Macedonia Population: 2,087,171

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 Background
Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991. Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, but the issue of the name remained unresolved and negotiations for a solution are ongoing. Since 2004, the United States and over 130 other nations have recognized Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia. Some ethnic Albanians, angered by perceived political and economic inequities, launched an insurgency in 2001 that eventually won the support of the majority of Macedonia's ethnic Albanian population and led to the internationally brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting and established guidelines for the creation of new laws that enhanced the rights of minorities. Fully implementing the Framework Agreement, maintaining momentum on democratic reforms, and stimulating economic growth and development continue to be challenges for Macedonia, although progress has been made over the past several years.

 Geography
Landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Geographic coordinates: 41 50 N, 22 00 E
Area: total: 25,713 sq km land: 25,433 sq km water: 280 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Vermont
Land Boundaries: total: 766 km border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Kosovo 159 km, Serbia 62 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Vardar River 50 m highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
Natural resources: low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
Land use: arable land: 16.1% permanent crops: 1.36% other: 82.54% (2011)
Irrigated land: 1,278 sq km (2004)
Natural hazards: high seismic risks
Current Environment Issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Macedonian(s) adjective: Macedonian
Ethnic groups: Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma (Gypsy) 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)
Languages: Macedonian (official) 66.5%, Albanian (official) 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)
Religions: Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.37%, other and unspecified 1.63% (2002 census)
Population: 2,087,171 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.9% (male 193,507/female 180,157) 15-24 years: 14.3% (male 154,084/female 144,908) 25-54 years: 43.8% (male 463,282/female 450,261) 55-64 years: 11.9% (male 121,097/female 127,742) 65 years and over: 12.1% (male 108,324/female 143,809) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 40.9 % youth dependency ratio: 23.5 % elderly dependency ratio: 17.4 % potential support ratio: 5.7 (2013)
Median age: total: 36.5 years
male: 35.4 years female: 37.6 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.22% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 11.72 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 59% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 0.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: SKOPJE (capital) 480,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.08 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 26 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 10 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 8.11 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.35 deaths/1,000 live births female: 7.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.58 years
male: 73.03 years female: 78.33 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.59 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Health expenditures: 7.1% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 2.55 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Hospital bed density: 4.5 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved: urban: 100% of population rural: 99% of population total: 100% of population unimproved: urban: 0% of population rural: 1% of population total: 0% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved: urban: 92% of population rural: 82% of population total: 88% of population unimproved: urban: 8% of population rural: 18% of population total: 12% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: fewer than 200 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2003 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 21.1% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 1.8% (2005)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.4% male: 98.7% female: 96% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years
male: 13 years female: 14 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 55.3%
male: 55.7% female: 54.8% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia conventional short form: Macedonia local long form: Republika Makedonija local short form: Makedonija note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM) former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Skopje geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 71 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Caska, Centar Zupa, Cesinovo-Oblesevo, Cucer Sandevo, Debar, Debarca, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Grad Skopje, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rostusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vrapciste, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
Independence: 8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)
National holiday: Independence Day, 8 September (1991); also known as National Day
Constitution: adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended November 2001, 2005, and in 2009 note: amended November 2001 by a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights, in 2005 with amendments related to the judiciary, and in 2009 with amendments related to the threshold required to elect the president
Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Gjorge IVANOV (since 12 May 2009) head of government: Prime Minister Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 26 August 2006) cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO-DPMNE, BDI, and several small parties (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); two-round election: first round held on 22 March 2009, second round held on 5 April 2009 (next to be held in March 2014); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections; the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister election results: Gjorge IVANOV elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Gjorge IVANOV 63.1%, Ljubomir FRCKOSKI 36.9%
Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (123 seats; all members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain in each of six electoral and three diaspora districts; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held on 5 June 2011 (next to be held by June 2015) election results: percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE-led block 39%, SDSM-led block 32.8%, BDI 10.2%, PDSh 5.9%, other 12.1%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE-led block 56, SDSM-led block 42, BDI 15, PDSh 8, RDK 2
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consist of NA judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Council, a 7-member body of legal professionals, and appointed by the Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the legislature for nonrenewable, 9-year terms subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Basic Courts
Political parties and leaders: Albanian Democratic Union or BDSh [Bardhyl MAHMUTI] Democratic League of Bosniaks in Macedonia [Rafet MUMINOVIC] Democratic Party of Serbs in Macedonia or DPSM [Ivan STOILJKOVIC] Democratic Party of the Albanians or PDSh [Menduh THACI] Democratic Party of Turks of Macedonia or DPTM [Kenan HASIPI] Democratic Renewal of Macedonia or DOM [Liljana POPOVSKA] Democratic Union or DS [Pavle TRAJANOV] Democratic Union for Integration or BDI [Ali AHMETI] Dosoinstvo (Diginity) [Stojance ANGELOV] Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI] Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - People's Party or VMRO-NP [Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI] Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Andrej ZENOVSKI] Liberal Party of Macedonia or LP [Ivon VELICKOVSKI] Movement for Turkish National Union [Erdogan SARAC] National Democratic Revival or RDK [Rufi OSMANI] New Democracy or ND [Imer SELMANI] New Social-Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI] Party for Democratic Action of Macedonia or SDA [Avdija PEPIC] Party for the Total Emancipation of Roma or PCER [Samka IBRAIMOVSKI] Party of United Democrats of Macedonia or PODEM [Zivko JANKULOVSKI] Party on European Future or PEI [Fijat CANOSKI] Serbian Progressive Party in Macedonia or SPSM [Dragisha MILETIC] Social Democratic Union of Macedonia or SDSM [Branko CRVENKOVSKI] Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVNAOV DZINGO] Union of Roma of Macedonia or SR [Amdi BAJRAM] United for Macedonia or OM [Ljube BOSKOSKI]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Federation of Free Trade Unions [Mirjana ANDREVSKA] Federation of Trade Unions [Zivko MITREVSKI] Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture [Jakim NEDELKOV]
International organization participation: BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): eight-rayed sun
National anthem: name: "Denes Nad Makedonija" (Today Over Macedonia) lyrics/music: Vlado MALESKI/Todor SKALOVSKI note: adopted 1991; the song, written in 1943, previously served as the anthem of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia while part of Yugoslavia
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Zoran JOLEVSKI chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501 FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131 consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York, Southfield (MI)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Paul D. WOHLERS embassy: Str. Samolilova, Nr. 21, 1000 Skopje mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch) telephone: [389] (2) 310-2000 FAX: [389] (2) 310-2499
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 Economy
Macedonia is vulnerable to economic developments in Europe - due to strong trade ties - and dependent on regional integration and progress toward EU membership for continued economic growth. At independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the central government and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on the downsized Yugoslavia, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. Since then, Macedonia has maintained macroeconomic stability with low inflation, but it has so far lagged the region in attracting foreign investment and creating jobs, despite making extensive fiscal and business sector reforms. Official unemployment has remained consistently high at more than 31% since 2008, but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be between 20% and 45% of GDP, that is not captured by official statistics. In the wake of the global economic downturn, Macedonia has experienced decreased foreign direct investment and a large trade deficit. However, as a result of conservative fiscal policies and a sound financial system, in 2010 the country credit rating improved slightly to BB+ and was kept at that level in 2011-12. However, macroeconomic stability has been maintained by a prudent monetary policy, which keeps the domestic currency pegged against the euro. As a result, GDP growth was modest, but positive at about 3% both in 2010 and 2011, and inflation was under control. The government loosened fiscal policy in 2012 and the budget deficit expanded to 3.5% of GDP.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $22.22 billion (2012 est.) $22.28 billion (2011 est.) $21.66 billion (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars; Macedonia has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $9.676 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -0.3% (2012 est.) 2.9% (2011 est.) 2.9% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $10,800 (2012 est.) $10,800 (2011 est.) $10,500 (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 24.2% of GDP (2012 est.) 24.5% of GDP (2011 est.) 23.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 75.3% government consumption: 18.2% investment in fixed capital: 21.8% investment in inventories: 7% exports of goods and services: 52.9% imports of goods and services: -75.1% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 75.3% government consumption: 18.2% investment in fixed capital: 21.8% investment in inventories: 7% exports of goods and services: 52.9% imports of goods and services: -75.1% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: grapes, tobacco, vegetables, fruits; milk, eggs
Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate: -2.5% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 936,000 (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 16.7% industry: 26% services: 57.3% (September 2012)
Unemployment rate: 31.3% (2012 est.) 31.4% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 30.4% (2011)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.2% highest 10%: 34.5% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 43.2 (2009) 39 (2003)
Budget: revenues: $2.883 billion expenditures: $3.254 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 29.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 33.8% of GDP (2012 est.) 27.8% of GDP (2011 est.) note: official data from Ministry of Finance; data cover central government debt; this data excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; includes treasury debt held by foreign entitites; excludes debt issued by sub-national entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; there are no debt instruments sold for social funds
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (2012 est.) 3.9% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$323 million (2012 est.) -$273.5 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $4.064 billion (2012 est.) $4.429 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: food, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron, steel; automotive parts
Exports - partners: Germany 25.5%, Italy 6.1%, Bulgaria 5.2%, Greece 4.5% (2012)
Imports: $6.229 billion (2012 est.) $6.759 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
Imports - partners: Greece 17.7%, Germany 11.5%, UK 9.3%, Bulgaria 8.7%, Italy 5%, Turkey 4.8% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.891 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $2.677 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $6.807 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $6.271 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $4.284 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $4.229 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $564 million (31 December 2009 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $2.423 billion (31 December 2012) $2.495 billion (31 December 2011) $2.647 billion (31 December 2010)
Exchange rates: Macedonian denars (MKD) per US dollar - 47.89 (2012 est.) 44.231 (2011 est.) 46.485 (2010 est.) 44.1 (2009) 41.414 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 5.81 billion kWh (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 111
Electricity - consumption: 7.25 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - exports: 12.82 million kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - imports: 2.692 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.94 million kW (2012 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 65.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 34.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2012)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2012)
Crude oil - imports: 18,800 bbl/day (2012)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 21,280 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 17,490 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 8,594 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 21,530 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2012)
Natural gas - consumption: 136.6 million cu m (2011)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2012)
Natural gas - imports: 136.6 million cu m (2012)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 8.231 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 422,100 (2011) country comparison to the world: 104
Cellular Phones in use: 2.213 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: competition from the mobile-cellular segment of the telecommunications market has led to a drop in fixed-line telephone subscriptions domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership about 130 per 100 persons international: country code - 389 (2012)
Broadcast media: public TV broadcaster operates 3 national channels and a satellite network; 5 privately owned TV channels broadcast nationally using terrestrial transmitters and about 15 broadcast on national level via satellite; roughly 75 local commercial TV stations; large number of cable operators offering domestic and international programming; public radio broadcaster operates over multiple stations; 3 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationally; about 70 local commercial radio stations (2012)
Internet country code: .mk
Internet hosts: 62,826 (2012)
Internet users: 1.057 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 10 (2013) country comparison to the world: 155
Airports (paved runways): total 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2013)
Railways: total 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (234 km electrified) (2010)
Roadways: total 13,736 km
(includes 216 km of expressways) (2010)
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 Military
Military branches: Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM; includes General Staff and subordinate Joint Operational Command, Training and Doctrine Command, Special Operations Regiment) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2008 (2013)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 532,196 females age 16-49: 511,964 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 443,843 females age 16-49: 426,251 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 16,144 female: 14,920 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 6% of GDP (2005 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
Refugees and internally displaced persons: stateless persons: 905 (2012)
Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement
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