Sudan Population: 36,729,501

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 History
Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from Anglo-Egyptian co-rule in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but another broke out in 1983. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Sudan and South Sudan have yet to fully implement security and economic agreements signed in September 2012 relating to the normalization of relations between the two countries. The final disposition of the contested Abyei region has also to be decided. Since South Sudan's independence, conflict has broken out between the government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states, which has resulted in 1.2 million internally displaced persons or severely affected persons needing humanitarian assistance. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. Violence in Darfur in 2013 resulted in an additional estimated 6,000 civilians killed and 500,000 displaced. The UN and the African Union have jointly commanded a Darfur peacekeeping operation known as the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) since 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize the situation and have increasingly become targets for attacks by armed groups. Sudan also has faced refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia, Eritrea, Chad, Central African Republic, and South Sudan. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and government denial of access have impeded the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.

 Geography
Dominated by the Nile and its tributaries
Location: north-eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 30 00 E
Area: total: 1,861,484 sq km
land: NA
water: NA

Size comparison: slightly less than one-fifth the size of the US
Land Boundaries: total: 6,819 km border countries (7): Central African Republic 174 km, Chad 1,403 km, Egypt 1,276 km, Eritrea 682 km, Ethiopia 744 km, Libya 382 km, South Sudan 2,158 km note: Sudan-South Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei region pending negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan
Coastline: 853 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: hot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
Terrain: generally flat, featureless plain; desert dominates the north
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold; hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 100% arable land 15.7%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 84.2% forest: 0%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 18,900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: dust storms and periodic persistent droughts
Current Environment Issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese
Ethnic groups: Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata
Languages: Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
Religions: Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority
Population: 36,729,501 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 39.43% (male 7,351,759/female 7,130,224)
15-24 years: 20.77% (male 3,926,374/female 3,703,826)
25-54 years: 32.42% (male 5,779,482/female 6,129,213)
55-64 years: 4.12% (male 793,848/female 721,075)
65 years and over: 3.25% (male 645,876/female 547,824) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 78%
youth dependency ratio: 72.1%
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9%
potential support ratio: 16.9% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 19.6 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 19.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.69% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 28.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -4.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 33.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.54% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: KHARTOUM (capital) 5.129 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 311 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 50.2 deaths/1,000 live births male: 55.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 44.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.1 years male: 62 years
female: 66.3 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.68 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 9% (2010)
Health expenditures: 8.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.28 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 0.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 66% of population
rural: 50.2% of population
total: 55.5% of population

unimproved:
urban: 34% of population
rural: 49.8% of population
total: 44.5% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 43.9% of population
rural: 13.4% of population
total: 23.6% of population

unimproved:
urban: 56.1% of population
rural: 86.6% of population
total: 76.4% of population (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.25% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 55,900 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 3,000 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 6.6% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 33% (2014)
Education expenditures: 2.2% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 75.9%
male: 83.3%
female: 68.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 7 years male: 7 years
female: 7 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 20% male: 16%
female: 32% (2009 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
etymology: the name "Sudan" derives from the Arabic "bilad-as-sudan" meaning "Land of the black [peoples]"
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Khartoum
geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 18 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Blue Nile, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Gedaref, Gezira, Kassala, Khartoum, North Darfur, North Kordofan, Northern, Red Sea, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, West Kordofan, White Nile
Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
Constitution: previous 1998; latest adopted 6 July 2005, effective 9 July 2005 (interim constitution); amended 2015; note - in 2011, the Government of Sudan initiated a process for drafting a new constitution (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of Islamic law and English common law
Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih, Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMIN (both since 3 December 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih, Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMAN (both since 9 December 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the NCP, formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF, dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed; last held on 13-16 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (NCP) 94.1%, other (15 candidates) 5.9%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral National Legislature consists of the Council of States or Majlis al-Wilayat (50 seats; members indirectly elected - 2 each by the 25 state legislatures to serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly or Majlis Watani (426 seats; 213 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 128 for women only directly elected by proportional representation vote, and 85 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)

elections: last held on 13-15 April 2015 (next to be held in 2021)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NCP 323, DUP 25, Democratic Unionist Party 15, other 44, independent 19 note: the mandate of the members from the south was terminated upon independence by the Republic of South Sudan effective 9 July 2011 and membership in Sudan's National Assembly was reduced to 354; it is unclear whether this total will be retained for the next election or whether the previous total of 450 will be reconstituted
Judicial branch: highest court(s): National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges and includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president); note - the Constitutional Court resides outside the national judiciary judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Service Commission, an independent body chaired by the chief justice of the republic and members including other judges and judicial and legal officials; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 7 years

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; other national courts; public courts; district, town, and rural courts
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Unionist Party or DUP Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI] Muslim Brotherhood or MB National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan al-BASHIR] National Umma Party or UP [Saddiq al-MAHDI] Popular Congress Party or PCP [Kamal UMARI] Reform Now Party or RNP [Dr. Ghazi Salah al-DEEN] Sudan National Front [Ali Mahmud HASANAYN] Sudanese Communist Party or SCP [Mohammed Moktar Al-KHATEEB] Sudanese Congress Party [Ibrahim Al-SHEIKH] Unionist Movement Party or UMP
Political pressure groups and leaders: Darfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM [Gibril Fidail IBRAHIM], Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-AW [Abdel Wahid NUR, various factional leaders], Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-MM [Minni Arkou MINAWI] National Consensus Front or NCF [Farouq ABU ISSA] Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North or SPLM-N [Yasir ARMAN]
International organization participation: ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): secretary bird; national colors: red, white, black, green
National anthem: name: "Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan" (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land)
lyrics/music: Sayed Ahmad Muhammad SALIH/Ahmad MURJAN

note: adopted 1956; originally served as the anthem of the Sudanese military
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Maowia Osman KHALID (since 31 January 2014)
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Steven KOUTSIS (since 2016)
embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Street, Khartoum
mailing address: P.O. Box 699, Kilo 10, Soba, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
telephone: [249] (187)-0-(22000)
FAX: [249] (183) 774-137
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 Economy
Sudan has experienced protracted social conflict, civil war, and, in July 2011, the loss of three-quarters of its oil production due to the secession of South Sudan. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan's GDP growth since 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of rising oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Since the economic shock of South Sudan's secession, Sudan has struggled to stabilize its economy and make up for the loss of foreign exchange earnings. The interruption of oil production in South Sudan in 2012 for over a year and the consequent loss of oil transit fees further exacerbated the fragile state of Sudan’s economy. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture, keep close to half of the population at or below the poverty line. Sudan is also subject to comprehensive US sanctions. Sudan is attempting to develop non-oil sources of revenues, such as gold mining, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. The world’s largest exporter of gum Arabic, Sudan produces 75-80% of the world’s total output. Agriculture continues to employ 80% of the work force. Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan's secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction. Khartoum formally devalued the currency in June 2012, when it passed austerity measures that included gradually repealing fuel subsidies. Sudan also faces high inflation, which reached 47% on an annual basis in November 2012 but subsided to 18% in 2015.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $176.3 billion (2016 est.) $171.1 billion (2015 est.) $163.1 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $94.3 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.1% (2016 est.) 4.9% (2015 est.) 1.6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $4,500 (2016 est.) $4,500 (2015 est.) $4,400 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 10.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 9.3% of GDP (2015 est.) 10% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 82.6%
government consumption: 7.4%
investment in fixed capital: 14.1%
investment in inventories: 1.3%
exports of goods and services: 7.1%
imports of goods and services: -12.5% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 82.6%
government consumption: 7.4%
investment in fixed capital: 14.1%
investment in inventories: 1.3%
exports of goods and services: 7.1%
imports of goods and services: -12.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum Arabic, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), mangoes, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame seeds; animal feed, sheep and other livestock
Industries: oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly, milling
Industrial production growth rate: 2.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 11.92 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 80%
industry: 7%
services: 13% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate: 13.6% (2014 est.) 14.8% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line: 46.5% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 26.7% (2009 est.)
Budget: revenues: $7.301 billion
expenditures: $11.28 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 7.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 68.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 68.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17.6% (2016 est.) 17.3% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$5.545 billion (2016 est.) -$6.386 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $3.703 billion (2016 est.) $3.169 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: gold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, peanuts, gum Arabic, sugar
Exports - partners: UAE 32%, China 16.2%, Saudi Arabia 15.5%, Australia 4.7%, India 4.2% (2015)
Imports: $9.345 billion (2016 est.) $8.368 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines, chemicals, textiles, wheat
Imports - partners: China 26.4%, UAE 10.1%, India 9.1%, Egypt 5.6%, Turkey 4.7%, Saudi Arabia 4.4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $167.3 million (31 December 2016 est.) $173.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $51.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $49.42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $24.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $24.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Sudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar - 6.32 (2016 est.) 6.03 (2015 est.) 6.03 (2014 est.) 5.74 (2013 est.) 3.57 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 9.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 3.7 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 30.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 66.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 64,770 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 2,060 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 5 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 88,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 108,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 5,984 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 24,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 21.24 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 14 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 27.939 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially with wide coverage of most major cities

domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations

international: country code - 249; linked to the EASSy and FLAG fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2010)
Broadcast media: the Sudanese Government directly controls TV and radio, requiring that both media reflect government policies; TV has a permanent military censor; a private radio station is in operation (2007)
Internet country code: .sd
Internet users: total: 9.61 million percent of population: 26.6% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 74 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 58

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m: 12 (2013)
Heliports: 6 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 156 km; oil 4,070 km; refined products 1,613 km (2013)
Railways: total 7,251 km

narrow gauge: 5,851 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations (20014)
Roadways: total 11,900 km
paved: 4,320 km
unpaved: 7,580 km (2000)
Waterways: 4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile Rivers) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 2

by type: cargo 2 (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Port Sudan
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 Military
Military branches: Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF): Land Forces, Navy (includes Marines), Sudanese Air Force (Sikakh al-Jawwiya as-Sudaniya), Rapid Support Forces, Popular Defense Forces (2016)
Military service age and obligation: 18-33 years of age for male and female compulsory or voluntary military service; 1-2 year service obligation; a requirement that completion of national service was mandatory before entering public or private sector employment has been cancelled (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: the effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of mid-2013, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Israel, the Central African Republic, and South Sudan provided shelter for more than 600,000 Sudanese refugees; during the same period, Sudan, in turn, hosted about 115,000 Eritreans, 32,000 Chadians, and smaller numbers of Ethiopians and Central Africans; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia proceed slowly due to civil and ethnic fighting in eastern Sudan; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 98,676 (Eritrea); 8,894 (Chad) (2015); 263,245 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2016) IDPs: 3,218,234 (civil war 1983-2005; ongoing conflict in Darfur region; government and rebel fighting along South Sudan border; inter-tribal clashes) (2015)
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