenditures: 4.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 92.9% of population
rural: 67.3% of population
total: 78.5% of population

unimproved:
urban: 7.1% of population
rural: 32.7% of population
total: 21.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 65.4% of population
rural: 33.8% of population
total: 47.6% of population

unimproved:
urban: 34.6% of population
rural: 66.2% of population
total: 52.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.52% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 45,800 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,200 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 8.3% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 12.8% (2014)
Education expenditures: 7.2% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.7%
male: 69.7%
female: 46.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 8 years male: 8 years
female: 8 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 12.7% male: 8.3%
female: 19% (2011 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from "Azenegue," the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
Independence: 4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
Constitution: previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001; amended many times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Mohammed Abdallah Boun DIONNE (since 4 July 2014)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 26 February 2012 with a runoff on 25 March 2012 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Macky SALL elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Macky SALL (Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar) 65.8%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 34.2%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 60 directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held in 2017)

election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Benno Bokk Yakaar coalition 119, PDS 12, Bokk Gis Gis coalition 4, MCRN-Bes Du Nakk 4, PVD 2, MRSD 2, URD 1, AJ/PADS 1, other 5
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of the president and 12 judges and organized into civil and commercial, criminal, administrative, and social chambers); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionelle (consists of 5 members including the court president, vice-president, and 3 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges' appointed by the president of the republic upon recommendation of the Higher Council of the Judiciary, a body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed by the president to serve 6-year terms with the renewal of 2 members every 2 years

subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crime of high treason by the president); Courts of Appeal; Court of Auditors; assize courts (4); regional and district Courts, Labor Court
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR-Yakaar [Macky SALL] Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE] And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP] And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS-A [Landing SAVANE] Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP] Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Mamadou NDOYE] Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE] Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS] Grand Party or GP [Malick GACKOU] Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Magatte THIAM] Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA] National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF] Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE] People's Labor Party or PTP [El Hadji DIOUF] Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE] Republican Movement for Socialism and Democracy or MRSD Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK] Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE] Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG] Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: Catholic clergy; labor; religious groups; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): lion; national colors: green, yellow, red
National anthem: name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER

note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Babacar DIAGNE (since 18 November 2014)
embassy: 2215 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James P. ZUMWALT (since 9 January 2015); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau
embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
mailing address: B.P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
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 Economy
Senegal’s economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fisheries and agriculture, which is the primary source of employment in rural areas. The country's key export industries include phosphate mining, fertilizer production, agricultural products and commercial fishing and it is also working on oil exploration projects. Senegal relies heavily on donor assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment. For the first time in the past twelve years, Senegal reached a growth rate of 6.5% in 2015 due in part to a buoyant performance in agriculture because of higher rainfall and productivity in the sector. President Macky SALL, who was elected in March 2012 under a reformist policy agenda, inherited an economy with high energy costs, a challenging business environment, and a culture of overspending. President SALL unveiled an ambitious economic plan, the Emerging Senegal Plan (ESP), which aims to implement priority economic reforms and investment projects to increase economic growth while preserving macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and a challenging business climate are among the perennial challenges that may slow the implementation of this plan. Senegal is receiving technical support from the IMF from 2015-2017 under a Policy Support Instrument (PSI) to assist with implementation of the ESP. The PSI implementation continues to be satisfactory as concluded by the IMF’s second review mission in March 2016. Investors have signaled confidence in the country through Senegal’s successful Eurobond issuances in recent years, including in 2014. The government will focus on 19 projects under the ESP for the 2016 budget to continue the structural transformation of the economy. These 19 projects include the Thies-Touba Highway, including the new airport- Mbour-Thies Highway. Senegal will increase the national family allowances program and the community development emergency program in 2016. Electricity supply is a chief constraint for Senegal’s development. Electricity prices in Senegal are among the highest in the world. Power Africa, a program led by USAID and OPIC, plans to increase the current 500 mW of generating capacity to over 1,000 mW in the next three to five years. Recent gas discoveries on the Senegal-Mauritanian border, as well as just south of Dakar, will help alleviate some of the energy shortages.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $39.72 billion (2016 est.) $37.24 billion (2015 est.) $34.98 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $14.87 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.6% (2016 est.) 6.5% (2015 est.) 4.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,600 (2016 est.) $2,500 (2015 est.) $2,400 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 18.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 17.7% of GDP (2015 est.) 16.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 74.5%
government consumption: 15%
investment in fixed capital: 28.3%
investment in inventories: -0.3%
exports of goods and services: 26.5%
imports of goods and services: -44% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 74.5%
government consumption: 15%
investment in fixed capital: 28.3%
investment in inventories: -0.3%
exports of goods and services: 26.5%
imports of goods and services: -44% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
Industries: agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
Industrial production growth rate: 7.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 6.737 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 77.5% industry and
services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate: 48% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line: 46.7% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 40.3 (2011)
Budget: revenues: $3.839 billion
expenditures: $4.453 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 25.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 55.6% of GDP (2016 est.) 54.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (2016 est.) 0.1% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.244 billion (2016 est.) -$1.033 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $2.443 billion (2016 est.) $2.31 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
Exports - partners: Mali 12.8%, Switzerland 9.7%, India 5.9%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, China 5.1%, UAE 4.1%, France 4.1% (2015)
Imports: $5.001 billion (2016 est.) $4.918 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
Imports - partners: France 17.9%, China 10%, Nigeria 8.7%, India 5.6%, Spain 4.9%, Netherlands 4.5% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.173 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $2.012 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $6.186 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $5.735 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 605.7 (2016 est.) 591.45 (2015 est.) 591.45 (2014 est.) 494.42 (2013 est.) 510.53 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 3.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 99.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 17,240 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 16,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 41,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 3,743 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 26,560 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 46 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 46 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 9.911 billion cu m (1 January 2012 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 7.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 14.959 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system

domestic: above-average urban system with a fiber-optic network; about two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar where a call-center industry is emerging; expansion of fixed-line services in rural areas needed; mobile-cellular service is expanding rapid

international: country code - 221; the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic cable provides connectivity to Europe and Asia while Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) operates 2 TV stations; a few private TV subscription channels rebroadcast foreign channels without providing any local news or programs; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional (2007)
Internet country code: .sn
Internet users: total: 3.031 million percent of population: 21.7% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 20 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 9
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 11

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 43 km; refined products 8 km (2013)
Railways: total 906 km

narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 15,000 km
paved: 5,300 km (includes 7 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,700 km (2015)
Waterways: 1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 1

by type: passenger/cargo 1 (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Dakar
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 Military
Military branches: Senegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; 2-year service obligation; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau attempt to stem separatist violence, cross border raids, and arms smuggling into their countries from southern Senegal's Casamance region
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 13,687 (Mauritania) (2015) IDPs: 24,000 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2015)
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis
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