Monaco Population: 30,500

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 History
The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling Grimaldi family first seized temporary control in 1297, and again in 1331, but were not able to permanently secure their holding until 1419. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.

 Geography
Second-smallest independent state in the world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban
Location: Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy
Geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 24 E
Area: total: 2 sq km
land: 2 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: total: 4.4 km
border countries: France 4.4 km
Coastline: 4.1 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 12 nm
Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers
Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Agel 140 m
Natural resources: none
Land use: arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 99% (urban area) (2011)
Irrigated land: NA
Current Environment Issues: NA
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
adjective: Monegasque or Monacan
Ethnic groups: French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%
Languages: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque
Religions: Roman Catholic 90% (official), other 10%
Population: 30,500 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 11.9% (male 1,856/female 1,782)
15-24 years: 9.4% (male 1,479/female 1,384)
25-54 years: 35.6% (male 5,387/female 5,456)
55-64 years: 14.4% (male 2,217/female 2,172)
65 years and over: 28.7% (male 3,913/female 4,854) (2013 est.)
Median age: total: 50.5 years
male: 49.4 years
female: 51.7 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: -0% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 6.79 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 8.75 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 1.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 100% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 1.81 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.05 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 1.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 89.63 years
male: 85.7 years
female: 93.71 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.51 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Health expenditures: 4.3% of GDP (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Education expenditures: 1.2% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 18 years
male: 18 years
female: 17 years (2009)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 6.9%
male: 6.6%
female: 7.4% (2000)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
conventional short form: Monaco
local long form: Principaute de Monaco
local short form: Monaco
Government type: constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Monaco
geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are four quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo; note - Moneghetti, a part of La Condamine, is sometimes called the 5th quarter of Monaco
Independence: 1419 (beginning of permanent rule by the House of GRIMALDI)
National holiday: National Day (Saint Rainier's Day), 19 November (1857)
Constitution: 17 December 1962; modified 2 April 2002
Legal system: civil law system influenced by French legal tradition
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)

head of government: Minister of State Michel ROGER (since 29 March 2010)

cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government
Legislative branch: unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members elected by list majority system, 8 by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 10 February 2013 (next to be held in February 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - Horizon Monaco 50.3%, Union Monegasque 39%, Renaissance 10.7%; seats by party - Horizon Monaco 20, Union Monegasque 3, Renaissance 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 5 permanent members and 2 substitutes) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the monarch upon the proposals of the National Council, State Council, Crown Council, Court of Appeal, and Trial Court

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Civil Court of First Instance
Political parties and leaders: Horizon Monaco [Laurent NOUVION] Renaissance [SBM (corporation)] Union Monegasque [Stephane VALERI]
International organization participation: CD, CE, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
National symbol(s):
National anthem: name: "A Marcia de Muneghu" (The March of Monaco)
lyrics/music: Louis NOTARI/Charles ALBRECHT

note: music adopted 1867, lyrics adopted 1931; although French is much more commonly spoken, only the Monegasque lyrics are official; the French version is known as "Hymne Monegasque" (Monegasque Anthem); the words are generally only sung on official occasions
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gilles NOGHES
chancery: 3400 International Drive NW, Suite 2K-100, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 234-1530
FAX: (202) 244-7656
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Ambassador to France is accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France), under the authority of the US ambassador to France, handles routine diplomatic and consular matters concerning Monaco
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 Economy
Monaco, bordering France on the Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The principality also is a banking center and has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. Monaco, however, is not a tax-free shelter; it charges nearly 20% value-added tax, collects stamp duties, and companies face a 33% tax on profits unless they can show that three-quarters of profits are generated within the principality. Monaco's reliance on tourism and banking for its economic growth has left it vulnerable to a downturn in France and other European economies which are the principality's main trade partners. In 2009, Monaco''s GDP fell by 11.5% as the euro-zone crisis precipitated a sharp drop in tourism and retail activity and home sales. A modest recovery ensued in 2010 with GDP growth of 2.5%, but Monaco''s economic prospects remain clouded in uncertainty tied to future euro-zone growth. Weak economic growth also has deteriorated public finances as the principality recorded a budget deficit of 1.3% of GDP in 2012. Monaco was formally removed from the OECD''s "grey list" of uncooperative tax jurisdictions in late 2009, but continues to face international pressure to abandon its banking secrecy laws and help combat tax evasion. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors, including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $5.748 billion (2011 est.) $5.47 billion (2010 est.) $5.337 billion (2009 est.)

note: data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $5.748 billion (2011 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.1% (2011 est.) 2.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $70,700 (2011) $63,500 (2009 est.) $61,900 (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products: none
Industries: tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Labor force: 50,580 note: includes workers from all foreign countries (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate: 0% (2011)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $1.126 billion
expenditures: $1.198 billion (2011 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 19.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2010)
Exports: $865.6 million (2011) $684.9 million (2010) note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France
Exports - commodities:
Imports: $848.9 million (2011) $850.2 million (2010) note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France
Imports - commodities:
Debt - external: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7778 (2012 est.) 0.7185 (2011 est.) 0.755 (2010 est.) 0.7198 (2009 est.) 0.6827 (2008 est.)
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 Energy
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 44,500 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 166
Cellular Phones in use: 31,800 (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern automatic telephone system; the country's sole fixed line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 200 per 100 persons

international: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system (2011)
Broadcast media: TV Monte-Carlo (TMC) operates a TV network; cable TV available; Radio Monte-Carlo has extensive radio networks in France and Italy with French-language broadcasts to France beginning in the 1960s and Italian-language broadcasts to Italy beginning in the 1970s; other radio stations include Riviera Radio and Radio Monaco (2012)
Internet country code: .mc
Internet hosts: 26,009 (2012)
Internet users: 23,000 (2009)
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 Transportation
Heliports: 1 (2012)
Roadways: total 77 km
paved: 77 km (2007)
Merchant marine:

registered in other countries: 64 (Bahamas 8, Bermuda 2, Liberia 8, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 30, Panama 11, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Monaco
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of France
Military branches: no regular military forces; Directorate of Public Security (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 5,749 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 4,629
females age 16-49: 4,597 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 153
female: 141 (2010 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
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Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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