Senegal Population: 13,300,410

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 History
The French colonies of Senegal and the French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted their independence as the Mali Federation in 1960. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance (MFDC) has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s, and several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict. Nevertheless, Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was reelected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and to weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff election with Macky SALL.

 Geography
Westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Geographic coordinates: 14 00 N, 14 00 W
Area: total: 196,722 sq km
land: 192,530 sq km
water: 4,192 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land Boundaries: total: 2,640 km
border countries: The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km
Coastline: 531 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
Terrain: generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation southwest of Kedougou 581 m
Natural resources: fish, phosphates, iron ore
Land use: arable land: 19.57%
permanent crops: 0.28%
other: 80.15% (2011)
Irrigated land: 1,197 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
Current Environment Issues: wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
Ethnic groups: Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%
Languages: French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 5% (mostly Roman Catholic), indigenous beliefs 1%
Population: 13,300,410 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.7% (male 2,855,431/female 2,828,107)
15-24 years: 20.5% (male 1,357,979/female 1,372,107)
25-54 years: 30.1% (male 1,825,507/female 2,182,110)
55-64 years: 3.7% (male 218,512/female 277,047)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 174,946/female 208,664) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 86.9 %
youth dependency ratio: 81.3 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6 %
potential support ratio: 17.9 (2013)
Median age: total: 18.2 years
male: 17.4 years
female: 19.1 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.51% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 35.64 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 8.85 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 42.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.32% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: DAKAR (capital) 2.777 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.8 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 21.4 note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 370 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 53.93 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 60.22 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 47.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 60.57 years
male: 58.58 years
female: 62.61 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.61 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 13.1% (2010/11)
Health expenditures: 5.7% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 0.34 beds/1,000 population (2008)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 93% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 72% of population

unimproved:
urban: 7% of population
rural: 44% of population
total: 28% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 70% of population
rural: 39% of population
total: 52% of population

unimproved:
urban: 30% of population
rural: 61% of population
total: 48% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.9% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 59,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,600 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 6.8% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 19.2% (2011)
Education expenditures: 5.6% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 49.7%
male: 61.8%
female: 38.7% (2009 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 8 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 14.8%
male: 11.9%
female: 20.1% (2006)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
Independence: 4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
Constitution: adopted 7 January 2001; amended many times
Legal system: civil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Aminata TOURE (since 3 September 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 February 2012 with a second round runoff on 25 March 2012 (next to be held 2019); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Macky SALL elected president; percent of votes in a runoff - Macky SALL 65.8%, Abdoulaye WADE 34.2%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members elected by direct popular vote and 60 elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held in 2017)

election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Benno Bokk Yakaar coalition 119, PDS 12, Bokk Giss Giss coalition 4, MCRN-Bes Du Nakk 4, PVD 2, MRDS 2, URD 1, AJ/PADS 1, other 5
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Highest Appeals Court or Cour de Cassation (consists of 13 judges including the court president); Constitutional Council (consists of 5 members including the court president, vice-president, and 3 judges) judge selection and term of office: Highest Appeals Court judges' tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed by the president of the republic to serve 6-year terms with renewal of 3 members every two years

subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; regional and first instance courts
Political parties and leaders: African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP] Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar [Macky SALL] Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE] And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Landing SAVANE] Benno Bokk Yakaar coaltion [Macky SALL] Benno Siggil Senegal (a coalition of opposition parties) Bokk Giss Giss coalition [Pape DIOP] Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY] Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE] Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS] Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO] Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA] National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF] Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Ahmadou Kara MBACKE] People's Labor Party or PTP [El Hadji DIOUF] Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE] Republican Movement for Socialism and Democracy or MRDS Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK] Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE] Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG] SOPI Coalition [Abdoulaye WADE] (a coalition led by the PDS) Synergy for Ethics and Transparency [Aminata TALL] Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: labor; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): lion
National anthem: name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER

note: adopted 1960; the lyrics were written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem is sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cheikh NIANG
chancery: 2031 Florida Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6315
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lewis LUKENS
embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
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 Economy
Senegal relies heavily on donor assistance and foreign direct investment. The country's key export industries are phosphate mining, fertilizer production, and commercial fishing. The country is also working on iron ore and oil exploration projects. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to an economic reform program backed by the donor community, which led to real growth in GDP averaging over 5% annually during 1995-2007. Annual inflation was pushed down to the single digits. The global economic downturn reduced growth to 2.2% in 2009. The IMF completed a non-dispersing, Policy Support Initiative program in 2010 and approved a new three-year policy support instrument in December 2010 to assist with economic reforms. Senegal also receives disbursements from a $540 million Millennium Challenge Account for infrastructure and agriculture development. In 2012, the economy began to rebound after a weak 2011. The economy continues to suffer from unreliable power supply, which has led to public protests and high unemployment and has prompted migrants to flee Senegal in search of better job opportunities in Europe.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $27.01 billion (2012 est.) $26.09 billion (2011 est.) $25.42 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $13.86 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (2012 est.) 2.6% (2011 est.) 4.3% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,100 (2012 est.) $2,000 (2011 est.) $2,000 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 16.7% of GDP (2012 est.) 17.5% of GDP (2011 est.) 21.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 80.2%
government consumption: 6.9%
investment in fixed capital: 25.5%
investment in inventories: 4.2%
exports of goods and services: 28.4%
imports of goods and services: -45.1% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 80.2%
government consumption: 6.9%
investment in fixed capital: 25.5%
investment in inventories: 4.2%
exports of goods and services: 28.4%
imports of goods and services: -45.1% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
Industries: agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining; iron ore, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
Industrial production growth rate: 0.1% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 5.906 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 77.5% industry and
services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate: 48% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line: 54% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 30.1% (2005)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 41.3 (2001) 41.3 (1995)
Budget: revenues: $3.359 billion
expenditures: $4.213 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 24.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 36.1% of GDP (2012 est.) 35.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.4% (2012 est.) 3.4% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.298 billion (2012 est.) -$1.685 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $2.382 billion (2012 est.) $2.413 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
Exports - partners: Mali 14.4%, Switzerland 14.1%, India 11.9%, France 4.7%, Guinea 4.2% (2012)
Imports: $5.733 billion (2012 est.) $5.392 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
Imports - partners: France 16.2%, Nigeria 12.9%, India 6.3%, China 6.3%, UK 4.6% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.082 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.946 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $4.222 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $4.32 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 510.53 (2012 est.) 471.87 (2011 est.) 495.28 (2010) 472.19 (2009) 447.81 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 2.608 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 130
Electricity - consumption: 2.123 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 638,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 99.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 13,040 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 16,850 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 40,600 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 7,046 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 16,700 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 50 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 50 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: NA cu m
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 6.679 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 346,400 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 110
Cellular Phones in use: 9.353 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system

domestic: above-average urban system with a fiber-optic network; nearly two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar where a call-center industry is emerging; expansion of fixed-line services in rural areas needed; mobile-cellular service is expanding rapidly

international: country code - 221; the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic cable provides connectivity to Europe and Asia while Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)
Broadcast media: state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) operates 2 TV stations; a few private TV subscription channels rebroadcast foreign channels without providing any local news or programs; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; many community and private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2007)
Internet country code: .sn
Internet hosts: 237 (2012)
Internet users: 1.818 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 20 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 136
Airports (paved runways): total 9
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 11

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 43 km; refined products 8 km (2013)
Railways: total 906 km

narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 14,008 km
paved: 4,099 km (includes 7 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,909 km (2003)
Waterways: 1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance rivers) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 1

by type: passenger/cargo 1 (2010)
Ports and terminals: Dakar
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 Military
Military branches: Senegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; service obligation is 2 years; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2013)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,699,196
females age 16-49: 3,018,565 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,788,493
females age 16-49: 2,133,370 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 145,509
female: 145,064 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.6% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau attempt to stem separatist violence, cross border raids, and arms smuggling into their countries from Senegal's Casamance region, and in 2006, respectively accepted 6,000 and 10,000 Casamance residents fleeing the conflict; 2,500 Guinea-Bissau residents fled into Senegal in 2006 to escape armed confrontations along the border
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 13,702 (Mauritania) (2012) IDPs: 10,000-40,000 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2012)
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis
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