Moldova Population: 3,619,925

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 History
Part of Romania during the interwar period, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although the country has been independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru River supporting a Transnistrian separatist region composed of a Slavic majority population (mostly Ukrainians and Russians), but with a sizeable ethnic Moldovan minority. One of the poorest nations in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a communist, Vladimir VORONIN, as its president in 2001. VORONIN served as Moldova's president until he resigned in September 2009, following the opposition's gain of a narrow majority in July parliamentary elections and the Communist Party's (PCRM) subsequent inability to attract the three-fifths of parliamentary votes required to elect a president. Four Moldovan opposition parties formed a new coalition, the Alliance for European Integration (AEI), which has acted as Moldova's governing coalition since. Moldova experienced significant political uncertainty between 2009 and early 2012, holding three general elections and numerous presidential ballots in parliament, all of which failed to secure a president. Following November 2010 parliamentary elections, a reconstituted AEI-coalition consisting of three of the four original AEI parties formed a government, and in March 2012 was finally able to elect an independent as president.

 Geography
Landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 29 00 E
Area: total: 33,851 sq km
land: 32,891 sq km
water: 960 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Maryland
Land Boundaries: total: 1,390 km
border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 940 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: moderate winters, warm summers
Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Dniester (Nistru) 2 m
highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone
Land use: arable land: 53.47%
permanent crops: 8.77%
other: 37.75% (2011)
Irrigated land: 2,283 sq km (2011)
Natural hazards: landslides
Current Environment Issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan
Ethnic groups: Moldovan/Romanian 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3% (2004 census) note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region
Languages: Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)
Population: 3,619,925 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.6% (male 327,843/female 307,780)
15-24 years: 15% (male 279,814/female 263,202)
25-54 years: 43.9% (male 790,723/female 796,997)
55-64 years: 12.9% (male 213,256/female 252,907)
65 years and over: 10.7% (male 145,796/female 241,607) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 38.8 %
youth dependency ratio: 23 %
elderly dependency ratio: 15.8 %
potential support ratio: 6.3 (2013)
Median age: total: 35.4 years
male: 33.5 years
female: 37.4 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: -1.02% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 12.38 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 12.61 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -9.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 47.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.79% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: CHISINAU (capital) 650,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 23.5 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 41 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 13.28 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 15.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.82 years
male: 65.95 years
female: 73.94 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.55 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 67.8% (2005)
Health expenditures: 11.7% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 2.67 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density: 6.2 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 96% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 4% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 89% of population
rural: 82% of population
total: 85% of population

unimproved:
urban: 11% of population
rural: 18% of population
total: 15% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 12,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 21.2% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3.2% (2005)
Education expenditures: 8.6% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99.5%
female: 98.5% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 14.9%
male: 14.2%
female: 15.8% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form: Moldova
former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Chisinau in Romanian (Kishinev in Russian)

note: pronounced KEE-shee-now (KIH-shi-nyev)
geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 32 raions (raioane, singular - raion), 3 municipalities (municipii, singular - municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala) raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)
Independence: 27 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
Constitution: adopted 29 July 1994; effective 27 August 1994; note - replaced 1979 Soviet Constitution
Legal system: civil law system with Germanic law influences; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Nicolae TIMOFTI (since 23 March 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Iurie LEANCA (since 25 April 2013; acting until 30 May 2013, sworn in on 31 May 2013)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 16 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2016); note - prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; the prime minister and Cabinet received a vote of confidence 30 May 2013

election results: Nicolae TIMOFTI elected president; parliamentary votes - 62 of 101 votes Iurie LEANCA designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 58 of 101
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; members elected on an at-large basis by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 28 November 2010 (next to be held in 2014); note - this was the third parliamentary election in less than two years; the earlier parliaments (elected 5 April 2009 and 29 July 2009) were dissolved after they could not agree on a presidential candidate

election results: percent of vote by party - PCRM 39.3%, PLDM 29.4%, PD 12.7%, PL 10%, other 8.6%; seats by party - PCRM 42, PLDM 32, PD 15, PL 12; note - in November of 2011, 3 legislators defected from the Communist Party (PCRM) and voted with the PLDM, PD, and PL governing coalition - termed the Alliance for European Integration (AEI) - to reach a 62-seat majority sufficient to elect a new president; the 3 former PCRM legislators are now aligned with the Party of Socialists, and in 2012 an additional 5 legislators defected from the PCRM; 1 PLDM legislator also defected and is independent
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of a chief judges, 3 deputy-chief judges, 45 judges, and 7 assistant judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 6 judges) note - the Constitutional Court is autonomous to the other branches of government; the Court interprets the Constitution and reviews the constitutionality of parliamentary laws and decisions, decrees of the president, and acts of the government. judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Justice judges appointed by Parliament upon the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; all judges serve 4-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed 2 each by Parliament, the Moldovan president, and the Higher Council of Magistracy; court president elected by other court judges for a 3-year term; other judges appointed for 6-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Court of Business Audit; municipal courts
Political parties and leaders: represented in Parliament: Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN] Democratic Party or PD [Marian LUPU] Liberal Democratic Party or PLDM [Vladimir FILAT] Liberal Party or PL [Mihai GHIMPU] Alliance for European Integration or AEI (coalition of the PD, PLDM, and PL) not represented in Parliament: Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA] Conservative Party or PC [Natalia NIRCA] Ecological Party of Moldova "Green Alliance" or PEMAVE [Vladimir BRAGA] European Action Movement or MAE [Veaceslav UNTILA] For Nation and Country Party or PpNT [Sergiu MOCANU] Humanist Party of Moldova or PUM [Valeriu PASAT] Labor Party or PM [Gheorghe SIMA] National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO] Party of Socialists or PSRM [Igor DODON] Patriots of Moldova Party or PPM [Mihail GARBUZ] Popular Republican Party or PPR [Nicolae ANDRONIC] Republican Party of Moldova or PRM [Andrei STRATAN] Roma Social Political Movement of the Republic of Moldova or MRRM [Ion BUCUR] Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor SELIN] Social Political Movement "Equality" or MR [Valeriy KLIMENCO] United Moldova Party or PMUEM [Vladimir TURCAN]
International organization participation: BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): aurochs (a type of wild cattle)
National anthem: name: "Limba noastra" (Our Language)
lyrics/music: Alexei MATEEVICI/Alexandru CRISTEA

note: adopted 1994
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Igor MUNTEANU
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2624
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador William H. MOSER
embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300
FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044
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 Economy
Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe despite recent progress from its small economic base. With its moderate climate and good farmland, Moldova's economy relies heavily on its agriculture sector, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy is underscored by an estimated $4.3 billion debt to Russian natural gas supplier Gazprom due largely to unreimbursed natural gas consumption in the separatist Transnistria region. Previous Russian decisions to ban Moldovan wine and agricultural products, coupled with their decision to double the price Moldova paid for Russian natural gas and the large debt continue to hamper economic growth. Moldova also depends heavily on the annual $1 billion in remittances from the estimated one million Moldovans working in Europe and former Soviet Bloc countries. During the global financial crisis in 2009, Moldova experienced a 6% contraction of its GDP, a shrinkage due to increased unemployment and decrease in remittances. To stabilize the country, the IMF allocated $186 million to Moldova to cover its immediate budgetary needs in the fall of 2009, and the Moldovan Government agreeing with the IMF to a new program worth $574 million. In 2010, an upturn in the world economy boosted GDP growth to about 7% and inflation to more than 7%. Economic reforms have been slow because of corruption and strong political forces backing government controls. Nevertheless, the government's primary goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. The granting of EU trade preferences has encouraged higher growth rates, but the agreements are unlikely to serve as a panacea, given the extent to which export success depends on higher quality standards and other factors. The economy had modest growth in 2011, expanding by 6.8%. However, in 2012, with the Euro crisis and a devastating drought, Moldova's GDP stalled at an estimated 0.3% growth over 2011. Moldova's economic future remains vulnerable to political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, higher fuel prices and the concerns of foreign investors as well as the presence of an illegal separatist regime in Moldova's Transnistria region.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $12.36 billion (2012 est.) $12.46 billion (2011 est.) $11.66 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $7.252 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -0.8% (2012 est.) 6.8% (2011 est.) 7.1% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,500 (2012 est.) $3,500 (2011 est.) $3,300 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 16.2% of GDP (2012 est.) 11.9% of GDP (2011 est.) 15.9% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 97.2%
government consumption: 22.3%
investment in fixed capital: 21.8%
investment in inventories: 1.5%
exports of goods and services: 45.2%
imports of goods and services: -88% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 97.2%
government consumption: 22.3%
investment in fixed capital: 21.8%
investment in inventories: 1.5%
exports of goods and services: 45.2%
imports of goods and services: -88% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruits, grapes, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk; wine
Industries: sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
Industrial production growth rate: -3% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 1.215 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 27.5%
industry: 13.1%
services: 59.4% (2011)
Unemployment rate: 5.6% (2012 est.) 6.7% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 21.9% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 26% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 38 (2008) 33.2 (2003)
Budget: revenues: $2.768 billion
expenditures: $2.92 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 38.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 17.9% of GDP (2012 est.) 19% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (2012 est.) 7.6% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$837.3 million (2012 est.) -$790.4 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $2.228 billion (2012 est.) $2.277 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports - partners: Russia 20.9%, Romania 19.8%, Italy 11.6%, Ukraine 6.6%, Turkey 6%, Germany 4.7% (2012)
Imports: $5.152 billion (2012 est.) $5.147 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles
Imports - partners: Ukraine 20.9%, Romania 16.1%, Germany 9.4%, Russia 7.9%, Italy 5.7%, Belarus 5.3%, Turkey 4.7%, Poland 4.4% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.511 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.965 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $6.132 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $5.443 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $3.224 billion (30 September 2012 est.) $3.17 billion (30 September 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $88.42 million (1 January 2012) $67.85 million (1 January 2010)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $20.7 million (31 December 2010 est.) $22 million (31 December 2010)
Exchange rates: Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar - 12.111 (2012 est.) 11.738 (2011 est.) 12.369 (2010 est.) 11.11 (2009) 10.326 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 1.016 billion kWh (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 146
Electricity - consumption: 3.571 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - imports: 3.145 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 551,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 88.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 11.6% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 210 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 18,060 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 110.4 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 15,800 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 1.095 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 1.152 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 7.38 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 1.18 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 72
Cellular Phones in use: 3.715 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way

domestic: multiple private operators of GSM mobile-cellular telephone service are operating; GPRS system is being introduced; a CDMA mobile telephone network began operations in 2007; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 100 per 100 persons

international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik) (2011)
Broadcast media: state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 TV and 2 radio stations; a total of nearly 40 terrestrial TV channels and some 50 radio stations are in operation; Russian and Romanian channels also are available (2007)
Internet country code: .md
Internet hosts: 711,564 (2012)
Internet users: 1.333 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 7 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 169
Airports (paved runways): total 5
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 1,906 km (2013)
Railways: total 1,190 km
broad gauge: 1,176 km 1.520-m gauge standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 9,343 km
paved: 8,810 km
unpaved: 533 km (2008)
Waterways: 558 km (in public use on Danube, Dniester and Prut rivers) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 121

by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 88, carrier 1, chemical tanker 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 11, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: 63 (Bulgaria 1, Denmark 1, Egypt 5, Greece 1, Israel 2, Lebanon 1, Pakistan 1, Romania 2, Russia 5, Syria 5, Turkey 18, UK 3, Ukraine 14, Yemen 4) (2010)
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 Military
Military branches: National Army: Land Forces Command, Air Forces Command (includes air defense unit), Logistics Command (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; male registration required at age 16; 1-year service obligation (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,143,440
females age 16-49: 1,156,958 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 875,224
females age 16-49: 969,903 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 28,213
female: 26,614 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 0.4% of GDP (2005 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 1,998 (2012)
Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity
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