Libya Population: 6,002,347

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 History
The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar al-QADHAFI assumed leadership and began to espouse his political system at home, which was a combination of socialism and Islam. During the 1970s, QADHAFI used oil revenues to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversive and terrorist activities that included the downing of two airliners - one over Scotland, another in Northern Africa - and a discotheque bombing in Berlin. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically and economically following the attacks; sanctions were lifted in 2003 following Libyan acceptance of responsibility for the bombings and agreement to claimant compensation. QADHAFI also agreed to end Libya's program to develop weapons of mass destruction, and he made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations. Unrest that began in several Middle Eastern and North African countries in late 2010 erupted in Libyan cities in early 2011. QADHAFI's brutal crackdown on protesters spawned a civil war that triggered UN authorization of air and naval intervention by the international community. After months of seesaw fighting between government and opposition forces, the QADHAFI regime was toppled in mid-2011 and replaced by a transitional government. Libya in 2012 formed a new parliament and elected a new prime minister.

 Geography
More than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert
Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria
Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 17 00 E
Area: total: 1,759,540 sq km
land: 1,759,540 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Alaska
Land Boundaries: total: 4,348 km
border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km
Coastline: 1,770 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north exclusive fishing zone: 62 nm
Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Land use: arable land: 0.99%
permanent crops: 0.19%
other: 98.82% (2011)
Irrigated land: 4,700 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
Current Environment Issues: desertification; limited natural freshwater resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, brings water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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 People
Nationality: noun: Libyan(s)
adjective: Libyan
Ethnic groups: Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)
Languages: Arabic (official), Italian, English (all widely understood in the major cities); Berber (Nafusi, Ghadamis, Suknah, Awjilah, Tamasheq)
Religions: Sunni Muslim (official) 97%, other 3%
Population: 6,002,347 (July 2013 est.) note: includes 166,510 non-nationals
Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.3% (male 837,984/female 800,423)
15-24 years: 18.6% (male 578,780/female 535,828)
25-54 years: 45.6% (male 1,432,265/female 1,302,187)
55-64 years: 4.6% (male 143,862/female 134,414)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 120,043/female 116,561) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 52.1 %
youth dependency ratio: 44.8 %
elderly dependency ratio: 7.3 %
potential support ratio: 13.7 (2013)
Median age: total: 27.1 years
male: 27.2 years
female: 26.9 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 4.85% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 18.74 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 3.56 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 33.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 77.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: TRIPOLI (capital) 1.095 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 58 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 12.26 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.25 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.83 years
male: 74.17 years
female: 77.57 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.09 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 45.2% (1995)
Health expenditures: 3.9% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 1.9 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 3.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 54% of population
rural: 55% of population
total: 54% of population

unimproved:
urban: 46% of population
rural: 45% of population
total: 46% of population (2000 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 96% of population
total: 97% of population

unimproved:
urban: 3% of population
rural: 4% of population
total: 3% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 10,000 (2001 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 27.8% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 5.6% (2007)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89.5%
male: 95.8%
female: 83.3% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 16 years (2003)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: none
local short form: Libiya
Government type: operates under a transitional government
Capital: name: Tripoli (Tarabulus)
geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in March; ends last Friday in October

note: on 10 November 2012, Libya changed its standard time from UTC+2 to UTC+1
Administrative divisions: 22 districts (shabiyat, singular - shabiyat); Al Butnan, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jabal al Gharbi, Al Jafarah, Al Jufrah, Al Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Marqab, Al Wahat, An Nuqat al Khams, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghat, Misratah, Murzuq, Nalut, Sabha, Surt, Tarabulus, Wadi al Hayat, Wadi ash Shati
Independence: 24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Liberation Day, 23 October (2011)
Constitution: none; note - Libya has yet to draft a new constitution
Legal system: Libya's post-revolution legal system is in flux and driven by state and non-state entities
Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President, General National Congress Nuri Abu SAHMAYN

head of government: Prime Minister Ali ZAYDAN (since 14 October 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers Awad Ibrik Ibrahim al-BARASI, Al-Sadiq Abd al-Karim Abd al-Rahman KARIM, Abd-al-Salam Muhammad al-Mahdi al-QADI

cabinet: new cabinet approved by the National Congress on 31 October 2012 (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: prime minister and National Congress president elected by the National Congress

election results: NA
Legislative branch: unicameral General National Congress (200 seats; 120 individual seats elected from 69 constituencies and 80 party list seats elected from 20 constituencies; member term NA)

elections: first General National Congress election held on 7 July 2012 (next to be held NA)

election results: percent of vote for party list seats only - NFA 48.7%, JCP 21.3%, other parties 30%; list and constituent seats - NFA 39, JCP 17, other 24, independents 120
Judicial branch: highest court(s): NA; note - government in transition
Political parties and leaders: Al-Watan (Homeland) Party Justice and Construction Party or JCP [Muhammad SAWAN] National Front (initially the National Front for the Salvation of Libya, formed in 1981 as a diaspora opposition group) National Forces Alliance or NFA [Mahmoud JIBRIL] (includes many political organizations, NGOs, and independents) Union for the Homeland [Abd al-Rahman al-SUWAYHILI] note: list includes some of the larger political parties and leaders
International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BDEAC, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): star and crescent; hawk
National anthem: name: "Allahu Akbar" (God Is Greatest)
lyrics/music: Mahmoud el-SHERIF/Abdalla Shams el-DIN

note: adopted 1969; the anthem was originally a battle song for the Egyptian Army in the 1956 Suez War
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Suleiman ABULHI
chancery: 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 705, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 944-9601
FAX: [1] (202) 944-9606
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah K. JONES note: on 11 September 2012, US Ambassador Christopher STEVENS and three other American diplomats were killed in an attack by heavily armed militants on a US diplomatic post in the eastern city of Benghazi
embassy: Sidi Slim Area/Walie Al-Ahed Road, Tripoli mailing address: US Embassy, 8850 Tripoli Place, Washington, DC 20521-8850
telephone: [218] (0) 91-220-3239
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 Economy
Libya's economy is structured primarily around the nation's energy sector, which generates about 95% of export earnings, 80% of GDP, and 99% of government income. Substantial revenue from the energy sector coupled with a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but Tripoli largely has not used its significant financial resources to develop national infrastructure or the economy, leaving many citizens poor. In the final five years of QADHAFI''s rule, Libya made some progress on economic reform as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold. This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003 and after Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction. The process of lifting US unilateral sanctions began in the spring of 2004; all sanctions were removed by June 2006, helping Libya attract greater foreign direct investment, especially in the energy and banking sectors. Libyan oil and gas licensing rounds drew high international interest, but new rounds are unlikely to be successful until Libya establishes a more permanent government and is able to offer more attractive financial terms on contracts and increase security. Libya faces a long road ahead in liberalizing its primarily socialist economy, but the revolution has unleashed previously restrained entrepreneurial activity and increased the potential for the evolution of a more market-based economy. The service and construction sectors, which account for roughly 60% of GDP, expanded over the past five years and could become a larger share of GDP if Tripoli prioritizes capital spending on development projects once political and security uncertainty subside. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 80% of its food. Libya''s primary agricultural water source is the Great Manmade River Project.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $78.63 billion (2012 est.) $38.45 billion (2011 est.) $101.4 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $81.92 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 104.5% (2012 est.) -62.1% (2011 est.) 5% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $12,300 (2012 est.) $6,100 (2011 est.) $15,900 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 40.8% of GDP (2012 est.) 8.2% of GDP (2011 est.) 33.9% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 42.9%
government consumption: 14.2%
investment in fixed capital: 4.7%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 60.7%
imports of goods and services: -23% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 42.9%
government consumption: 14.2%
investment in fixed capital: 4.7%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 60.7%
imports of goods and services: -23% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle
Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, aluminum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
Industrial production growth rate: 117% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 1.875 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 17%
industry: 23%
services: 59% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate: 30% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%

note: about one-third of Libyans live at or below the national poverty line
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $57.58 billion
expenditures: $35.07 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 70.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 3.5% of GDP (2012 est.) 10.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.1% (2012 est.) 15.9% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: $33.32 billion (2012 est.) $4.002 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $52.12 billion (2012 est.) $15.03 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals
Exports - partners: Italy 23.5%, Germany 12.5%, China 11.3%, France 9.7%, Spain 7.6%, UK 4.7%, US 4.5% (2012)
Imports: $18.1 billion (2012 est.) $11.17 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products
Imports - partners: China 13.7%, Turkey 12.3%, Italy 8.7%, Tunisia 7.3%, South Korea 6.2%, Greece 5.4%, Germany 4.9% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $117.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $105 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $5.278 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $4.882 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $16.72 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $16.43 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $17.17 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $16.89 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Libyan dinars (LYD) per US dollar - 1.262 (2012 est.) 1.2242 (2011 est.) 1.2668 (2010 est.) 1.2535 (2009) 1.2112 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 28.6 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 64
Electricity - consumption: 24.29 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 124 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports: 73 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 6.766 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 502,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 1.039 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 48.08 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 309,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 314,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 84,490 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 575.3 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 16.81 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 6.844 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 9.97 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.495 trillion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 60.6 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 1 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 78
Cellular Phones in use: 10 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: telecommunications system is state-owned and service is poor, but investment is being made to upgrade; state retains monopoly in fixed-line services; mobile-cellular telephone system became operational in 1996

domestic: multiple providers for a mobile telephone system that is growing rapidly; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity has soared

international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cable to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (2010)
Broadcast media: state-funded and private TV stations; some provinces operate local TV stations; pan-Arab satellite TV stations are available; state-funded radio (2012)
Internet country code: .ly
Internet hosts: 17,926 (2012)
Internet users: 353,900 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 146 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 41
Airports (paved runways): total 68
over 3,047 m: 23
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 78
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 20 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 882 km; gas 3,743 km; oil 7,005 km (2013)
Roadways: total 100,024 km
paved: 57,214 km
unpaved: 42,810 km (2003)
Merchant marine: total 23

by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 2 (Kuwait 1, Norway 1)

registered in other countries: 6 (Hong Kong 1, Malta 5) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Az Zawiyah, Marsa al Burayqah (Marsa el Brega), Ra's Lanuf, Tripoli
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 Military
Military branches: note - in transition; government attempting to staff a new national army with anti-QADAFI militia fighters and former members of QADAFI's military (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for mandatory or voluntary service (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,775,078
females age 16-49: 1,714,194 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,511,144
females age 16-49: 1,458,934 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 59,547
female: 57,070 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 3.1% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 74,000 (conflict between pro-Qadhafi and anti-Qadhafi forces; figure does not include displaced third-country nationals) (2012)
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Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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