Sweden Population: 9,880,604

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 History
A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both world wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system intermixed with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 and 2009 by the global economic downturns, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum.

 Geography
Strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas
Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 15 00 E
Area: total: 450,295 sq km
land: 410,335 sq km
water: 39,960 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than California
Land Boundaries: total: 2,211 km border countries (2): Finland 545 km, Norway 1,666 km
Coastline: 3,218 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 7.5% arable land 6.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 1.1% forest: 68.7%
other: 23.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,640 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Current Environment Issues: acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish
Ethnic groups: indigenous population: Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks
Languages: Swedish (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Religions: Lutheran 87%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 13%
Population: 9,880,604 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.28% (male 878,463/female 829,266)
15-24 years: 11.63% (male 591,495/female 557,229)
25-54 years: 39.38% (male 1,976,752/female 1,914,623)
55-64 years: 11.58% (male 574,175/female 570,424)
65 years and over: 20.12% (male 915,861/female 1,072,316) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 59.3%
youth dependency ratio: 27.5%
elderly dependency ratio: 31.8%
potential support ratio: 3.1% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 41.2 years
male: 40.2 years
female: 42.2 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.81% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 5.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 85.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.83% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: STOCKHOLM (capital) 1.486 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 28.9 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 82.1 years male: 80.2 years
female: 84.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.88 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 11.9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 3.93 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density: 2.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 99.3% of population
rural: 99.6% of population
total: 99.3% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0.7% of population
rural: 0.4% of population
total: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.18% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 100 (2014 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 22% (2014)
Education expenditures: 7.7% of GDP (2013)
Literacy:
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 18 years male: 17 years
female: 20 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 22.9% male: 24.2%
female: 21.5% (2014 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige
etymology: name ultimately derives from the North Germanic Svear tribe, which inhabited central Sweden and is first mentioned in the first centuries A.D.
Government type: parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Stockholm
geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland
Independence: 6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king of Sweden marking the abolishment of the Kalmar Union between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)
National holiday: National Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 1 January 1975 amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires simple majority vote in two consecutive parliamentary terms with an intervening general election; passage also requires approval by simple majority vote in a referendum if Parliament approves a motion for a referendum by one-third of its members; amended several times, last in 2014 (changes to the "Instrument of Government") (2016)
Legal system: civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)

head of government: Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN (since 3 October 2014); Deputy Prime Minister Isabella LOVIN (since 25 May 2016)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; 310 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 39 members in "at-large" seats directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 September 2014 (next to be held in September 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - SAP 31.0%, M 23.3%, SD 12.9%, MP 6.9%, C 6.1%, V 5.7%, FP 5.4%, KD 4.6%, others 4.1%; seats by party - SAP 113, M 84, SD 49, MP 25, C 22, V 21, FP 19, KD 16
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Sweden (consists of 16 justices including the court chairman); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 18 justices including the court president) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court justices nominated by the Board of Judges, a 9-member nominating body consisting of high-level judges, prosecutors, and members of Parliament; justices appointed by the Government; following a probationary period, justices' appointments are permanent

subordinate courts: first instance and appellate general and administrative courts; specialized courts that handle cases such as land and environment, immigration, labor, markets, and patents
Political parties and leaders: Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF] Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Ebba Busch THOR] Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [Asa ROMSON and Gustav FRIDOLIN] Left Party (Vansterpartiet) (formerly Communist Party) or V [Jonas SJOSTEDT] Liberal Party (Liberalerna) or L [Jan BJORKLUND] Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Anna KINBERG BATRA] Swedish Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Stefan LOFVEN] Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations or SACO [Goran ARRIUS] Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or TCO [Eva NORDMARK] Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen) or LO [Karl-Petter THORWALDSSON] other: environmental groups; media
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): three crowns, lion; national colors: blue, yellow
National anthem: name: "Du Gamla, Du Fria" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)
lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional

note: in use since 1844; also known as "Sang till Norden" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; "Kungssangen" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Bjorn O. LYRVALL (since 12 September 2013)
chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Azita RAJI (since 15 March 2016)
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
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 Economy
Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living with its combination of free-market capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. Sweden remains outside the euro zone largely out of concern that joining the European Economic and Monetary Union would diminish the country’s sovereignty over its welfare system. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Economic growth slowed in 2013, as a result of continued economic weakness in Sweden’s European trading partners; Sweden’s economy experienced modest growth in 2014-15, with real GDP growth above 2%, but continues to struggle with deflationary pressure.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $498.1 billion (2016 est.) $481 billion (2015 est.) $461.7 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $517.4 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (2016 est.) 4.2% (2015 est.) 2.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $49,700 (2016 est.) $48,800 (2015 est.) $47,400 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 30.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 29.8% of GDP (2015 est.) 28.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 45%
government consumption: 25.8%
investment in fixed capital: 24.9%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 43.7%
imports of goods and services: -39.8% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 45%
government consumption: 25.8%
investment in fixed capital: 24.9%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 43.7%
imports of goods and services: -39.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 5.277 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 2%
industry: 12%
services: 86% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate: 6.9% (2016 est.) 7.4% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 14% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 24% (2012)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 24.9 (2013) 25 (1992)
Budget: revenues: $248.3 billion
expenditures: $250.2 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 48% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 41.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 43.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as i
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.8% (2016 est.) 0% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: $26.03 billion (2016 est.) $25.86 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $147.3 billion (2016 est.) $151.1 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals (2012 est.)
Exports - partners: Norway 10.3%, Germany 10.3%, US 7.7%, UK 7.2%, Denmark 6.8%, Finland 6.7%, Netherlands 5.2%, Belgium 4.4%, France 4.2% (2015)
Imports: $134.9 billion (2016 est.) $137.3 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners: Germany 17.9%, Netherlands 8.1%, Norway 7.8%, Denmark 7.7%, China 6%, UK 5.5%, Finland 4.6%, France 4.3%, Belgium 4.3% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $58.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $62.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Debt - external: $939.9 billion (31 March 2016 est.) $929.4 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $390.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $380.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $465.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $445 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $560.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $470.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $581.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar - 8.569 (2016 est.) 8.4335 (2015 est.) 8.4335 (2014 est.) 6.8612 (2013 est.) 6.77 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 150 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 127 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 29 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 39 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 9.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 24.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 43% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 22.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 23,210 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 410,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 426,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 291,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 298,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 174,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 933 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 891 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 50 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 12.639 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet and broadband penetration

domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels

international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station (2015)
Broadcast media: publicly owned TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately owned TV broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international bro (2008)
Internet country code: .se
Internet users: total: 8.881 million percent of population: 90.6% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 231 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 149
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 37 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 82

914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 77 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 1,626 km (2013)
Railways: total 11,915 km
standard gauge: 11,850 km 1.435-m gauge (7,567 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 65 km 0.891-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 579,564 km
(includes 1,913 km of expressways) paved: 135,444 km
unpaved: 444,412 km

note: includes 104,705 km of state roads, 433,034 km of private roads, and 41,825 km of municipal roads (2010)
Waterways: 2,052 km (2010)
Merchant marine: total 135

by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 16, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 36, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 30, vehicle carrier 17

foreign-owned: 35 (Denmark 4, Estonia 3, Finland 16, Germany 3, Ireland 1, Italy 5, Norway 3)

registered in other countries: 189 (Bahamas 11, Barbados 4, Bermuda 14, Canada 2, Cook Islands 3, Cyprus 5, Denmark 15, Faroe Islands 11, Finland 1, France 4, Gibraltar 11, Italy 1, Liberia 12, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 1, Netherlands 12, Norway 27, Panama 2, Portugal 3, Saint Vincent and (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby LNG terminal(s) (import): Brunnsviksholme, Lysekil
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 Military
Military branches: Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army (Armen), Royal Swedish Navy (Marinen), Swedish Air Force (Svenska Flygvapnet) (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; Swedish citizenship required; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); the Swedish Parliament has abolished compulsory military service, with exclusively voluntary recruitment as of July 2010; conscription remains an option in emergencies; after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47 (2013)
Military expenditures: 1.1% of GDP (2015) 1.1% of GDP (2014) 1.1% of GDP (2013) 1.18% of GDP (2012) 1.17% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 52,707 (Syria); 23,886 (Iraq); 21,501 (Somalia); 20,203 (Eritrea); 13,064 (Afghanistan) (2015)
stateless persons: 31,062 (2015); note - the majority of stateless people are from the Middle East and Somalia
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