Madagascar Population: 22,599,098


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Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1896 but regained independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner. RAVALOMANANA achieved a second term following a landslide victory in the generally free and fair presidential elections of 2006. In early 2009, protests over increasing restrictions on opposition press and activities resulted in RAVALOMANANA handing over power to the military, which then conferred the presidency on the mayor of Antananarivo, Andry RAJOELINA, in what amounted to a coup d'etat. Numerous attempts have been made by regional and international organizations to resolve the subsequent political gridlock by forming a power-sharing government. Madagascar's independent electoral commission and the UN originally planned to hold a presidential election in early May 2013, but postponed the election until late July 2013, due to logistical delays.

World's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel
Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 47 00 E
Area: total: 587,041 sq km
land: 581,540 sq km
water: 5,501 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 4,828 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobath
Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, rare earth elements, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 5.96%
permanent crops: 1.02%
other: 93.02% (2011)
Irrigated land: 10,860 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: periodic cyclones; drought; and locust infestation volcanism: Madagascar's volcanoes have not erupted in historical times
Current Environment Issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several endangered species of flora and fauna unique to the island
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
adjective: Malagasy
Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official), English
Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%
Population: 22,599,098 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.1% (male 4,678,675/female 4,599,636)
15-24 years: 20.6% (male 2,332,608/female 2,323,409)
25-54 years: 31.1% (male 3,514,600/female 3,507,724)
55-64 years: 4.1% (male 445,159/female 485,846)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 322,706/female 388,735) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 82.5 %
youth dependency ratio: 77.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1 %
potential support ratio: 19.5 (2013)
Median age: total: 19 years
male: 18.8 years
female: 19.2 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.65% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 33.58 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 32.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 4.73% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: ANTANANARIVO (capital) 1.816 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.5 note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2009 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 240 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 46.13 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 50.17 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.85 years
male: 63.45 years
female: 66.29 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.36 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 39.9% (2008/09)
Health expenditures: 3.8% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density: 0.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 74% of population
rural: 34% of population
total: 46% of population

urban: 26% of population
rural: 66% of population
total: 54% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 21% of population
rural: 12% of population
total: 15% of population

urban: 79% of population
rural: 88% of population
total: 85% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 24,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,700 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 1.6% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 36.8% (2004)
Education expenditures: 2.8% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 64.5%
male: 67.4%
female: 61.6% (2009 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 10 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2009)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 2.3%
male: 1.7%
female: 2.8% (2005)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
conventional short form: Madagascar
local long form: Republique de Madagascar/Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
local short form: Madagascar/Madagasikara
former: Malagasy Republic
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Antananarivo
geographic coordinates: 18 55 S, 47 31 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
Constitution: passed by referendum 17 November 2010; promulgated 11 December 2010 (2010)
Legal system: civil law system based on the old French civil code and customary law in matters of marriage, family, and obligation
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Andry Nirina RAJOELINA (since 18 March 2009)

head of government: Prime Minister Jean Omer BERIZIKY (since 2 November 2011)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 December 2006 (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president; note - a power-sharing agreement concluded in September 2011 established conditions for general elections, expected toward the end of 2013 after repeated delays

election results: percent of vote - Marc RAVALOMANANA 54.8%, Jean LAHINIRIKO 11.7%, Roland RATSIRAKA 10.1%, Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO 9.1%, Norbert RATSIRAHONANA 4.2%, Ny Hasina ANDRIAMANJATO 4.2%, Elia RAVELOMANANTSOA 2.6%, Pety RAKOTONIAINA 1.7%, other 1.6%; note - RAVALOMANANA stepped down on 17 March 2009

note:: on 17 March 2009, democratically elected President Marc RAVALOMANANA stepped down handing the government over to the military, which in turn conferred the presidency on opposition leader and Antananarivo mayor Andry RAJOELINA; a power-sharing agreement established a 15-month transition period to conclude with general elections in 2010, which failed to occur; a subsequent agreement aimed for elections in early 2013 which have since slid and are now expected late in 2013
Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of a Senate or Senat (100 seats; two-thirds of the members appointed by regional assemblies; the remaining one-third appointed by the president; members to serve four-year terms) and a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (127 seats - reduced from 160 seats by an April 2007 national referendum; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 23 September 2007 (next to be concurrent with presidential elections); note - a power-sharing agreement in the summer of 2009 established a 15-month transition, concluding in general elections tentatively scheduled for late 2013 after repeated delays

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - TIM 106, LEADER/Fanilo 1, independents 20
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 11 members; addresses judicial administration issues only); High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle (consists of 9 members) note - the judiciary includes a High Court of Justice responsible for adjudicating crimes and misdemeanors by government officials including the president judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court heads elected by the president and judiciary officials to serve single-renewable, 3-year terms; High Constitutional Court members appointed - 3 each by the president, by both legislative bodies, and by the Council of Magistrates; members serve single, 6-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; provincial and city tribunals
Political parties and leaders: Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [Pierrot RAJAONARIVELO] Democratic Party for Union in Madagascar or PSDUM [Jean LAHINIRIKO] Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO] Fihaonana Party or FP [Guy-Willy RAZANAMASY] Green Party or Vert [Sarah Georget RABEHARISOA] I Love Madagascar or TIM [Marc RAVALOMANANA] Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Committee for the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR Committee for National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert Zafy] National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU (suspended), CD, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF (suspended), OPCW, PCA, SADC (suspended), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National anthem: name: "Ry Tanindraza nay malala o" (Oh, Our Beloved Fatherland)
lyrics/music: Pasteur RAHAJASON/Norbert RAHARISOA

note: adopted 1959
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Velotiana Rakotoanosy RAOBELINA
chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525 through 5526
FAX: [1] (202) 265-3034
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Eric WONG
embassy: Lot 207A, Point Liberty, Andranoro, Antehiroka, 105 Antananarivo
mailing address: B. P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
telephone: [261] (23) 480 00/01
FAX: [261] (23) 480 35
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After discarding socialist economic policies in the mid-1990s, Madagascar followed a World Bank- and IMF-led policy of privatization and liberalization that has been undermined since the start of the political crisis. This strategy placed the country on a slow and steady growth path from an extremely low level. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting for more than one-fourth of GDP and employing 80% of the population. Exports of apparel boomed in recent years primarily due to duty-free access to the US, however, Madagascar's failure to comply with the requirements of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) led to the termination of the country's duty-free access in January 2010 and a sharp fall in textile production. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel, are serious concerns. The current political crisis, which began in early 2009, has dealt additional blows to the economy. Tourism dropped more than 50% in 2009 compared with the previous year, and many investors are wary of entering the uncertain investment environment. Growth was anemic during 2010 to 2012 although expansion in mining and agricultural sectors is expected to contribute to more growth in 2013.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $21.76 billion (2012 est.) $21.35 billion (2011 est.) $20.97 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $10.12 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.9% (2012 est.) 1.8% (2011 est.) 0.4% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,000 (2012 est.) $1,000 (2011 est.) $1,000 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: -1% of GDP (2012 est.) -2.3% of GDP (2011 est.) -4% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 85.7%
government consumption: 11.9%
investment in fixed capital: 18.7%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 28.5%
imports of goods and services: -44.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 85.7%
government consumption: 11.9%
investment in fixed capital: 18.7%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 28.5%
imports of goods and services: -44.8% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
Industries: meat processing, seafood, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 2.7% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 9.504 million (2007)
Population below poverty line: 50% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 34.7% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 47.5 (2001) 38.1 (1999)
Budget: revenues: $1.758 billion
expenditures: $1.929 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 17.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.4% (2012 est.) 9.5% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$2.322 billion (2012 est.) -$2.526 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $640.7 million (2012 est.) $588.3 million (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, clothing, chromite, petroleum products
Exports - partners: France 23.1%, China 6.5%, US 6.5%, Singapore 5.8%, Canada 5.4%, India 5.3%, Germany 5.3%, Indonesia 5.2%, South Africa 4.4% (2012)
Imports: $2.755 billion (2012 est.) $2.697 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
Imports - partners: China 17.2%, France 12.1%, South Africa 5.3%, Bahrain 5.1%, India 5%, Mauritius 4.7%, Kuwait 4.4% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.191 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.279 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $3.127 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $2.769 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Malagasy ariary (MGA) per US dollar - 2,195 (2012 est.) 2,025.1 (2011 est.) 2,090 (2010 est.) 1,956.2 (2009) 1,654.78 (2008)
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Electricity - production: 1.35 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 142
Electricity - consumption: 1.256 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 406,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 69.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 30.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 17,480 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 14,250 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 3.384 million Mt (2010 est.)
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Telephones in use: 138,100 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 139
Cellular Phones in use: 8.665 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: system is above average for the region; Antananarivo's main telephone exchange modernized in the late 1990s, but the rest of the analogue-based telephone system is poorly developed

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 40 per 100 persons

international: country code - 261; landing point for the EASSy, SEACOM, and LION fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2010)
Broadcast media: state-owned Radio Nationale Malagasy (RNM) and Television Malagasy (TVM) have an extensive national network reach; privately owned radio and TV broadcasters in cities and major towns; state-run radio dominates in rural areas; relays of 2 international broadcasters are available in Antananarivo (2007)
Internet country code: .mg
Internet hosts: 38,392 (2012)
Internet users: 319,900 (2009)
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Airports: 83 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 66
Airports (paved runways): total 26
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 57

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 38
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
Railways: total 854 km

narrow gauge: 854 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 65,663 km
paved: 7,617 km
unpaved: 58,046 km (2003)
Waterways: 600 km (432 km navigable) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 1

by type: cargo 1

registered in other countries: 1 (unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Antsiranana (Diego Suarez), Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara (Tulear)
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Military branches: People's Armed Forces: Intervention Force, Development Force, and Aeronaval Force (navy and air); National Gendarmerie
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for male-only voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation is 18 months for military or equivalent civil service; 20-30 years of age for National Gendarmerie recruits and 35 years of age for those with military experience (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 4,900,729
females age 16-49: 4,909,061 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 3,390,071
females age 16-49: 3,682,180 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 248,184
female: 246,769 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 5.1% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France); the vegetated drying cays of Banc du Geyser, which were claimed by Madagascar in 1976, also fall within the EEZ claims of the Comoros and France (Glorioso Islands, part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands)
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin
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