Namibia Population: 2,182,852

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 History
South Africa occupied the German colony of South-West Africa during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II, when it annexed the territory. In 1966 the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that became Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Namibia has been governed by SWAPO since the country won independence in 1990. Hifikepunye POHAMBA was elected president in November 2004 in a landslide victory replacing Sam NUJOMA who led the country during its first 14 years of self rule. POHAMBA was reelected in November 2009.

 Geography
First country in the world to incorporate the protection of the environment into its constitution; some 14% of the land is protected, including virtually the entire Namib Desert coastal strip
Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa
Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 17 00 E
Area: total: 824,292 sq km
land: 823,290 sq km
water: 1,002 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than half the size of Alaska
Land Boundaries: total: 3,936 km
border countries: Angola 1,376 km, Botswana 1,360 km, South Africa 967 km, Zambia 233 km
Coastline: 1,572 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic
Terrain: mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Konigstein 2,606 m
Natural resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, silver, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, tungsten, zinc, salt, hydropower, fish

note: suspected deposits of oil, coal, and iron ore
Land use: arable land: 0.97%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 99.02% (2011)
Irrigated land: 75.73 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: prolonged periods of drought
Current Environment Issues: limited natural freshwater resources; desertification; wildlife poaching; land degradation has led to few conservation areas
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Namibian(s)
adjective: Namibian
Ethnic groups: black 87.5%, white 6%, mixed 6.5% note: about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to the Kavangos tribe; other ethnic groups include Herero 7%, Damara 7%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, Bushmen 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%
Languages: English (official) 7%, Afrikaans (common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population), German 32%, indigenous languages (includes Oshivambo, Herero, Nama) 1%
Religions: Christian 80% to 90% (at least 50% Lutheran), indigenous beliefs 10% to 20%
Population: 2,182,852 (July 2013 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.6% (male 358,876/female 352,068)
15-24 years: 23.1% (male 254,809/female 249,256)
25-54 years: 35.3% (male 399,283/female 370,202)
55-64 years: 4.8% (male 47,261/female 57,565)
65 years and over: 4.3% (male 40,756/female 52,776) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 65.5 %
youth dependency ratio: 59.6 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9 %
potential support ratio: 17 (2013)
Median age: total: 22.4 years
male: 22.4 years
female: 22.4 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.75% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 20.72 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 13.33 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 38.4% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: WINDHOEK (capital) 342,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 21.4 (2007 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 200 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 45.62 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 48.68 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 42.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 52.03 years
male: 52.36 years
female: 51.69 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.33 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 55.1% (2006/07)
Health expenditures: 6.8% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.37 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density: 2.67 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 90% of population
total: 93% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 10% of population
total: 7% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 57% of population
rural: 17% of population
total: 32% of population

unimproved:
urban: 43% of population
rural: 83% of population
total: 68% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 13.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 180,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 6,700 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 9.5% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 17.5% (2007)
Education expenditures: 8.3% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.8%
male: 89%
female: 88.5% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2006)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 58.9%
male: 54.6%
female: 63.8% (2008)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Namibia
conventional short form: Namibia
local long form: Republic of Namibia
local short form: Namibia
former: German South-West Africa (Sued-West Afrika), South-West Africa
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Windhoek
geographic coordinates: 22 34 S, 17 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April
Administrative divisions: 13 regions; Caprivi, Erongo, Hardap, Karas, Khomas, Kunene, Ohangwena, Okavango, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa
Independence: 21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)
National holiday: Independence Day, 21 March (1990)
Constitution: ratified 9 February 1990, effective 12 March 1990
Legal system: mixed legal system of uncodified civil law based on Roman-Dutch law and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Hifikepunye POHAMBA (since 21 March 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Hifikepunye POHAMBA (since 21 March 2005); Prime Minister Hage GEINGOB (since 4 December 2012)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if no single candidate receives a majority of the vote in the first round of voting, a run-off election is scheduled between the two candidates with the greatest vote count; election last held on 27-28 November 2009 (next to be held in 2014)

election results: Hifikepunye POHAMBA reelected president; percent of vote - Hifikepunye POHAMBA 76.4%, Hidipo HAMUTENYA 11.0%, Katuutire KAURA 3.0%, Kuaima RIRUAKO 2.9%, Justus GAROEB 2.4%, Ignatius SHIXWAMENI 1.3%, Hendrick MUDGE 1.2%, other 1.8%
Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the National Council, primarily an advisory body (26 seats; two members chosen from each regional council to serve six-year terms), and the National Assembly (72 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, an additonal six nonvoting members are appointed by the president)

elections: National Council - elections for regional councils to determine members of the National Council held on 26-27 November 2010 (next to be held in 2016); National Assembly - last held on 26-27 November 2009 (next to be held in November 2014)

election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SWAPO 24, UDF 1, DTA 1; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - SWAPO 75.3%, RDP 11.3%, DTA 3.1%, NUDO 3.0%, UDF 2.4%, APP 1.4%, RP 0.8%, COD 0.7%, SWANU 0.6%, other 1.3%; seats by party - SWAPO 54, RDP 8, DTA 2, NUDO 2, UDF 2, APP 1, COD 1, RP 1, SWANU 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 3 judges in quorum sessions) judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president of Namibia upon the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission; judges serve until age 65 but can be extended by the president until age 70

subordinate courts: High Court; Labor Court; regional and district magistrates' courts; community courts
Political parties and leaders: All People's Party or APP [Ignatius SHIXWAMENI] Congress of Democrats or COD [Benjamin ULENGA] Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [Katuutire KAURA] Monitor Action Group or MAG [Jurie VILJOEN] National Democratic Movement for Change or NamDMC National Unity Democratic Organization or NUDO [Kuaima RIRUAKO] Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Hidipo HAMUTENYA] Republican Party or RP [Hendrick MUDGE] South West Africa National Union or SWANU [Usutuaije MAAMBERUA] South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Hifikepunye POHAMBA] United Democratic Front or UDF [Justus GAROEB]
Political pressure groups and leaders: National Society for Human Rights or NSHR (NAMRIGHTS as of 2010) various labor unions
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National anthem: name: "Namibia, Land of the Brave"
lyrics/music: Axali DOESEB

note: adopted 1991
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Martin ANDJABA
chancery: 1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 986-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 986-0443
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Wanda L. NESBITT
embassy: 14 Lossen Street, Windhoek
mailing address: Private Bag 12029 Ausspannplatz, Windhoek
telephone: [264] (61) 295-8500
FAX: [264] (61) 295-8603
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 Economy
The economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for 8% of GDP, but provides more than 50% of foreign exchange earnings. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Marine diamond mining is becoming increasingly important as the terrestrial diamond supply has dwindled. Namibia is the world's fourth-largest producer of uranium. It also produces large quantities of zinc and is a small producer of gold and other minerals. The mining sector employs only about 3% of the population. Namibia normally imports about 50% of its cereal requirements; in drought years food shortages are a major problem in rural areas. A high per capita GDP, relative to the region, hides one of the world's most unequal income distributions, as shown by Namibia''s 59.7 GINI coefficient. The Namibian economy is closely linked to South Africa with the Namibian dollar pegged one-to-one to the South African rand. Namibia receives 30%-40% of its revenues from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU). Volatility in the size of Namibia''s annual SACU allotment complicates budget planning. Namibia''s economy remains vulnerable to volatility in the price of uranium. The rising cost of mining diamonds, increasingly from the sea, has reduced profit margins. Namibian authorities recognize these issues and have emphasized the need to increase higher value raw materials, manufacturing, and services, especially in the logistics and transportation sectors.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $17.03 billion (2012 est.) $16.37 billion (2011 est.) $15.61 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $12.3 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2012 est.) 4.8% (2011 est.) 6.6% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $7,900 (2012 est.) $7,700 (2011 est.) $7,400 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 22.3% of GDP (2012 est.) 20.4% of GDP (2011 est.) 18.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 66.3%
government consumption: 25.8%
investment in fixed capital: 22.6%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 39.3%
imports of goods and services: -54% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 66.3%
government consumption: 25.8%
investment in fixed capital: 22.6%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 39.3%
imports of goods and services: -54% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: millet, sorghum, peanuts, grapes; livestock; fish
Industries: meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, pasta and beverages; mining (diamonds, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)
Industrial production growth rate: 7.1% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 816,600 (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 16.3%
industry: 22.4%
services: 61.3% note: about half of Namibia's people are unemployed while about two-thirds live in rural areas; roughly two-thirds of rural dwellers rely on subsistence agriculture (2008 est.)
Unemployment rate: 51.2% (2008 est.) 36.7% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: 55.8%

note: the UNDP's 2005 Human Development Report indicated that 34.9% of the population live on $1 per day and 55.8% live on $2 per day (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 42% (2010)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 59.7 (2010) 70.7 (2003)
Budget: revenues: $4.524 billion
expenditures: $4.885 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 36.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 25.8% of GDP (2012 est.) 26.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (2012 est.) 5% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: $49.3 million (2012 est.) -$108.2 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $4.335 billion (2012 est.) $4.639 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium; cattle, processed fish, karakul skins
Imports: $5.586 billion (2012 est.) $5.348 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs; petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.746 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.778 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $4.302 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $4.187 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $1.152 billion (31 December 2011) $1.176 billion (31 December 2010) $846.3 million (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: Namibian dollars (NAD) per US dollar - 8.203 (2012 est.) 7.2597 (2011 est.) 7.3212 (2010 est.) 8.42 (2009) 7.75 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 1.643 billion kWh (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 138
Electricity - consumption: 3.635 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - exports: 91 million kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - imports: 2.519 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 508,000 kW (2012 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 33.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 66.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 22,990 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 20,810 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 36.81 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 3.812 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 140,000 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 138
Cellular Phones in use: 2.24 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: good system; core fiber-optic network links most centers and connections are now digital

domestic: multiple mobile-cellular providers with a combined subscribership of more than 100 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 264; fiber-optic cable to South Africa, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to the South African Far East (SAFE) submarine cable through South Africa; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2010)
Broadcast media: 1 private and 1 state-run TV station; satellite and cable TV service is available; state-run radio service broadcasts in multiple languages; about a dozen private radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code: .na
Internet hosts: 78,280 (2012)
Internet users: 127,500 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 112 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 52
Airports (paved runways): total 19
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 93

1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 52
under 914 m: 16 (2013)
Railways: total 2,626 km

narrow gauge: 2,626 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 64,189 km
paved: 5,477 km
unpaved: 58,712 km (2010)
Merchant marine: total 1

by type: cargo 1 (2010)
Ports and terminals: Luderitz, Walvis Bay
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 Military
Military branches: Namibian Defense Force (NDF): Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 568,231 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 351,431
females age 16-49: 311,513 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 26,413
female: 26,038 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 3.7% of GDP (2006)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River; Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
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