Serbia Population: 7,143,921

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 History
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Communist Partisans resisted the Axis occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945 and fought nationalist opponents and collaborators as well. The military and political movement headed by Josip Broz "TITO" (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when their domestic rivals and the occupiers were defeated in 1945. Although communists, TITO and his successors (Tito died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions ultimately failed and, after international intervention, led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995. MILOSEVIC retained control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999. Serbian military and police forces withdrew from Kosovo in June 1999, and the UN Security Council authorized an interim UN administration and a NATO-led security force in Kosovo. FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and the installation of democratic government. In 2003, the FRY became the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 led to more intense calls to address Kosovo's status, and the UN began facilitating status talks in 2006. In June 2006, Montenegro seceded from the federation and declared itself an independent nation. Serbia subsequently gave notice that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro. In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia refuses to recognize. At Serbia's request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence. In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ's decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo, this time on practical issues rather than Kosovo's status. Serbia and Kosovo signed the first agreement of principles governing the normalization of relations between the two countries in April 2013 and are in the process of implementing its provisions. Prime Minister Aleksandar VUCIC, has promoted an ambitious goal of Serbia joining the EU by 2020. Under his leadership, in January 2014 Serbia opened formal negotiations for accession.

 Geography
Controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East
Location: Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary
Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 21 00 E
Area: total: 77,474 sq km
land: 77,474 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land Boundaries: total: 2,322 km border countries (8): Bosnia and Herzegovina 345 km, Bulgaria 344 km, Croatia 314 km, Hungary 164 km, Kosovo 366 km, Macedonia 101 km, Montenegro 157 km, Romania 531 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)
Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 57.9% arable land 37.7%; permanent crops 3.4%; permanent pasture 16.8% forest: 31.6%
other: 10.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 950 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Serb(s)
adjective: Serbian
Ethnic groups: Serb 83.3%, Hungarian 3.5%, Romany 2.1%, Bosniak 2%, other 5.7%, undeclared or unknown 3.4% (2011 est.)
Languages: Serbian (official) 88.1%, Hungarian 3.4%, Bosnian 1.9%, Romany 1.4%, other 3.4%, undeclared or unknown 1.8% note: Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, and Rusyn are official in Vojvodina (2011 est.)
Religions: Serbian Orthodox 84.6%, Catholic 5%, Muslim 3.1%, Protestant 1%, atheist 1.1%, other 0.8%, undeclared or unknown 4.5% (2011 est.)
Population: 7,143,921 note: does not include the population of Kosovo (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.64% (male 539,189/female 506,727)
15-24 years: 11.34% (male 417,692/female 392,379)
25-54 years: 41.41% (male 1,492,799/female 1,465,270)
55-64 years: 14.58% (male 502,172/female 539,349)
65 years and over: 18.03% (male 530,827/female 757,517) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 50.1%
youth dependency ratio: 24.5%
elderly dependency ratio: 25.6%
potential support ratio: 3.9% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 42.3 years
male: 40.7 years
female: 44 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.46% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 13.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 55.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BELGRADE (capital) 1.182 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 27.8 (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births male: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.5 years male: 72.6 years
female: 78.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.43 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 60.8% (2010)
Health expenditures: 10.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 2.11 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 5.4 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 98.9% of population
total: 99.2% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 1.1% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 98.2% of population
rural: 94.2% of population
total: 96.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1.8% of population
rural: 5.8% of population
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.05% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,000 (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 100 (2013 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 21.1% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 1.8% (2014)
Education expenditures: 4.2% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.1%
male: 99.1%
female: 97.2% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 49.4% male: N/A
female: N/A (2013 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Serbia
conventional short form: Serbia
local long form: Republika Srbija
local short form: Srbija
former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia
etymology: the origin of the name in uncertain, but seems to be related to the name of the West Slavic Sorbs who reside in the Lusatian region in present-day eastern Germany; by tradition, the Serbs migrated from that region to the Balkans in about the 6th century A.D.
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Belgrade (Beograd)
geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 119 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina) and 26 cities (gradovi, singular - grad) municipalities: Ada*, Aleksandrovac, Aleksinac, Alibunar*, Apatin*, Arandelovac, Arilje, Babusnica, Bac*, Backa Palanka*, Backa Topola*, Backi Petrovac*, Bajina Basta, Batocina, Becej*, Bela Crkva*, Bela Palanka, Beocin*, Blace, Bogatic, Bojnik, Boljevac, Bor, Bosilegrad, Brus, Bujanovac, Cajetina, Cicevac, Coka*, Crna Trava, Cuprija, Despotovac, Dimitrov, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Golubac, Gornji Milanovac, Indija*, Irig*, Ivanjica, Kanjiza*, Kladovo, Knic, Knjazevac, Koceljeva, Kosjeric, Kovacica*, Kovin*, Krupanj, Kucevo, Kula*, Kursumlija, Lajkovac, Lapovo, Lebane, Ljig, Ljubovija, Lucani, Majdanpek, Mali Idos*, Mali Zvornik, Malo Crnice, Medveda, Merosina, Mionica, Negotin, Nova Crnja*, Nova Varos, Novi Becej*, Novi Knezevac*, Odzaci*, Opovo*, Osecina, Paracin, Pecinci*, Petrovac na Mlavi, Plandiste*, Pozega, Presevo, Priboj, Prijepolje, Prokuplje, Raca, Raska, Razanj, Rekovac, Ruma*, Secanj*, Senta*, Sid*, Sjenica, Smederevska Palanka, Sokobanja, Srbobran*, Sremski Karlovci*, Stara Pazova*, Surdulica, Svilajnac, Svrljig, Temerin*, Titel*, Topola, Trgoviste, Trstenik, Tutin, Ub, Varvarin, Velika Plana, Veliko Gradiste, Vladicin Han, Vladimirci, Vlasotince, Vrbas*, Vrnjacka Banja, Zabalj*, Zabari, Zagubica, Zitiste*, Zitorada cities: Beograd, Cacak, Jagodina, Kikinda*, Kragujevac, Kraljevo, Krusevac, Leskovac, Loznica, Nis, Novi Pazar, Novi Sad*, Pancevo*, Pirot, Pozarevac, Sabac, Smederevo, Sombor*, Sremska Mitrovica*, Subotica*, Uzice, Valjevo, Vranje, Vrsac, Zajecar, Zrenjanin*

note: the northern 39 municipalities and 6 cities - about 28% of Serbia's area - compose the autonomous province of Vojvodina and are indicated with *
Independence: 5 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)
National holiday: National Day, 15 February (1835), the day the first constitution of the country was adopted
Constitution: history: many previous; latest adopted 30 September 2006, approved by referendum 28-29 October 2006, effective 8 November 2006 amendments: proposed by at least one-third of deputies in the National Assembly, by the president of the republic, by the government, or by petition of at least 150,000 voters; passage of proposals and draft amendments each requires at least two-thirds majority vote in the Assembly; amendments to constitutional articles including the preamble, constitutional principles, and human and minority rights and freedoms also require a referendum with passage by simple majority vote (2016)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Tomislav NIKOLIC (since 11 June 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Aleksandar VUCIC (since 27 April 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet elected by the National Assembly elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister elected by the National Assembly

election results: Tomislav NIKOLIC elected president; percent of vote in second round - Tomislav NIKOLIC (SNS) 51.2%, Boris TADIC (NDS-Z) 48.8%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodna Skupstina (250 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 24 April 2016 (next to be held by April 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Serbia is Winning 48.2%, SPS-JS-ZS-KP 11.0%, SRS 8.1%, For a Just Serbia 6.0%, Enough is Enough 6.0%, Alliance for a Better Serbia 5.0%, Dveri-DSS 5.0%, SVM 1.5%, other 9.2%; seats by party/coalition Serbia is Winning 131, SPS-JS-ZS-KP 29, SRS 22, For a Just Serbia 16, Enough is Enough 16, Alliance for a Better Serbia 13, Dveri-DSS 13, SVM 4, other 6
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of more than 60 judges organized into 3- and 5-member panels for criminal, civil, and administrative cases); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices proposed by the High Judicial Council (HJC), an 11-member body of which 7 are judges, and elected by the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed - 5 each by the National Assembly, the president, and the Supreme Court of Cassation; judges of both courts appointed to permanent tenure by the HJC

subordinate courts: appellate courts, higher courts, and municipal and district courts; courts of special jurisdiction include the Administrative Court, Appellate Commercial Court, and 2 levels of misdemeanor courts note: in 2003, specialized panels on war crimes were established within the Serbian court system; the panels have jurisdiction over alleged violations of the Basic Criminal Code and crimes against humanity, international law, and criminal acts as defined by the Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for a Better Serbia - coalition includes LDP, LSV, SDS Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASZTOR] Communist Party or KP [Josip Joska BROZ] Democratic Alliance of Croats in Vojvodina [Petar KUNTIC] Democratic Party or DS [Dragan SUTANOVAC] Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Milos Jovanovic] Dveri [Bosko OBRADOVIC] Enough of Enough [Sasa RADULOVIC] For a Just Serbia - coalition includes DS, NS, RS, DSVH, VVS, Together for Sumadija Greens of Serbia or ZS [Ivan KARIC] League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK] Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC] Movement of Socialists or PS [Aleksandar VULIN] New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC] Party for Democratic Action or PDD [Riza HALIMI] Party of Democratic Action of the Sandzak or SDA [Sulejman UGLJANIN] Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Milan KRKOBABIC] Reformist Party or RS [Aleksandar VISNJIC] Serbia is Winning - coalition includes SNS, SDPS, PUPS, NS, SPO, PS, PSS, NDSS, SNP Serbian People's Party or SNP [Nenad POPOVIC] Serbian Progressive Party or SNS [Aleksandar VUCIC] Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ] Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC] Social Democratic Party or SDS [Boris TADIC] Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS [Rasim LJAJIC] Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC] Strength of Serbia or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC] Together for Serbia or ZZS [Dusan PETROVIC] Together for Sumadija [Veroljub STEVANOVIC] note: as of April 2016, Serbia had 111 registered political parties and citizens' associations
Political pressure groups and leaders: Independent Association of Journalists of Serbia or NUNS Journalists Association of Serbia (Udruzenje novinara Srbije) or UNS Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization) SNP 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement) SNP NASI 1389 (Serbian National Movement NASI) Eastern Alternative (pro-Russian association)
International organization participation: BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): double-headed eagle; national colors: red, blue, white
National anthem: name: "Boze pravde" (God of Justice)
lyrics/music: Jovan DORDEVIC/Davorin JENKO

note: adopted 1904; song originally written as part of a play in 1872 and has been used as an anthem by the Serbian people throughout the 20th and 21st centuries
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Djerdj MATKOVIC (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Ave NW
telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kyle SCOTT (since 4 February 2016)
embassy: 92 Bulevar kneza Aleksandra Karadjordjevica, 11040 Belgrade, Serbia
mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: [381] (11) 706-4000
FAX: [381] (11) 706-4005
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 Economy
Serbia has a transitional economy largely dominated by market forces, but the state sector remains significant in certain areas and many institutional reforms are needed. The economy relies on manufacturing and exports, driven largely by foreign investment. MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of international economic sanctions, civil war, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC was ousted in September 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. Serbia renewed its membership in the IMF in December 2000 and rejoined the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Serbia has made progress in trade liberalization and enterprise restructuring and privatization, but many large enterprises - including the power utilities, telecommunications company, natural gas company, and others - remain state-owned. Serbia has made some progress towards EU membership, signing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels in May 2008, and with full implementation of the Interim Trade Agreement with the EU in February 2010, gained candidate status in March 2012. In January 2014, Serbia's EU accession talks officially opened. Serbia's negotiations with the WTO are advanced, with the country's complete ban on the trade and cultivation of agricultural biotechnology products representing the primary remaining obstacle to accession. Serbia's program with the IMF was frozen in early 2012 because the 2012 budget approved by parliament deviated from the program parameters; the arrangement is now void. In late 2014, Serbia and the IMF announced a tentative plan for a precautionary loan worth approximately $1 billion, but the government will be challenged to implement IMF-mandated reforms that will target social spending and the large public sector. High unemployment and stagnant household incomes are ongoing political and economic problems. Structural economic reforms needed to ensure the country's long-term prosperity have largely stalled since the onset of the global financial crisis. Growing budget deficits constrain the use of stimulus efforts to revive the economy and contribute to growing concern of a public debt crisis, given that Serbia's total public debt as a share of GDP more than doubled between 2008 and 2014. Serbia's concerns about inflation and exchange-rate stability preclude the use of expansionary monetary policy. During 2014 the SNS party addressed issues with the fiscal deficit, state-owned enterprises, the labor market, construction permits, bankruptcy and privatization, and other areas. Major challenges ahead include: high unemployment rates and the need for job creation; high government expenditures for salaries, pensions, healthcare, and unemployment benefits; a growing need for new government borrowing; rising public and private foreign debt; attracting new foreign direct investment; and getting the IMF program back on track. Other serious longer-term challenges include an inefficient judicial system, high levels of corruption, and an aging population. Factors favorable to Serbia's economic growth include its strategic location, a relatively inexpensive and skilled labor force, and free trade agreements with the EU, Russia, Turkey, and countries that are members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $101.5 billion (2016 est.) $98.98 billion (2015 est.) $98.26 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $37.76 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (2016 est.) 0.7% (2015 est.) -1.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $14,200 (2016 est.) $13,900 (2015 est.) $13,800 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 14% of GDP (2016 est.) 13% of GDP (2015 est.) 11.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 80.1%
government consumption: 11%
investment in fixed capital: 19.3%
investment in inventories: -3.4%
exports of goods and services: 48.8%
imports of goods and services: -55.8% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 80.1%
government consumption: 11%
investment in fixed capital: 19.3%
investment in inventories: -3.4%
exports of goods and services: 48.8%
imports of goods and services: -55.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, maize, sunflower, sugar beets, grapes/wine, fruits (raspberries, apples, sour cherries), vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, potatoes), beef, pork, and meat products, milk and dairy products
Industries: automobiles, base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 2.91 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 21.9%
industry: 15.6%
services: 62.5% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate: 18.9% (2016 est.) 19.3% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 9.2% (2013 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 38.7 (2014 est.) 28.2 (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $16.2 billion
expenditures: $17.08 billion note: this is the consolidated budget, including both central government and local goverment budgets (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 42.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 78.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 77% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued or owned by government entities other than the treasury (for which the Government of Singapore issued guarantees); the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data i
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.1% (2016 est.) 1.5% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.596 billion (2016 est.) -$1.751 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $12.85 billion (2016 est.) $12.6 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: iron and steel, rubber, clothes, wheat, fruit and vegetables, nonferrous metals, electric appliances, metal products, weapons and ammunition, automobiles
Exports - partners: Italy 16.2%, Germany 12.6%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 8.7%, Romania 5.6%, Russia 5.4% (2015)
Imports: $17.37 billion (2016 est.) $17.03 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
Imports - partners: Germany 12.4%, Italy 10.6%, Russia 9.6%, China 8.5%, Hungary 4.8%, Poland 4.2% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $11.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $11.35 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $31.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $32.44 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $39.34 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $11.95 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $7.696 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $8.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.) $7.451 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Exchange rates: Serbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar - 112.4 (2016 est.) 108.811 (2015 est.) 108.811 (2014 est.) 88.405 (2013 est.) 87.99 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 34.4 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 26.91 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 4.806 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 6.864 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 7.368 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 59.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 40.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Crude oil - production: 20,330 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 31,730 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 100 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 61,590 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 74,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 12,050 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 20,080 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Natural gas - production: 562.2 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 2.43 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 1.889 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 48.14 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 46 million Mt (2014 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 9.156 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 128 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: replacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war resulted in a modern digitalized telecommunications system

domestic: wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 3G mobile network launched in 2007

international: country code - 381 (2011)
Internet country code: .rs
Internet users: total: 4.688 million percent of population: 65.3% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 26 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 16

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2012)
Railways: total 3,808 km
standard gauge: 3,808 km 1.435-m gauge (1,196 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 44,248 km
paved: 28,000 km
unpaved: 16,248 km (2010)
Waterways: 587 km (primarily on the Danube and Sava rivers) (2009)
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Belgrade (Danube)
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 Military
Military branches: Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces (includes Riverine Component, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Air and Air Defense Forces (2016)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished December 2010; reserve obligation to age 60 for men and age 50 for women (2013)
Military expenditures: 1.37% of GDP (2016 est.) 1.41% of GDP (2015) 1.49% of GDP (2014) 1.48% of GDP (2013) 1.77% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Serbia with several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaration of its status as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led Kosovo Force peacekeepers under UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 25,996 (Croatia); 9,288 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (2015) IDPs: 220,002 (most are Kosovar Serbs, some are Roma, Ashkalis, and Egyptian (RAE); some RAE IDPs are unregistered) (2015)
stateless persons: 2,700 (includes stateless persons in Kosovo) (2015) note: 670,493 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (2015 - November 2016)
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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