Malta Population: 411,277

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 History
Great Britain formally acquired possession of Malta in 1814. The island staunchly supported the UK through both world wars and remained in the Commonwealth when it became independent in 1964. A decade later Malta became a republic. Since about the mid-1980s, the island has transformed itself into a freight transshipment point, a financial center, and a tourist destination. Malta became an EU member in May 2004 and began using the euro as currency in 2008.

 Geography
The country comprises an archipelago, with only the three largest islands (Malta, Ghawdex or Gozo, and Kemmuna or Comino) being inhabited; numerous bays provide good harbors; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration
Location: Southern Europe, islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily (Italy)
Geographic coordinates: 35 50 N, 14 35 E
Area: total: 316 sq km
land: 316 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 196.8 km (excludes 56 km for the island of Gozo)
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive fishing zone: 25 nm
Climate: Mediterranean; mild, rainy winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain: mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal cliffs
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Ta'Dmejrek 253 m (near Dingli)
Natural resources: limestone, salt, arable land
Land use: arable land: 28.12%
permanent crops: 4.06%
other: 67.81% (2011)
Irrigated land: 32 sq km (2007)
Current Environment Issues: limited natural freshwater resources; increasing reliance on desalination
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Maltese (singular and plural)
adjective: Maltese
Ethnic groups: Maltese (descendants of ancient Carthaginians and Phoenicians with strong elements of Italian and other Mediterranean stock)
Languages: Maltese (official) 90.2%, English (official) 6%, multilingual 3%, other 0.8% (2005 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic (official) 98%
Population: 411,277 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.3% (male 32,126/female 30,603)
15-24 years: 12.9% (male 27,284/female 25,771)
25-54 years: 40.5% (male 85,066/female 81,672)
55-64 years: 14.1% (male 28,853/female 29,104)
65 years and over: 17.2% (male 31,397/female 39,401) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 44.9 %
youth dependency ratio: 21.3 %
elderly dependency ratio: 23.6 %
potential support ratio: 4.2 (2013)
Median age: total: 40.5 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 41.8 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.34% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 10.27 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 8.84 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 1.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 95% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: VALLETTA (capital) 199,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 26.5 (2008 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 8 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.62 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.04 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.98 years
male: 77.69 years
female: 82.41 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.53 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 85.8% note: percent of women aged 20-45 (1993)
Health expenditures: 8.7% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 3.07 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 4.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 28.8% (2008)
Education expenditures: 5.4% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.4%
male: 91.2%
female: 93.5% (2005 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 13.9%
male: 13.8%
female: 14% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Malta
conventional short form: Malta
local long form: Repubblika ta' Malta
local short form: Malta
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Valletta
geographic coordinates: 35 53 N, 14 30 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 68 localities (Il-lokalita); Attard, Balzan, Birgu, Birkirkara, Birzebbuga, Bormla, Dingli, Fgura, Floriana, Fontana, Ghajnsielem, Gharb, Gharghur, Ghasri Ghaxaq, Gudja, Gzira, Hamrun, Iklin, Imdina, Imgarr, Imqabba, Imsida, Imtarfa, Isla, Kalkara, Kercem, Kirkop, Lija, Luqa, Marsa, Marsaskala, Marsaxlokk, Mellieha, Mosta, Munxar, Nadur, Naxxar, Paola, Pembroke, Pieta, Qala, Qormi, Qrendi, Rabat, Rabat (Ghawdex), Safi, San Giljan/Saint Julian, San Gwann/Saint John, San Lawrenz/Saint Lawrence, Sannat, San Pawl il-Bahar/Saint Paul's Bay, Santa Lucija/Saint Lucia, Santa Venera/Saint Venera, Siggiewi, Sliema, Swieqi, Tarxien, Ta' Xbiex, Valletta, Xaghra, Xewkija, Xghajra, Zabbar, Zebbug, Zebbug (Ghawdex), Zejtun, Zurrieq
Independence: 21 September 1964 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1964); Republic Day, 13 December (1974)
Constitution: 1964; amended many times
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law and civil law (based on the Roman and Napoleonic civil codes)
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President George ABELA (since 4 April 2009)

head of government: Prime Minister Joseph MUSCAT (since 11 March 2013)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by a resolution of the House of Representatives for a five-year term; election last held on 12 January 2009 (next to be held by April 2014); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president for a five-year term; the deputy prime minister appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

election results: George ABELA elected president by the House of Representatives
Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (normally 65 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation by the Single Transferrable Vote (STV) to serve five-year terms; note - the parliament elected in 2013 is composed of 69 seats; when the political party winning an absolute majority of first-count votes (or a plurality of first-count votes in an election where only two parties are represented in parliament) does not win an absolute majority of seats, the constitution provides for the winning party to be awarded additional number of seats in parliament to guarantee it an absolute majority; in the event that more than two parties are represented in parliament, with none acquiring the absolute majority of votes, the party winning the majority of seats prevails

elections: last held on 9 March 2013 (next to be held by March 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - PN 54.8%, PL 43.3%, other 1.9%; seats by party - PN 39, PL 30
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of 7 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 3 judges) judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president, usually upon the advice of the prime minister; judges of both courts serve until age 65

subordinate courts: Court of Criminal Appeal; Civil Court (divided into the General Jurisdiction Section, Family Section, and Voluntary Section); Criminal Court; Court of Magistrates; Gozo Courts (for the islands of Gozo and Comino
Political parties and leaders: Alternativa Demokratika/Alliance for Social Justice or AD (Green Party) [Michael BRIGUGLIO] Labor Party or PL [Joseph MUSCAT] Nationalist Party or PN [Lawrence GONZI]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Alliance of Liberal Democrats Malta (Alleanza Liberali-Demokratika Malta) of ALDM (for divorce, abortion, gay marriage, women's rights) Together for a Better Environment (Flimkien Ghal-Ambjent Ahjar) or FAA (pro-environment) other: environmentalists
International organization participation: Australia Group, C, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Maltese cross
National anthem: name: "L-Innu Malti" (The Maltese Anthem)
lyrics/music: Dun Karm PSAILA/Robert SAMMUT

note: adopted 1945; the anthem is written in the form of a prayer
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph COLE
chancery: 2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-3611 through 3612
FAX: [1] (202) 387-5470 consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gina ABERCROMBIE-WINSTANLEY
embassy: Ta' Qali National Park, Attard, ATD 4000
mailing address: 5800 Valetta Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [356] 2561 4000
FAX: [356] 2124 3229
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 Economy
Malta - the smallest economy in the euro zone - produces only about 20% of its food needs, has limited fresh water supplies, and has few domestic energy sources. Malta's geographic position between Europe and North Africa makes it a target for irregular migration, which has strained Malta's political and economic resources. Malta''s fertility rate is below the EU average, and population growth in recent years has largely been from immigration, putting increasing pressure on the pension system. Malta adopted the euro on 1 January 2008. Malta''s economy is dependent on foreign trade, manufacturing, and tourism, and was hurt by the global economic downturn. Malta has low unemployment relative to other European countries, and growth has recovered since the 2009 recession. Malta''s financial services industry has grown in recent years and it has avoided contagion from the European financial crisis, largely because its debt is mostly held domestically and its banks have low exposure to the sovereign debt of peripheral European countries. Malta reduced its deficit below 3 percent of GDP, leading the EU to dismiss its official excessive deficit procedure against Malta in 2012.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $11.45 billion (2012 est.) $11.35 billion (2011 est.) $11.16 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $8.689 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.8% (2012 est.) 1.7% (2011 est.) 2.9% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $27,500 (2012 est.) $27,300 (2011 est.) $26,900 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 12.7% of GDP (2012 est.) 12.8% of GDP (2011 est.) 12% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 60.4%
government consumption: 21.5%
investment in fixed capital: 14.6%
investment in inventories: -2.2%
exports of goods and services: 101.9%
imports of goods and services: -96.1% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 60.4%
government consumption: 21.5%
investment in fixed capital: 14.6%
investment in inventories: -2.2%
exports of goods and services: 101.9%
imports of goods and services: -96.1% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat, barley, tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green peppers; pork, milk, poultry, eggs
Industries: tourism, electronics, ship building and repair, construction, food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, footwear, clothing, tobacco, aviation services, financial services, information technology services
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Labor force: 184,500 (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 1.5%
industry: 24.7%
services: 73.9% (2011)
Unemployment rate: 6.4% (2012 est.) 6.4% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 15.4% (2011)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 27.4 (2011) 26 (2007)
Budget: revenues: $3.52 billion
expenditures: $3.81 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 40.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 72.1% of GDP (2012 est.) 70.3% of GDP (2011 est.)

note: Malta reports public debt at nominal value outstanding at the end of the year, according to guidelines set out in the Maastricht Treaty for general government gross debt; the data include the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); general government comprises the central government, state government, local government and social security funds
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2012 est.) 2.7% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$221.2 million (2012 est.) -$268.8 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $4.044 billion (2012 est.) $4.139 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and mechanical appliances; mineral fuels, oils and products; pharmaceutical products; printed books and newspapers; aircraft/spacecraft and parts; toys, games, and sports equipment
Exports - partners: Germany 14.6%, France 9.9%, Italy 6.8%, Libya 5.5%, UK 5% (2012)
Imports: $5.368 billion (2012 est.) $5.576 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: mineral fuels, oils and products; electrical machinery; aircraft/spacecraft and parts thereof; machinery and mechanical appliances; plastic and other semi-manufactured goods; vehicles and parts thereof
Imports - partners: Italy 39.6%, France 6.9%, UK 6.9%, Germany 5.3% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $704.9 million (31 December 2012 est.) $515.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $45.77 billion (31 December 2012) $43.16 billion (31 December 2011)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $17.25 billion (31 December 2010) $9.019 billion (31 December 2009)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $1.213 billion (2010 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $3.424 billion (31 December 2011) $2.399 billion (31 December 2010) $1.982 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7778 (2012 est.) 0.7185 (2011 est.) 0.755 (2010 est.) 0.7198 (2009 est.) 0.6827 (2008 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 2.168 billion kWh (2011) country comparison to the world: 133
Electricity - consumption: 1.991 billion kWh (2010)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 573,000 kW (2010 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 99.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 19,520 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: NA (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 47,050 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 3.114 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 232,300 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 126
Cellular Phones in use: 521,700 (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: automatic system featuring submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 180 per 100 persons

international: country code - 356; submarine cable connects to Italy; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media: 2 publicly owned TV stations, Television Malta (TVM) broadcasting nationally plus an educational channel; several privately owned national television stations, two of which are owned by political parties; Italian and British broadcast programs are available; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services are available; publicly owned radio broadcaster operates 1 station; roughly 20 commercial radio stations (2011)
Internet country code: .mt
Internet hosts: 14,754 (2012)
Internet users: 240,600 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 1 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 226
Airports (paved runways): total 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Roadways: total 3,096 km
paved: 2,710 km
unpaved: 386 km (2005)
Merchant marine: total 1,650

by type: bulk carrier 544, cargo 351, carrier 1, chemical tanker 324, container 117, liquefied gas 36, passenger 50, passenger/cargo 18, petroleum tanker 160, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 22, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 18

foreign-owned: 1,437 (Angola 7, Azerbaijan 1, Belgium 7, Bermuda 15, Bulgaria 8, Canada 5, China 6, Croatia 6, Cyprus 32, Denmark 34, Egypt 1, Estonia 16, Finland 3, France 8, Germany 135, Greece 469, Hong Kong 4, India 3, Iran 48, Ireland 4, Israel 3, Italy 45, Japan 5, Kuwait 3, Latvia 8, Lebanon 6, Libya 5, Luxembourg 3, Malaysia 1, Monaco 3, Netherlands 3, Norway 96, Oman 5, Poland 21, Portugal 3, Romania 7, Russia 45, Saudi Arabia 2, Singapore 4, Slovenia 4, South Korea 2, Spain 8, Sweden 1, Switzerland 20, Syria 4, Turkey 233, UAE 1, UK 21, Ukraine 29, US 34)

registered in other countries: 2 (Panama 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaports: Marsaxlokk (Malta Freeport), Valletta
container ports (TEUs): Marsaxlokk (2,360,000)
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 Military
Military branches: Armed Forces of Malta (AFM; includes land, maritime, and air elements) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 17 years 6 months of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2013)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 95,499
females age 16-49: 90,919 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 79,645
females age 16-49: 75,684 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 2,554
female: 2,385 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 0% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 5,041 Somalia (2012)
Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Western Europe
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