Namibia Population: 2,436,469

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 History
South Africa occupied the German colony of South-West Africa during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II, when it annexed the territory. In 1966, the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that became Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Namibia has been governed by SWAPO since the country won independence in 1990, though the party has dropped much of its Marxist ideology. Prime Minister Hage GEINGOB was elected president in November 2014 in a landslide victory, replacing Hifikepunye POHAMBA who stepped down after serving two terms. SWAPO retained its parliamentary super majority in the November 2014 elections and established a system of gender parity in parliamentary positions.

 Geography
First country in the world to incorporate the protection of the environment into its constitution; some 14% of the land is protected, including virtually the entire Namib Desert coastal strip
Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa
Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 17 00 E
Area: total: 824,292 sq km
land: 823,290 sq km
water: 1,002 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than half the size of Alaska
Land Boundaries: total: 4,220 km border countries (4): Angola 1,427 km, Botswana 1,544 km, South Africa 1,005 km, Zambia 244 km
Coastline: 1,572 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic
Terrain: mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, silver, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, tungsten, zinc, salt, hydropower, fish

note: suspected deposits of oil, coal, and iron ore
Land use: agricultural land: 47.2% arable land 1%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 46.2% forest: 8.8%
other: 44% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 80 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: prolonged periods of drought
Current Environment Issues: limited natural freshwater resources; desertification; wildlife poaching; land degradation has led to few conservation areas
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Namibian(s)
adjective: Namibian
Ethnic groups: black 87.5%, white 6%, mixed 6.5% note: about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to the Kavangos tribe; other ethnic groups include Herero 7%, Damara 7%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, Bushmen 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%
Languages: Oshiwambo languages 48.9%, Nama/Damara 11.3%, Afrikaans 10.4% (common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population), Otjiherero languages 8.6%, Kavango languages 8.5%, Caprivi languages 4.8%, English (official) 3.4%, other African languages 2.3%, other 1.7% note: Namibia has 13 recognized national languages, including 10 indigenous African languages and 3 Indo-European languages (2011 est.)
Religions: Christian 80% to 90% (at least 50% Lutheran), indigenous beliefs 10% to 20%
Population: 2,436,469 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 37.39% (male 460,016/female 451,058)
15-24 years: 20.35% (male 246,266/female 249,570)
25-54 years: 34% (male 395,417/female 432,994)
55-64 years: 4.25% (male 46,769/female 56,798)
65 years and over: 4.01% (male 41,518/female 56,063) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 67.3%
youth dependency ratio: 61.4%
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9%
potential support ratio: 17% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 21 years
male: 20.2 years
female: 21.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.98% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 27.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 46.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.16% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: WINDHOEK (capital) 368,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 21.5 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 265 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 36.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 38.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 34.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.6 years male: 62.1 years
female: 65.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.36 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 55.1% (2006/07)
Health expenditures: 8.9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.37 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density: 2.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 98.2% of population
rural: 84.6% of population
total: 91% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1.8% of population
rural: 15.4% of population
total: 9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 54.5% of population
rural: 16.8% of population
total: 34.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 45.5% of population
rural: 83.2% of population
total: 65.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 13.34% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 210,800 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 3,100 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 16.8% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 13.2% (2013)
Education expenditures: 8.3% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.9%
male: 79.2%
female: 84.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2006)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 56.2% male: 49.4%
female: 62.2% (2013 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Namibia
conventional short form: Namibia
local long form: Republic of Namibia
local short form: Namibia
former: German South-West Africa (Deutsch Suedwest Afrika), South-West Africa
etymology: named for the coastal Namib Desert; the name "namib" means "vast place" in the Nama/Damara language
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Windhoek
geographic coordinates: 22 34 S, 17 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April
Administrative divisions: 14 regions; Erongo, Hardap, //Karas, Kavango East, Kavango West, Khomas, Kunene, Ohangwena, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa, Zambezi; note - the Karas Region was renamed //Karas in September 2013 to include the alveolar lateral click of the Khoekhoegowab language
Independence: 21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)
National holiday: Independence Day, 21 March (1990)
Constitution: drafted 9 February 1990, signed 16 March 1990, entered into force 21 March 1990; amended 1998, 2010, 2014 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of uncodified civil law based on Roman-Dutch law and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); Prime Minister Saara KUUGONGELWA-AMADHILA (since 21 March 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2019)

election results: Hage GEINGOB elected president; percent of vote - Hage GEINGOB (SWAPO) 86.7%, McHenry VENAANI (DTA) 5.0%, Hidipo HAMUTENYA (RDP) 3.4%, Asser MBAI (NUDO)1.9%, Henk MUDGE (RP) 1.0%, other 2.0%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (104 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 8 nonvoting members appointed by the president) and the National Council, which primarily reviews legislation passed and referred by the National Assembly (26 seats (to be expanded to 42 in 2016); members indirectly elected 2 each by the 13 regional councils to serve 5-year terms)

elections: National Council - elections for regional councils to determine members of the National Council held on 27 November 2015 (next to be held in November 2020); National Assembly - last held on 28 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2019)

election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SWAPO 40, NUDO 1, DTA 1; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - SWAPO 80.0%, DTA 4.8%, RDP 3.5%, APP 2.3%, UDF 2.1%, NUDO 2.0%, CPN 1.5%, other 3.8%; seats by party - SWAPO 77, DTA 5, RDP 3, APP 2, UDF 2, NUDO 2, CPN 2, SWANU 1, UPM 1, RP 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 3 judges in quorum sessions) judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president of Namibia upon the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission; judges serve until age 65 but can be extended by the president until age 70

subordinate courts: High Court; Labor Court; regional and district magistrates' courts; community courts
Political parties and leaders: All People's Party or APP [Ignatius SHIXWAMENI] Communist Party of Namibia or CPN (formerly known as Workers' Revolutionary Party or WRP) [Attie BEUKES and Harry BOESAK] Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [McHenry VENAANI] National Unity Democratic Organization or NUDO [Asser MBAI] Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Jeremiah NAMBINGA] Republican Party or RP [Henk MUDGE] South West Africa National Union or SWANU [Usutuaije MAAMBERUA] South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Hage GEINGOB, acting president] United Democratic Front or UDF [Justus ||GAROEB] United People's Movement or UPM [Jan J. VAN WYK]
Political pressure groups and leaders: National Society for Human Rights or NAMRIGHTS The Affirmative Repositioning Movement or AR [Job AMUPANDA, Dimbulukweni NAUYOMA, George KAMBALA] other: various labor unions
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP (associate observer), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): oryx (antelope); national colors: blue, red, green, white, yellow
National anthem: name: "Namibia, Land of the Brave"
lyrics/music: Axali DOESEB

note: adopted 1991
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Martin ANDJABA (since 3 September 2010)
chancery: 1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 986-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 986-0443
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas Frederick DAUGHTON (since 6 October 2014)
embassy: 14 Lossen Street, Windhoek
mailing address: Private Bag 12029 Ausspannplatz, Windhoek
telephone: [264] (61) 295-8500
FAX: [264] (61) 295-8603
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 Economy
The economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for 11.5% of GDP, but provides more than 50% of foreign exchange earnings. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Marine diamond mining is increasingly important as the terrestrial diamond supply has dwindled. The rising cost of mining diamonds, increasingly from the sea, combined with increased diamond production in Russia and China, has reduced profit margins. Namibian authorities have emphasized the need to add value to raw materials, do more in-country manufacturing, and exploit the services market, especially in the logistics and transportation sectors. Namibia is the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. The Chinese owned Husab uranium mine in expected to start producing uranium ore in 2017. Once the Husab mine reaches full production, Namibia is expected to become the world’s second-largest producer of uranium. Namibia also produces large quantities of zinc and is a smaller producer of gold and copper. The mining and quarrying sectors employ 2% of the population. Namibia's economy remains vulnerable to world commodity price fluctuations, and drought. Namibia normally imports about 50% of its cereal requirements; in drought years food shortages can be a problem in rural areas. A high per capita GDP, relative to the region, hides one of the world's most unequal income distributions. A priority of the current government is poverty eradication. A five-year, Millennium Challenge Corporation compact ended in September 2014. As an upper middle income country, Namibia is ineligible for a second compact. The Namibian economy is closely linked to South Africa with the Namibian dollar pegged one-to-one to the South African rand. Namibia receives 30%-40% of its revenues from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU). Volatility in the size of Namibia's annual SACU allotment complicates budget planning.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $27.04 billion (2016 est.) $25.94 billion (2015 est.) $24.63 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $10.18 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.2% (2016 est.) 5.3% (2015 est.) 6.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $11,800 (2016 est.) $11,400 (2015 est.) $11,000 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 16.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 21.2% of GDP (2015 est.) 22.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 63.5%
government consumption: 26.5%
investment in fixed capital: 36.9%
investment in inventories: -1.6%
exports of goods and services: 45.8%
imports of goods and services: -71.1% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 63.5%
government consumption: 26.5%
investment in fixed capital: 36.9%
investment in inventories: -1.6%
exports of goods and services: 45.8%
imports of goods and services: -71.1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: millet, sorghum, peanuts, grapes; livestock; fish
Industries: meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, pasta, beverages; mining (diamonds, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)
Industrial production growth rate: 4.6% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 1.21 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 31%
industry: 14%
services: 54% note: about half of Namibia's people are unemployed while about two-thirds live in rural areas; roughly two-thirds of rural dwellers rely on subsistence agriculture (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate: 28.1% (2014 est.) 29.6% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line: 28.7% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 42% (2010)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 59.7 (2010) 70.7 (2003)
Budget: revenues: $3.818 billion
expenditures: $4.408 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 37.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 35.6% of GDP (2016 est.) 34.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.8% (2016 est.) 3.4% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.268 billion (2016 est.) -$1.489 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $4.185 billion (2016 est.) $4.015 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium; cattle, white fish and mollusks
Imports: $6.888 billion (2016 est.) $6.914 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs; petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.762 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.69 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $6.515 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $6.124 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $1.305 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.152 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $1.176 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: Namibian dollars (NAD) per US dollar - 16.15 (2016 est.) 12.7589 (2015 est.) 12.7589 (2014 est.) 10.8526 (2013 est.) 8.2 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 1.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 3.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 84 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 2.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 500,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 31.8% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 68.2% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 24,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 79.56 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 23,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 62.29 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 4 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 2.443 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (July 2012 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: good system; core fiber-optic network links most centers with digital connections

domestic: multiple mobile-cellular providers with a combined subscribership of about 110 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 264; fiber-optic cable to South Africa, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to the South African Far East submarine cable through South Africa; connected to the West Africa Cable Sy (2015)
Broadcast media: 1 private and 1 state-run TV station; satellite and cable TV service available; state-run radio service broadcasts in multiple languages; about a dozen private radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2007)
Internet country code: .na
Internet users: total: 493,000 percent of population: 22.3% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 112 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 19
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 93

1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 52
under 914 m: 16 (2013)
Railways: total 2,628 km

narrow gauge: 2,628 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 44,138 km
paved: 6,387 km
unpaved: 37,751 km (2010)
Merchant marine: total 1

by type: cargo 1 (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Luderitz, Walvis Bay
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 Military
Military branches: Namibian Defense Force (NDF): Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures: 4.2% of GDP (2015) 3.11% of GDP (2012) 3.38% of GDP (2011) 3.11% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River; Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
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