Romania Population: 21,790,479

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 Background
The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

 Geography
Controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine
Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 25 00 E
Area: total: 238,391 sq km land: 229,891 sq km water: 8,500 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Oregon
Land Boundaries: total: 2,508 km border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
Coastline: 225 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 37.73% permanent crops: 1.86% other: 60.41% (2011)
Irrigated land: 6,153 sq km (2007)
Natural hazards: earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Current Environment Issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Romanian(s) adjective: Romanian
Ethnic groups: Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002 census)
Languages: Romanian (official) 91%, Hungarian 6.7%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 1.2%
Religions: Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 86.8%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%, Roman Catholic 4.7%, other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1% (2002 census)
Population: 21,790,479 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.7% (male 1,642,950/female 1,556,430) 15-24 years: 11.8% (male 1,317,820/female 1,255,982) 25-54 years: 45.5% (male 5,000,720/female 4,904,527) 55-64 years: 13% (male 1,319,066/female 1,508,158) 65 years and over: 15.1% (male 1,326,641/female 1,958,185) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 43.3 % youth dependency ratio: 21.6 % elderly dependency ratio: 21.7 % potential support ratio: 4.6 (2013)
Median age: total: 39.4 years
male: 38 years female: 41 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.27% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 9.4 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 11.86 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 52.8% of total population (2011) rate of urbanization: -0.18% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BUCHAREST (capital) 1.933 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 26 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 27 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 10.44 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11.82 deaths/1,000 live births female: 8.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.45 years
male: 70.99 years female: 78.13 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.31 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 69.8% note: percent of women aged 15-49 (2005)
Health expenditures: 5.6% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 1.92 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Hospital bed density: 6.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved: urban: 97% of population rural: 70% of population total: 84% of population unimproved: urban: 3% of population rural: 30% of population total: 16% of population (2000 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved: urban: 88% of population rural: 54% of population total: 72% of population unimproved: urban: 12% of population rural: 46% of population total: 28% of population (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 16,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 19.1% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3.5% (2002)
Education expenditures: 4.3% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.7% male: 98.3% female: 97.1% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years
male: 14 years female: 15 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 23.7%
male: 23.7% female: 23.8% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Romania local long form: none local short form: Romania
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Bucharest geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
Independence: 9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
National holiday: Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Constitution: 8 December 1991; revised 29 October 2003
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Traian BASESCU (since 20 December 2004); note - President BASESCU has twice been temporarily suspended since assuming his post: first from 20 April-23 May 2007, second from 6 July-27 August 2012; he survived a national recall referendum on both occasions head of government: Prime Minister Victor-Viorel PONTA (since 7 May 2012) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 November 2009 with runoff on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in November-December 2014); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament election results: Traian BASESCU reelected president; percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 50.3%, Mircea GEOANA 49.7%
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (176 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (412 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate - last held on 9 December 2012 (next by December 2016); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 December 2012 (next by December 2016) election results: Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 60.1%, ARD 16.7%, PP-DD 14.6%, UDMR 5.3%, other 3.3%; seats by alliance/party - USL 122, ARD 24, PP-DD 21, UDMR 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 58.6%, ARD 16.5%, PP-DD 14%, UDMR 5.2%, ethnic minorities 2.6%, other 3.1%; seats by alliance/party - USL 273, ARD 56, PP-DD 47, UDMR 18, ethnic minorities 18
Judicial branch: highest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 11 judges); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members) judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, an 11-member body mostly of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 3-year renewable terms; Supreme Constitutional Court members appointed - 6 by Parliament and 3 by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
Political parties and leaders: Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU] Civic Force or FC [Mihai-Razvan UNGUREANU] Conservative Party or PC [Daniel CONSTANTIN] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR) Democratic Liberal Party or PDL [Vasile BLAGA] (formerly Democratic Party) Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN] National Liberal Party or PNL [Crin ANTONESCU] National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [Gabriel OPREA] People's Party - Dan Diaconescu or PP-DD [Dan DIACONESCU] Right Romania Alliance or ARD [Vasile BLAGA, Mihai-Razvan UNGUREANU, and Aurelian PAVELESCU] (a center-right electoral alliance that includes PDL, FC, PNT-CD) Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor-Viorel PONTA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR) Social Liberal Union or USL [Victor PONTA and Crin ANTONESCU] (an alliance of the PSD, PNL, UNPR, and PC)
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: various human rights and professional associations
International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): golden eagle
National anthem: name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!) lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Adrian Cosmin VIERITA chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852 FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Duane BUTCHER embassy: Bulevardul Dr. Liviu Librescu 4-6, District 1, Bucharest, 015118 mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch) telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300 FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
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 Economy
Romania, which joined the European Union on 1 January 2007, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets. Domestic consumption and investment fueled strong GDP growth, but led to large current account imbalances. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania''s widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment. Inflation rose in 2007-08, driven by strong consumer demand, high wage growth, rising energy costs, a nation-wide drought, and a relaxation of fiscal discipline. As a result of the increase in fiscal and current account deficits and the global financial crisis, Romania signed on to a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders. Worsening international financial markets, as well as a series of drastic austerity measures implemented to meet Romania''s obligations under the IMF-led bail-out agreement contributed to a GDP contraction of 6.6% in 2009, followed by a 1.1% GDP contraction in 2010. The economy returned to positive growth in 2011 due to strong exports, a better than expected harvest, and weak domestic demand. In 2012, however, growth slowed to less than 1%, partially due to slackening export demand and an extended drought that resulted in an exceptionally poor harvest. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary stand-by agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability. The Romanian authorities announced that they do not intend to draw funds under the agreement.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $277.9 billion (2012 est.) $277 billion (2011 est.) $271.1 billion (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $169.4 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.3% (2012 est.) 2.2% (2011 est.) -1.1% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $13,000 (2012 est.) $13,000 (2011 est.) $12,600 (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 23.2% of GDP (2012 est.) 22.5% of GDP (2011 est.) 21.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 71.5% government consumption: 6.6% investment in fixed capital: 26.7% investment in inventories: 0.3% exports of goods and services: 40% imports of goods and services: -45.2% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 71.5% government consumption: 6.6% investment in fixed capital: 26.7% investment in inventories: 0.3% exports of goods and services: 40% imports of goods and services: -45.2% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
Industries: electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
Industrial production growth rate: -0.8% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 9.252 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 31.6% industry: 21.1% services: 47.3% (2010)
Unemployment rate: 5.6% (2012 est.) 7.5% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 22.2% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.7% highest 10%: 19.8% (2011 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 33.2 (2011) 30 (2003)
Budget: revenues: $55.69 billion expenditures: $59.95 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 32.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 37.2% of GDP (2012 est.) 32.4% of GDP (2011 est.) note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (2012 est.) 5.8% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$7.488 billion (2012 est.) -$7.747 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $58.11 billion (2012 est.) $62.68 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, metals and metal products, textiles and footwear, chemicals, agricultural products, minerals and fuels
Exports - partners: Germany 18.9%, Italy 12.3%, France 7.1%, Turkey 5.5%, Hungary 5.5% (2012)
Imports: $67.54 billion (2012 est.) $73.12 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels and minerals, metals, textile and products, agricultural products
Imports - partners: Germany 17.5%, Italy 11%, Hungary 9.1%, France 5.7%, Russia 4.4%, Poland 4.3%, Austria 4.2%, Kazakhstan 4.1% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $46.67 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $48.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $132.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $129.8 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $75.46 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $73.97 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $2.727 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $2.61 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $29.56 billion (31 December 2012) $21.2 billion (31 December 2011) $32.38 billion (31 December 2010)
Exchange rates: lei (RON) per US dollar - 3.4682 (2012 est.) 3.0486 (2011 est.) 3.1779 (2010 est.) 3.0493 (2009) 2.5 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 60.39 billion kWh (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 43
Electricity - consumption: 53.74 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - exports: 2.94 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - imports: 1.04 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 24.98 million kW (2011 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 61.7% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 9.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 27% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Crude oil - production: 92,140 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 169,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 600 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 298,200 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 218,200 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 107,300 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 34,250 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 11.08 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 14.2 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 3.12 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 63 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 78.43 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 4.68 million (2011) country comparison to the world: 31
Cellular Phones in use: 23.4 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services domestic: more than 90 percent of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 110 telephones per 100 persons international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber Optic System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2011)
Broadcast media: a mixture of public and private TV stations; the public broadcaster operates multiple stations; roughly 100 private national, regional, and local stations; more than 75% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems that provide access to Romanian, European, and international stations; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations; more than 100 private radio stations (2008)
Internet country code: .ro
Internet hosts: 2.667 million (2012)
Internet users: 7.787 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 45 (2013) country comparison to the world: 97
Airports (paved runways): total 26
over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 19
914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 14 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 3,726 km; oil 2,451 km (2013)
Railways: total 10,785 km
broad gauge: 135 km 1.524-m gauge standard gauge: 10,645 km 1.435-m gauge (4,002 km electrified) narrow gauge: 5 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)
Roadways: total 82,386 km
(does not include urban roads) paved: 71,154 km (includes 371 km of expressways) unpaved: 11,232 km (2009)
Waterways: 1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)
Merchant marine: total 5
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1 foreign-owned: 1 (Russia 1) registered in other countries: 31 (Georgia 7, Liberia 3, Malta 7, Marshall Islands 2, Moldova 2, Panama 3, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 2, Tanzania 1, Togo 1, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Braila, Constanta, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Midia, Tulcea
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 Military
Military branches: Land Forces, Naval Forces (Fortele Naval, FN), Romanian Air Force (Fortele Aeriene Romane, FAR) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 20-35 years of age for compulsory male military service; conscription ended 2006, but military service remains mandatory; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 5,601,234 females age 16-49: 5,428,939 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 4,550,409 females age 16-49: 4,507,880 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 117,798 female: 111,607 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.9% of GDP (2007 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
Refugees and internally displaced persons: stateless persons: 248 (2012)
Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos
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