Malta Population: 415,196

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 History
Great Britain formally acquired Malta in 1814. The island staunchly supported the UK through both world wars and remained in the Commonwealth when it became independent in 1964; a decade later it declared itself a republic. Since about the mid-1980s, the island has transformed itself into a freight transshipment point, a financial center, and a tourist destination while its key industries moved toward more service-oriented activities. Malta became an EU member in May 2004 and began using the euro as currency in 2008.

 Geography
The country comprises an archipelago, with only the three largest islands (Malta, Ghawdex or Gozo, and Kemmuna or Comino) inhabited; numerous bays provide good harbors; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration
Location: Southern Europe, islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily (Italy)
Geographic coordinates: 35 50 N, 14 35 E
Area: total: 316 sq km
land: 316 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 196.8 km (excludes 56 km for the island of Gozo)
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive fishing zone: 25 nm
Climate: Mediterranean; mild, rainy winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain: mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal cliffs
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: limestone, salt, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 32.3% arable land 28.4%; permanent crops 3.9%; permanent pasture 0% forest: 0.9%
other: 66.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 35 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: limited natural freshwater resources; increasing reliance on desalination
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Maltese (singular and plural)
adjective: Maltese
Ethnic groups: Maltese (descendants of ancient Carthaginians and Phoenicians with strong elements of Italian and other Mediterranean stock)
Languages: Maltese (official) 90.1%, English (official) 6%, multilingual 3%, other 0.9% (2005 est.)
Religions: Roman Catholic (official) more than 90% (2011 est.)
Population: 415,196 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.01% (male 31,978/female 30,361)
15-24 years: 11.84% (male 25,276/female 23,890)
25-54 years: 40.1% (male 85,151/female 81,346)
55-64 years: 13.98% (male 28,797/female 29,251)
65 years and over: 19.06% (male 35,614/female 43,532) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 50.8%
youth dependency ratio: 21.8%
elderly dependency ratio: 29%
potential support ratio: 3.4% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 41.5 years
male: 40.4 years
female: 42.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.29% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 10.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 95.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.46% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: VALLETTA (capital) 197,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 26.9 note: data refer to the average of the different childbearing ages of first-order births (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 9 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.4 years male: 78 years
female: 82.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.55 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 9.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 3.49 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density: 4.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 28.7% (2014)
Education expenditures: 8.3% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.4%
male: 93.1%
female: 95.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years male: 15 years
female: 14 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 11.8% male: 13.8%
female: 9.6% (2014 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Malta
conventional short form: Malta
local long form: Repubblika ta' Malta
local short form: Malta
etymology: the ancient Greeks called the island "Melite" meaning "honey-sweet" from the Greek word "meli" meaning "honey" and referring to the island's honey production
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Valletta
geographic coordinates: 35 53 N, 14 30 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 68 localities (Il-lokalita); Attard, Balzan, Birgu, Birkirkara, Birzebbuga, Bormla, Dingli, Fgura, Floriana, Fontana, Ghajnsielem, Gharb, Gharghur, Ghasri, Ghaxaq, Gudja, Gzira, Hamrun, Iklin, Imdina, Imgarr, Imqabba, Imsida, Imtarfa, Isla, Kalkara, Kercem, Kirkop, Lija, Luqa, Marsa, Marsaskala, Marsaxlokk, Mellieha, Mosta, Munxar, Nadur, Naxxar, Paola, Pembroke, Pieta, Qala, Qormi, Qrendi, Rabat, Rabat (Ghawdex), Safi, San Giljan/Saint Julian, San Gwann/Saint John, San Lawrenz/Saint Lawrence, Sannat, San Pawl il-Bahar/Saint Paul's Bay, Santa Lucija/Saint Lucia, Santa Venera/Saint Venera, Siggiewi, Sliema, Swieqi, Tarxien, Ta' Xbiex, Valletta, Xaghra, Xewkija, Xghajra, Zabbar, Zebbug, Zebbug (Ghawdex), Zejtun, Zurrieq
Independence: 21 September 1964 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1964); Republic Day, 13 December (1974)
Constitution: history: many previous; latest adopted 21 September 1964 amendments: proposals (Acts of Parliament) require at least two-thirds majority vote by the House of Representatives; passage of "Acts" requires majority vote by referendum, followed by final majority vote by the House of Representatives and assent by the president of the republic; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law and civil law (based on the Roman and Napoleonic civil codes)
Suffrage: 18 years of age (16 in local council elections); universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Marie-Louise Coleiro PRECA (since 4 April 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Joseph MUSCAT (since 11 March 2013)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the House of Representatives for a 5-year term (1-term limit); election last held on 4 April 2014 (next to be held by April 2019); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president for a 5-year term; deputy prime minister appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

election results: Marie-Louise Coleiro PRECA (PL) elected president; House of Representatives vote - unanimous; Joseph MUSCAT (PL) appointed prime minister
Legislative branch: description: unicameral House of Representatives or Il-Kamra Tad-Deputati, a component of the Parliament of Malta (normally 65 seats, but can include at-large members; members directly elected in 5 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the parliament elected in 2013 has 69 seats

elections: last held on 9 March 2013 (next to be held by mid-summer 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - PL 54.8%, PN 43.3%, other 1.9%; seats by party - PL 39, PN 30
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of either 1 or 3 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 3 judges); Court of Criminal Appeal (consists of either 1 or 3 judges) judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president, usually upon the advice of the prime minister; judges of both courts serve until age 65

subordinate courts: Civil Court (divided into the General Jurisdiction Section, Family Section, and Voluntary Section); Criminal Court; Court of Magistrates; Gozo Courts (for the islands of Gozo and Comino}
Political parties and leaders: Alternattiva Demokratika or AD (Green Party) [Arnold CASSOLA] Labor Party or PL [Joseph MUSCAT] Nationalist Party or PN [Simon BUSUTTIL]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Alliance of Liberal Democrats Malta (Alleanza Liberali-Demokratika Malta) or ALDM (for divorce, abortion, gay marriage, women's rights) Alliance for Change (Alleanza Bidla) (Euros-septic) Together for a Better Environment (Flimkien Ghal-Ambjent Ahjar) or FAA (pro-environment) other: environmentalists
International organization participation: Australia Group, C, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Maltese eight-pointed cross; national colors: red, white
National anthem: name: "L-Innu Malti" (The Maltese Anthem)
lyrics/music: Dun Karm PSAILA/Robert SAMMUT

note: adopted 1945; written in the form of a prayer
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Pierre Clive AGIUS (since 2 March 2016)
chancery: 2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-3611 through 3612
FAX: [1] (202) 387-5470
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador G. Kathleen HILL (since 25 February 2016)
embassy: Ta' Qali National Park, Attard, ATD 4000
mailing address: 5800 Valletta Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [356] 2561 4000
FAX: [356] 2124 3229
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 Economy
Malta - the smallest economy in the euro zone - produces only about 20% of its food needs, has limited fresh water supplies, and has few domestic energy sources. Malta's economy is dependent on foreign trade, manufacturing, and tourism. Malta joined the EU in 2004 and adopted the euro on 1 January 2008. Malta has weathered the euro-zone crisis better than most EU member states due to a low debt-to-GDP ratio and financially sound banking sector. It has low unemployment relative to other European countries, and growth has recovered since the 2009 recession. In 2014 and 2015, Malta led the euro zone in growth, expanding by nearly 3.5% each year. Malta’s services sector continued to grow in 2015, with noted increases in the financial services and online gaming sectors. Malta continues to enhance its regulation of the financial services sector, and passed additional legislation in 2014 and 2015 to improve anti-money laundering oversight for financial and gaming activities. Expanding EU discussions of anti-tax avoidance measures, including the “Anti-Tax Avoidance Package” submitted in early 2016, have raised concerns among Malta’s financial services and insurance providers about passage of laws governing EU tax practices, which could have a significant impact on those sectors. Malta’s 2015 GDP growth was bolstered by energy infrastructure investments, and revenue growth is expected to continue, supported by a strong labor market and proceeds from a citizenship by investment program equal to roughly 0.9% of GDP. Malta's geographic position between Europe and North Africa makes it a route for irregular migration. Historically, Malta's fertility rate has been below the EU average, and population growth in recent years has been largely from immigration, increasing pressure on the pension system. The government has implemented new programs, including free childcare, to encourage increased labor participation. The high cost of borrowing and small labor market remain potential constraints to future economic growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $16.32 billion (2016 est.) $15.68 billion (2015 est.) $14.77 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $10.46 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.1% (2016 est.) 6.2% (2015 est.) 3.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $37,900 (2016 est.) $36,500 (2015 est.) $34,700 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 31.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 34.7% of GDP (2015 est.) 21.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 52.4%
government consumption: 19.5%
investment in fixed capital: 24.6%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 135.6%
imports of goods and services: -132.5% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 52.4%
government consumption: 19.5%
investment in fixed capital: 24.6%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 135.6%
imports of goods and services: -132.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat, barley, tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green peppers; pork, milk, poultry, eggs
Industries: tourism, electronics, ship building and repair, construction, food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, footwear, clothing, tobacco, aviation services, financial services, information technology services
Industrial production growth rate: 5.9% (2015)
Labor force: 201,600 (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 1.7%
industry: 18.3%
services: 80% (2015)
Unemployment rate: 4.6% (2016 est.) 5.4% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 15.9% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 27.7 (2014) 27.9 (2013)
Budget: revenues: $4.288 billion
expenditures: $4.401 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 41% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 62.6% of GDP (2016 est.) 63.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: Malta reports public debt at nominal value outstanding at the end of the year, according to guidelines set out in the Maastricht Treaty for general government gross debt; the data include the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in E
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (2016 est.) 1.1% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: $653 million (2016 est.) $962 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $2.915 billion (2016 est.) $2.956 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and mechanical appliances; mineral fuels, oils and petroleum products; pharmaceutical products; books and newspapers; aircraft/spacecraft and parts; toys, games, and sports equipment
Exports - partners: Germany 13.3%, France 10.2%, Hong Kong 7.4%, Singapore 7.3%, UK 6.4%, US 5.8%, Italy 5.6%, Japan 4.7% (2015)
Imports: $4.479 billion (2016 est.) $4.603 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: mineral fuels, oils and products; electrical machinery; aircraft/spacecraft and parts thereof; machinery and mechanical appliances; plastic and other semi-manufactured goods; vehicles and parts
Imports - partners: Italy 23%, Netherlands 8.4%, UK 7.5%, Germany 6.8%, Canada 6.1%, China 4.1%, France 4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $537.7 million (31 December 2016 est.) $571.7 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $97.35 billion (31 March 2016 est.) $104.4 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $164.4 billion (30 June 2015 est.) $158.7 billion (December 31, 2014 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $69.09 billion (31 June 2015 est.) $67.32 billion (30 December 2014 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $4.405 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $3.642 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $4.249 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.9214 (2016 est.) 0.885 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.) 0.78 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 2.17 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 620,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 91.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 8.3% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 41,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 2,930 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 44,840 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 1.457 million Mt (2014 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 558,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 135 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: automatic system featuring submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 190 per 100 persons

international: country code - 356; submarine cable connects to Italy; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: 2 publicly owned TV stations, Television Malta broadcasting nationally plus an educational channel; several privately owned national television stations, two of which are owned by political parties; Italian and British broadcast programs are available; mu (2016)
Internet country code: .mt
Internet users: total: 315,000 percent of population: 76.2% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 1 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Roadways: total 3,096 km
paved: 2,704 km
unpaved: 392 km (2008)
Merchant marine: total 1,650

by type: bulk carrier 544, cargo 351, carrier 1, chemical tanker 324, container 117, liquefied gas 36, passenger 50, passenger/cargo 18, petroleum tanker 160, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 22, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 18

foreign-owned: 1,437 (Angola 7, Azerbaijan 1, Belgium 7, Bermuda 15, Bulgaria 8, Canada 5, China 6, Croatia 6, Cyprus 32, Denmark 34, Egypt 1, Estonia 16, Finland 3, France 8, Germany 135, Greece 469, Hong Kong 4, India 3, Iran 48, Ireland 4, Israel 3, Italy 45, Japan 5, Kuw

registered in other countries: 2 (Panama 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Marsaxlokk (Malta Freeport), Valletta container port(s) (TEUs): Marsaxlokk (2,360,000)
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 Military
Military branches: Armed Forces of Malta (AFM; includes land, maritime, and air elements) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2014)
Military expenditures: 0.61% of GDP (2013) 0.61% of GDP (2012) 0.61% of GDP (2011) 0.61% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Western Europe
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