Portugal Population: 10,799,270

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 History
Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of its wealthiest colony of Brazil in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.

 Geography
Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
Geographic coordinates: 39 30 N, 8 00 W
Area: total: 92,090 sq km
land: 91,470 sq km
water: 620 sq km

note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Indiana
Land Boundaries: total: 1,214 km
border countries: Spain 1,214 km
Coastline: 1,793 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m
Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 11.88%
permanent crops: 7.71%
other: 80.41% (2011)
Irrigated land: 5,837 sq km (2007)
Natural hazards: Azores subject to severe earthquakes volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (elev. 1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira
Current Environment Issues: soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification
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 People
Nationality: noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese
Ethnic groups: homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal
Languages: Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)
Religions: Roman Catholic 84.5%, other Christian 2.2%, other 0.3%, unknown 9%, none 3.9% (2001 census)
Population: 10,799,270 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16% (male 900,758/female 827,219)
15-24 years: 11.4% (male 655,365/female 581,010)
25-54 years: 42.4% (male 2,303,445/female 2,270,380)
55-64 years: 11.8% (male 595,464/female 681,506)
65 years and over: 18.4% (male 811,005/female 1,173,118) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 50.5 %
youth dependency ratio: 22.2 %
elderly dependency ratio: 28.2 %
potential support ratio: 3.5 (2013)
Median age: total: 40.7 years
male: 38.6 years
female: 42.9 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.15% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 9.59 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 10.91 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 61% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: LISBON (capital) 2.808 million; Porto 1.344 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 27.4 (2005 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 8 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.54 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.98 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.85 years
male: 75.61 years
female: 82.32 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.51 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 86.8% (2005/06)
Health expenditures: 11% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 3.76 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 3.3 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 1% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.6% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 42,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 24% (2008)
Education expenditures: 5.8% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.4%
male: 97%
female: 94% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 16 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 30.1%
male: 28.7%
female: 31.7% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal
Government type: republic; parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Lisbon
geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
Independence: 1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)
National holiday: Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died
Constitution: adopted 2 April 1976; subsequently revised note: the revisions placed the military under strict civilian control, trimmed the powers of the president, and laid the groundwork for a stable, pluralistic liberal democracy; they allowed for the privatization of nationalized firms and government-owned communications media
Legal system: civil law system; Constitutional Tribunal review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 9 March 2006)

head of government: Prime Minister Pedro Manuel Mamede PASSOS COELHO (since 21 June 2011)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 January 2011 (next to be held in January 2016); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Anibal CAVACO SILVA reelected president; percent of vote - Anibal CAVACO SILVA 53%, Manuel ALEGRE 19.8%, Fernando NOBRE 14.1%, Francisco LOPES 7.1%, Manuel COELHO 4.5%, Defensor MOURA 1.6%
Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 5 June 2011 (next to be held in 2015)

election results: percent of vote by party - PPD/PSD 38%, PS 28%, CDS/PP 11%, PCP/PEV (see CDU) 7%, BE 5%, other 11%; seats by party - PPD/PSD 108, PS 74, CDS/PP 24, PCP/PEV (see CDU) 16, BE 8
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges - 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year non-renewable terms

subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Auditoria do Tribunal); appellate, district, and municipal courts
Political parties and leaders: Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Paulo PORTAS] Social Democratic Party or PPD/PSD [Pedro PASSOS COELHO] Socialist Party or PS [Maria de BELEM ROSEIRA] The Left Bloc or BE [Pedro Filipe SOARES] Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes Portuguese Communist Party or PCP and Ecologist Party ("The Greens") or PEV)
Political pressure groups and leaders: Armed Forces Officers' Association (AOFA) [Colonel Pereira CRACEL] the Desperate Generation (youth movement protesting against low wages, precarious labor conditions, and unemployment) the General Workers Union or General Confederation of Portuguese Workers (UGT) [Joao PROENCA] Portuguese National Workers' Conference (CGTP) [Armenio CARLOS] TugaLeaks (a website that has become a mouthpiece for publicizing diverse protest action) other: the media; labor unions
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIT, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky)
National anthem: name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)
lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL

note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nuno Filipe Alves Salvador e BRITO
chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 332-3007
FAX: [1] (202) 223-3926
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (NJ), San Francisco consulate(s): New Bedford (MA), Providence (RI)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Allan J. KATZ
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon
mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109 consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)
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 Economy
Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community - the EU's predecessor - in 1986. Over the following two decades, successive governments privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU members. The economy grew by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but the rate of growth slowed in 2001-08. The economy contracted 2.5% in 2009, before growing 1.4% in 2010, but GDP fell again in 2011 and 2012, as the government began implementing spending cuts and tax increases to comply with conditions of an EU-IMF financial rescue package, agreed to in May 2011. GDP per capita stands at roughly two-thirds of the EU-27 average. Portugal also has been increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and Asia as a destination for foreign direct investment, in part because its rigid labor market hindered greater productivity and growth. However, the government of Pedro PASSOS COELHO has enacted several measures to introduce more flexibility into the labor market, and, this, along with steps to reduce high levels of public debt, could make Portugal more attractive to foreign investors. The government reduced the budget deficit from 10.1% of GDP in 2009 to 4.5% in 2011, an achievement made possible only by the extraordinary revenues obtained from the one-time transfer of bank pension funds to the social security system. The budget deficit worsened in 2012 as a sharp reduction in domestic consumption took a bigger bite out of value-added tax revenues while rising unemployment benefits increased expenditures more than anticipated. Poor growth prospects over the next year have reinforced investors' concerns about the government's ability to achieve its budget deficit targets and regain full access to bond market financing when the EU-IMF financing program expires in 2013.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $250.6 billion (2012 est.) $258.8 billion (2011 est.) $262.9 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $212.7 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -3.2% (2012 est.) -1.6% (2011 est.) 1.9% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $23,800 (2012 est.) $24,500 (2011 est.) $24,700 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 14.3% of GDP (2012 est.) 10.7% of GDP (2011 est.) 9.6% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 66.3%
government consumption: 18.3%
investment in fixed capital: 15.8%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 38.7%
imports of goods and services: -39.2% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 66.3%
government consumption: 18.3%
investment in fixed capital: 15.8%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 38.7%
imports of goods and services: -39.2% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish
Industries: textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper, chemicals, auto-parts manufacturing, base metals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine and other foods; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism
Industrial production growth rate: -9% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 5.495 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 11.7%
industry: 28.5%
services: 59.8% (2009 est.)
Unemployment rate: 15.7% (2012 est.) 12.7% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 18% (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 38.5 (2007) 35.6 (1995)
Budget: revenues: $87.16 billion
expenditures: $100.8 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 41% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 123.6% of GDP (2012 est.) 108.1% of GDP (2011 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (2012 est.) 3.7% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$6 billion (2012 est.) -$15.44 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $58.24 billion (2012 est.) $60.01 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: agricultural products, food products, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, hides, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools, base metals
Exports - partners: Spain 22.7%, Germany 12.4%, France 11.9%, Angola 6.5%, UK 5.3%, Netherlands 4.2% (2012)
Imports: $69.48 billion (2012 est.) $79.67 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: agricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semi-conductors and related devices, oil products, base metals, food products, textile materials
Imports - partners: Spain 32%, Germany 11.5%, France 6.6%, Italy 5.3%, Netherlands 4.9% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $22.66 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $21.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $508.3 billion (31 December 2012) $482.2 billion (31 December 2011)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $131 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $122.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $64.25 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $64.25 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $61.69 billion (31 December 2011) $82 billion (31 December 2010) $98.65 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7778 (2012 est.) 0.7185 (2011 est.) 0.755 (2010 est.) 0.7198 (2009 est.) 0.6827 (2008 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 50.3 billion kWh (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 51
Electricity - consumption: 47.81 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 3.191 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 5.814 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 17.39 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 48.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 23.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 22.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 1,926 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 205,400 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: NA bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 237,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 259,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 49,650 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 83,520 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 5.212 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 5.181 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 51.43 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 4.53 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 36
Cellular Phones in use: 12.335 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: Portugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities

domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations

international: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2010)
Broadcast media: Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP),the publicly-owned TV broadcaster, operates 2 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations (2008)
Internet country code: .pt
Internet hosts: 3.748 million (2012)
Internet users: 5.168 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 64 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 76
Airports (paved runways): total 43
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 21

914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 20 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 1,344 km; oil 11 km; refined products 188 km (2013)
Railways: total 3,319 km
broad gauge: 2,700 km 1.668-m gauge (1,436 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 192 km 1.000-m gauge; 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 82,900 km
paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways)
unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)
Waterways: 210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 109

by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 35, carrier 1, chemical tanker 21, container 7, liquefied gas 6, passenger 13, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 9

foreign-owned: 81 (Belgium 8, Colombia 1, Denmark 4, Germany 14, Greece 2, Italy 12, Japan 9, Mexico 1, Norway 2, Spain 18, Sweden 3, Switzerland 3, US 4)

registered in other countries: 15 (Cyprus 2, Malta 3, Panama 10) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines
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 Military
Military branches: Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,566,264
females age 16-49: 2,458,297 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 2,103,080
females age 16-49: 2,018,004 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 62,208
female: 54,786 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 2.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 553 (2012)
Illicit drugs: seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin
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