Slovenia Population: 1,992,690

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 History
The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004; it joined the eurozone in 2007.

 Geography
Despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes
Location: south Central Europe, Julian Alps between Austria and Croatia
Geographic coordinates: 46 07 N, 14 49 E
Area: total: 20,273 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
water: 122 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land Boundaries: total: 1,086 km
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 455 km, Hungary 102 km, Italy 199 km
Coastline: 46.6 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate: Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Terrain: a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m
Natural resources: lignite coal, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests
Land use: arable land: 8.31%
permanent crops: 1.33%
other: 90.36% (2011)
Irrigated land: 76.04 sq km (2010)
Natural hazards: flooding; earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian
Ethnic groups: Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)
Languages: Slovenian (official) 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4%, Italian (official, only in municipalities where Italian national communities reside), Hungarian (official, only in municipalities where Hungarian national communities reside) (2002 census)
Religions: Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 census)
Population: 1,992,690 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 13.4% (male 137,756/female 129,420)
15-24 years: 10.3% (male 105,182/female 100,255)
25-54 years: 44.2% (male 444,274/female 435,702)
55-64 years: 14.7% (male 144,230/female 147,774)
65 years and over: 17.5% (male 138,953/female 209,144) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 46 %
youth dependency ratio: 20.9 %
elderly dependency ratio: 25.2 %
potential support ratio: 4 (2013)
Median age: total: 43.1 years
male: 41.4 years
female: 44.9 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.21% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 8.66 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 11.12 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 50% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: LJUBLJANA (capital) 260,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 28.7 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 12 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.08 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.61 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.66 years
male: 74.02 years
female: 81.53 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.32 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 78.9% note: percent of women aged 15-44 (1994/95)
Health expenditures: 9.4% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 2.47 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 4.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 1% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 28.6% (2008)
Education expenditures: 5.7% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: NA
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.7% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 18 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 15.7%
male: 15%
female: 16.8% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenija
local short form: Slovenija
former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Ljubljana
geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 200 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities (mestne obcine, singular - mestna obcina) municipalities: Ajdovscina, Apace, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Cirkulane, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik/Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gorje, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola/Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Kosanjevica na Krki, Kostel, Kozje, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava/Lendva, Litija, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Log-Dragomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Makole, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Mokronog-Trebelno, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran/Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Poljcane, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Recica ob Savinji, Rence-Vogrsko, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogaska Slatina, Rogasovci, Rogatec, Ruse, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sevnica, Sezana, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sredisce ob Dravi, Starse, Straza, Sveta Ana, Sveta Trojica v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij ob Scavnici, Sveti Jurij v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Tomaz, Salovci, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur, Sentrupert, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smarjeske Toplice, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pr urban municipalities: Celje, Koper-Capodistria, Kranj, Ljubljana, Maribor, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ptuj, Slovenj Gradec, Velenje
Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday: Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Constitution: adopted 23 December 1991; amended 14 July 1997 and 25 July 2000
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Borut PAHOR (since 22 December 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Alenka BRATUSEK (since 20 March 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 November and a runoff on 2 December 2012 (next presidential election to be held in 2017); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly

election results: Borut PAHOR elected president; percent of vote - Borut PAHOR 67.4%, Danilo TURK 32.6%; on February 27, 2013 a no-confidence vote in Parliament resulted in Alenka BRATUSEK becoming prime minister designate; BRATUSEK became prime minister (Slovenia's first female prime minister) on 20 March 2013 after her cabinet was approved
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of a National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve five-year terms; note - this is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws, ask to review any National Assembly decision, and call national referenda) and the National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 88 members are elected on a proportional basis and 2 are elected by the Italian and Hungarian minorities through a majoritarian, preferential system; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 4 December 2011 (next to be held in 2015)

election results: percent of vote by party - PS 28.6%, SDS 26.2%, SD 10.5%, LGV 8.4%, DeSUS 7%, SLS 6.9%, NSi 4.8%, other 7.6%; seats by party - PS 28, SDS 26, SD 10, LGV 8, DeSUS 6, SLS 6, NSi 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 37 judges organized into 7 departments - civil, criminal, commercial, labor and social security, administrative, registry, and international cooperation); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 7 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by the National Assembly upon the proposal of the Minister of Justice based on the opinions of the Judicial Council, an 11-member independent body elected by the National Assembly from proposals submitted by the president, attorneys, law universities, and sitting judges; other Supreme Court judges elected by the National Assembly from candidates proposed by the Judicial Council; Supreme Court judge term NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly from nominations by the president of the republic; Constitutional Court president selected from among their own for a 3-year term; other judges elected for single 9-year terms

subordinate courts: county, district, regional, and high courts; specialized labor-related and social courts; Court of Audit; Administrative Court
Political parties and leaders: Civic List or DL [Gregor VIRANT] (formerly LGV) Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC] New Slovenia or NSi [Ljudmila NOVAK] Positive Slovenia or PS [Alenka BRATUSEK (interim)] Slovene People's Party or SLS [Radovan ZERJAV] Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA] Social Democrats or SD [Igor LUKSIC] (formerly ZLSD)
Political pressure groups and leaders: Slovenian Roma Association [Jozek Horvat MUC]; various trade and public sector employee unions other: Catholic Church
International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): Mount Triglav
National anthem: name: "Zdravljica" (A Toast)
lyrics/music: France PRESEREN/Stanko PREMRL

note: adopted 1989; the anthem was originally written in 1848; the full poem, whose seventh verse is used as the anthem, speaks of pan-Slavic nationalism
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Roman KIRN
chancery: 2410 California Street N.W., Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 386-6601
FAX: [1] (202) 386-6633
consulate(s) general: Cleveland, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph A. MUSSOMELI
embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana
mailing address: American Embassy Ljubljana, US Department of State, 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555
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 Economy
Slovenia became the first 2004 European Union entrant to adopt the euro (on 1 January 2007) and has experienced one of the most stable political and economic transitions in Central and Southeastern Europe. With the highest per capita GDP in Central Europe, Slovenia has excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and a strategic location between the Balkans and Western Europe. Privatization has lagged since 2002, and the economy has one of the highest levels of state control in the EU. Structural reforms to improve the business environment have allowed for somewhat greater foreign participation in Slovenia's economy and helped to lower unemployment. In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. In 2007, Slovenia was invited to begin the process for joining the OECD; it became a member in 2012. Despite its economic success, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Slovenia has lagged behind the region average, and taxes remain relatively high. Furthermore, the labor market is often seen as inflexible, and legacy industries are losing sales to more competitive firms in China, India, and elsewhere. In 2009, the global recession caused the economy to contract - through falling exports and industrial production - by 8%, and unemployment to rise. Although growth resumed in 2010, it dipped into negative territory in 2012 and the unemployment rate continued to rise, approaching 12% in 2012.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $58.91 billion (2012 est.) $60.32 billion (2011 est.) $59.96 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $45.62 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -2.3% (2012 est.) 0.6% (2011 est.) 1.2% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $28,700 (2012 est.) $29,400 (2011 est.) $29,300 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 18.3% of GDP (2012 est.) 19.1% of GDP (2011 est.) 20.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 58.3%
government consumption: 20.6%
investment in fixed capital: 17.4%
investment in inventories: -0.3%
exports of goods and services: 75%
imports of goods and services: -71% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 58.3%
government consumption: 20.6%
investment in fixed capital: 17.4%
investment in inventories: -0.3%
exports of goods and services: 75%
imports of goods and services: -71% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry
Industries: ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Industrial production growth rate: 0.2% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 920,200 (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 35%
services: 62.8% (2009)
Unemployment rate: 12% (2012 est.) 11.8% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 13.6% (2011)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 19.8% (2011)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 23.8 (2011) 23.8 (2004)
Budget: revenues: $20.06 billion
expenditures: $21.86 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 44% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 53.2% of GDP (2012 est.) 41.9% of GDP (2011 est.)

note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (2012 est.) 1.8% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: $297.6 million (2012 est.) $2.505 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $27.58 billion (2012 est.) $29.59 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
Exports - partners: Germany 20%, Italy 12%, Austria 7.9%, Croatia 6.2%, France 4.8%, Russia 4.6% (2012)
Imports: $28.01 billion (2012 est.) $31.05 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
Imports - partners: Italy 16.3%, Germany 16.2%, Austria 10.4%, Croatia 4.8%, Hungary 4% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $951.9 million (31 December 2012 est.) $991.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $53.88 billion (31 December 2012) $52.07 billion (31 December 2011)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $17.36 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $16.71 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $9.755 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $9.405 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $6.326 billion (31 December 2011) $9.428 billion (31 December 2010) $11.77 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7778 (2012 est.) 0.7185 (2011 est.) 0.755 (2010 est.) 0.7198 (2009 est.) 0.6827 (2008 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 15.61 billion kWh (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 79
Electricity - consumption: 11.6 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 10.14 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 8.014 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 3.4 million kW (2010 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 42.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 21.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 34.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 5 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: NA bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 52,930 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 11,500 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 60,270 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 7 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 1.06 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 1.053 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: NA cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 17.42 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 872,800 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 84
Cellular Phones in use: 2.168 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 150 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 386 (2011)
Broadcast media: public TV broadcaster, Radiotelevizija Slovenija (RTV), operates a system of national and regional TV stations; 35 domestic commercial TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 60% of households are connected to multi-channel cable TV; public radio broadcaster operates 3 national and 4 regional stations; more than 75 regional and local commercial and non-commercial radio stations (2007)
Internet country code: .si
Internet hosts: 415,581 (2012)
Internet users: 1.298 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 16 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 143
Airports (paved runways): total 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 844 km; oil 5 km (2013)
Railways: total 1,228 km
standard gauge: 1,228 km 1.435-m gauge (503 km electrified) (2007)
Roadways: total 38,925 km
paved: 38,925 km (includes 658 km of expressways) (2008)
Waterways: (there is some transport on the Drava River) (2012)
Merchant marine:

registered in other countries: 24 (Cyprus 5, Liberia 7, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Slovakia 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Koper
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 Military
Military branches: Slovenian Armed Forces (Slovenska Vojska, SV): Forces Command (with ground units, naval element, air and air defense brigade); Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief (ACPDR) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2003 (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 477,592
females age 16-49: 464,301 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 392,075
females age 16-49: 380,077 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 9,818
female: 9,395 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.7% of GDP (2005 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Pirin Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia
Illicit drugs: minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals
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