Montenegro Population: 653,474

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 History
The use of the name Crna Gora (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries, Montenegro, while a part of the Ottoman Empire, was able to maintain a level of autonomy. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006.

 Geography
Strategic location along the Adriatic coast
Location: Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 19 18 E
Area: total: 13,812 sq km
land: 13,452 sq km
water: 360 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land Boundaries: total: 625 km
border countries: Albania 172 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, Croatia 25 km, Kosovo 79 km, Serbia 124 km
Coastline: 293.5 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: defined by treaty
Climate: Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
Terrain: highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
Natural resources: bauxite, hydroelectricity
Land use: arable land: 12.45%
permanent crops: 1.16%
other: 86.39% (2011)
Irrigated land: 24.12 sq km (2010)
Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Montenegrin
Ethnic groups: Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 32%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, other (Muslims, Croats, Roma (Gypsy)) 12% (2003 census)
Languages: Serbian 63.6%, Montenegrin (official) 22%, Bosnian 5.5%, Albanian 5.3%, unspecified (includes Croatian) 3.7% (2003 census)
Religions: Orthodox 74.2%, Muslim 17.7%, Catholic 3.5%, other 0.6%, unspecified 3%, atheist 1% (2003 census)
Population: 653,474 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.3% (male 48,670/female 51,379)
15-24 years: 11.4% (male 35,750/female 38,516)
25-54 years: 47% (male 164,913/female 142,372)
55-64 years: 12.6% (male 40,618/female 41,398)
65 years and over: 13.8% (male 35,573/female 54,285) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 46.7 %
youth dependency ratio: 27.5 %
elderly dependency ratio: 19.2 %
potential support ratio: 5.2 (2013)
Median age: total: 38.7 years
male: 37.6 years
female: 40.1 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.56% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 10.75 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 9.17 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 61% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: PODGORICA (capital) 144,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 26.3 (2009 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 8 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate:
Life expectancy at birth:
Total fertility rate:
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 39.4% (2005/06)
Health expenditures: 9.1% of GDP (2010)
Hospital bed density: 3.9 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 96% of population
total: 98% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 4% of population
total: 2% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 92% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 90% of population

unimproved:
urban: 8% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 10% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 22.5% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 2.2% (2006)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.5%
male: 99.4%
female: 97.6% (2011 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 37%
male: 35.5%
female: 40% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Crna Gora former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Podgorica; note - the Old Royal Capital is Cetinje mentioned in the constitution
geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 21 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
Independence: 3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)
National holiday: National Day, 13 July (1878)
Constitution: approved 19 October 2007 (by the Assembly)
Legal system: civil law
Suffrage: 18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008)

head of government: Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 4 December 2012)

cabinet: Ministers act as cabinet (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly

election results: Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; Filip VUJANOVIC 51.2%, Miodrag LEKIC 48.8%%
Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly (81 seats; members elected by direct vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 October 2012 (next to be held by 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 45.6%, Democratic Front 22.8%, SNP 11.1%, Positive Montenegro 8.2%, Bosniak Party, 4.2%, other (including Albanian and Croatian minority parties) 8.1%; seats by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 39, Democratic Front 20, SNP 9, Positive Montenegro 7, Bosniak Party 3, Albanian and Croatian minority parties 3
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president and 6 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 6 judges) judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court proposed jointly by the president of Montenegro, the speaker of the Assembly, and the prime minister; other judges elected by the Judicial Council; court president term is 5 years; term of other judges is 9 years; Constitutional Court judges proposed by the president of Montenegro and elected by the Assembly; court president elected among its members; term of judges is 9 years; court president term is 3 years

subordinate courts: Administrative Court; Court of Appeal; regional and first instance courts
Political parties and leaders: Albanian Coalition (includes Democratic Alliance in Montenegro [Mehmed BARDHI], Democratic Party [Fatmir DJEKA], and Albanian Alternative [Djerdj DAMAJ]) Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC] Coalition for European Montenegro (bloc) [Milo DJUKANOVIC] (includes Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC], Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC], and the Liberal Party of Montenegro or LP [Andrija POPOVIC]) Coalition FORCA for Unity (includes FORCA [Nazif CUNGU and Civic Initiative [Vaselj Sinistaj]) Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC] Democratic Center or DC [Goran BATRICEVIC] Democratic Front (bloc) [Miodrag LEKIC] (includes New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC], Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC], a splinter faction of the Socialist People's Party or SNP, and the Pensioners' Party [Vojo VULETIC]) Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Dragica PEROVIC] Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA] Just Montenegro [Rade BOJOVIC] People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Dejan VUCICEVIC] Positive Montenegro [Darko PAJOVIC] Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdan MILIC]
International organization participation: CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): double-headed eagle
National anthem: name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)
lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC

note: adopted 2004; the anthem's music is based on a Montenegrin folk song
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Srdjan DARMANOVIC
chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sue K BROWN
embassy: Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [382] (0) 20 410 500
FAX: [382] (0) 20 241 358
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 Economy
Montenegro's economy is transitioning to a market system, but the state sector remains large and additional institutional changes are needed. The economy relies heavily on tourism and the export of refined metals. Unprofitable state-owned enterprises weigh on public finances. Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and maintained its own central bank, adopted the deutsch mark, then the euro - rather than the Yugoslav dinar - as official currency, collected customs tariffs, and managed its own budget. The dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006 led to separate membership in several international financial institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF. Montenegro became the 156th member of World Trade Organization in December 2011. The European Council (EC) granted candidate country status to Montenegro at the December 2010 session. Montenegro began negotiations to join the EC in June, 2012, having met the conditions set down by the European Council, which called on Montenegro to take steps to fight corruption and organized crime. Unemployment and regional disparities in development are key political and economic problems. Montenegro has privatized its large aluminum complex - the dominant industry - as well as most of its financial sector, and has begun to attract foreign direct investment in the tourism sector. The global financial crisis had a significant negative impact on the economy, due to the ongoing credit crunch, a decline in the real estate sector, and a fall in aluminum exports. In 2012, real GDP growth slipped to 0.5%, reflecting the general downturn in most of Europe.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $7.461 billion (2012 est.) $7.458 billion (2011 est.) $7.226 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $4.28 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0% (2012 est.) 3.2% (2011 est.) 2.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $12,000 (2012 est.) $12,000 (2011 est.) $11,200 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 84.4%
government consumption: 22.1%
investment in fixed capital: 18.4%
investment in inventories: 1.1%
exports of goods and services: 40.2%
imports of goods and services: -66.2% (2011 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 84.4%
government consumption: 22.1%
investment in fixed capital: 18.4%
investment in inventories: 1.1%
exports of goods and services: 40.2%
imports of goods and services: -66.2% (2011 est.)
Agriculture - products: tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheep
Industries: steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
Labor force: 251,300 (2011 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 6.3%
industry: 20.9%
services: 72.8% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate: 19.1% (2012 est.) 11.5% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 6.6% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 24.3 (2010) 30 (2003)
Budget: revenues: $1.68 billion
expenditures: $1.58 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 39.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 52.1% of GDP (2012 est.) 45% of GDP (2011 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2012) 3% (2011)
Current account balance: -$1.938 billion (2012 est.) -$1.927 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $489.2 million (2012 est.) $640 million (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Exports - partners: Croatia 22.7%, Serbia 22.7%, Slovenia 7.8% (2012 est.)
Imports: $2.4 billion (2012 est.) $2.5 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Imports - partners: Serbia 29.3%, Greece 8.7%, China 7.1% (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $400 million (31 December 2011)
Debt - external: $1.7 billion (2012 est.) $1.2 billion (2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $3.322 billion (31 December 2011) $3.604 billion (31 December 2010) $4.289 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7778 (2012 est.) 0.7185 (2011 est.) 0.755 (2010 est.) 0.7198 (2009 est.) 0.6827 (2008 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 2.621 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 129
Electricity - consumption: 4.1 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 1.5 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 868,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 24.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 75.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 4,446 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 3,666 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 1.941 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 169,500 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 130
Cellular Phones in use: 1.17 million (2010)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites

domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing

international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system (2011)
Broadcast media: state-funded national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; 4 public TV stations and some 20 private TV stations; 14 local public radio stations and more than 40 private radio stations (2007)
Internet country code: .me
Internet hosts: 10,088 (2012)
Internet users: 280,000 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 5 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 181
Airports (paved runways): total 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2012)
Railways: total 250 km
standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (169 km electrified) (2007)
Roadways: total 7,624 km
paved: 5,097 km
unpaved: 2,527 km (2008)
Merchant marine: total 2

by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 1

registered in other countries: 4 (Bahamas 2, Honduras 1, Slovakia 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Bar
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 Military
Military branches: Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army of Montenegro (includes Montenegrin Navy (Mornarica Crne Gore, MCG)), Air Force (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 149,159
females age 16-49: 131,823 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 3,120
female: 3,677 (2010 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 8,504 (Kosovo) (2012)
stateless persons: 3,383 (2012)
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