Lithuania Population: 2,854,235

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 History
Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795 when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004. In January 2014, Lithuania assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2014-15 term; in January 2015, Lithuania joined the euro zone.

 Geography
Fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits
Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia, west of Belarus
Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 24 00 E
Area: total: 65,300 sq km
land: 62,680 sq km
water: 2,620 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than West Virginia
Land Boundaries: total: 1,549 km border countries (4): Belarus 640 km, Latvia 544 km, Poland 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 261 km
Coastline: 90 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate: transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
Terrain: lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: peat, arable land, amber
Land use: agricultural land: 44.8% arable land 34.9%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 9.4% forest: 34.6%
other: 20.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 44 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian
Ethnic groups: Lithuanian 84.1%, Polish 6.6%, Russian 5.8%, Belarusian 1.2%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.2% (2011 est.)
Languages: Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other 0.9%, unspecified 3.5% (2011 est.)
Religions: Roman Catholic 77.2%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Old Believer 0.8%, Evangelical Lutheran 0.6%, Evangelical Reformist 0.2%, other (including Sunni Muslim, Jewish, Greek Catholic, and Karaite) 0.8%, none 6.1%, unspecified 10.1% (2011 est.)
Population: 2,854,235 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.93% (male 218,453/female 207,643)
15-24 years: 11.55% (male 170,494/female 159,283)
25-54 years: 40.36% (male 566,159/female 585,862)
55-64 years: 13.73% (male 172,987/female 218,955)
65 years and over: 19.42% (male 187,340/female 367,059) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 50.1%
youth dependency ratio: 21.8%
elderly dependency ratio: 28.3%
potential support ratio: 3.5% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 43.4 years
male: 39.5 years
female: 46.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: -1.06% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 10 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 14.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -6.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 66.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.53% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: VILNIUS (capital) 517,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 26.8 (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.9 years male: 69.5 years
female: 80.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.59 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 62.9% note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2006)
Health expenditures: 6.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 4.12 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density: 7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 90.4% of population
total: 96.6% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 9.6% of population
total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 97.2% of population
rural: 82.8% of population
total: 92.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2.8% of population
rural: 17.2% of population
total: 7.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 27.5% (2014)
Education expenditures: 4.6% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 17 years male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 19.3% male: 19.6%
female: 18.7% (2014 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: meaning of the name "Lietuva" remains unclear; it may derive from the Lietava, a stream in east central Lithuania
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Vilnius
geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 60 municipalities (savivaldybe, singular - savivaldybe); Akmene, Alytaus Miestas, Alytus, Anksciai, Birstono, Birzai, Druskininkai, Elektrenai, Ignalina, Jonava, Joniskis, Jurbarkas, Kaisiadorys, Kalvarijos, Kauno Miestas, Kaunas, Kazlu Rudos, Kedainiai, Kelme, Klaipedos Miestas, Klaipeda, Kretinga, Kupiskis, Lazdijai, Marijampole, Mazeikiai, Moletai, Neringa, Pagegiai, Pakruojis, Palangos Miestas, Panevezio Miestas, Panevezys, Pasvalys, Plunge, Prienai, Radviliskis, Raseiniai, Rietavo, Rokiskis, Sakiai, Salcininkai, Siauliu Miestas, Siauliai, Silale, Silute, Sirvintos, Skuodas, Svencionys, Taurage, Telsiai, Trakai, Ukmerge, Utena, Varena, Vilkaviskis, Vilniaus Miestas, Vilnius, Visaginas, Zarasai
Independence: 11 March 1990 (declared); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union);

notable earlier dates: 6 July 1253 (coronation of MINDAUGAS, traditional founding date), 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created), 16 February 1918 (independence from Soviet Russia)
National holiday: Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania established its statehood and its concomitant independence from Soviet Russia and Germany; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared the restoration of Lithuanian statehood and its concomitant independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 25 October 1992, entered into force 2 November 1992 amendments: proposed by at least one-fourth of all Parliament members or by petition of at least 300,000 voters; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament in each of two readings three months apart and a presidential signature; amendments to constitutional articles on national sovereignty and constitutional amendment procedure also require three-fourths voter approval in a referendum; amended 1996, 2003, 2006 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (since 12 July 2009)

head of government: Prime Minister Saulius SKVERNELIS (since 13 December 2016)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by Parliament elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 and 25 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by Parliament

election results: Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE reelected president; percent of vote - Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (independent) 59%, Zigmantas BALCYTIS (LSDP) 41%; Saulius SKVERNELIS (LVZS) approved as prime minister by Parliament vote - 90 to 4
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 70 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 9 and 23 October 2016 (next to be held in October 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - LVLS 22.5%, TS-LKD 22.6%, LSDP 15%, LS 9.5%, LCP-LPP 6.3%, LLRA 5.7%, TT 5.6%, DP 4.9%, LZP 2%, Lithuanian List 1.8%, other 4.1%; seats by party - LVLS 54, TS-LKD 31, LSDP 17, LS 14, LLRA 8, TT 8, DP 2, LCP-LPP 1, LZP 1, Lithuanian List 1, independent 4
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 37 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Seimas; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges selected by the Seimas from among nominations by the president, by the Seimas chairperson, and Supreme Court chairperson; judges serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms; one-third of membership reconstituted every 3 years

subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; district and local courts
Political parties and leaders: Anti-Corruption Coalition or LCP-LPP Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASEVSKI] Homeland Union-Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Gabrielius LANDSBERGIS] Labor Party or DP [Valentinas MAZURONIS] Liberal Movement or LS or LRLS [Eligijus MASIULIS] Lithuanian Green Party or LZP [Linas BALSYS] Lithuanian List Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS] Order and Justice Party or TT [Rolandas PAKSAS] Peasant and Greens Union or LVZS [Ramunas KARBAUSKIS] Way of Courage or DK [Jonas VARKALA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation: Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UN Security Council (non-permanent), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): mounted knight known as Vytis (the Chaser), white stork; national colors: yellow, green, red
National anthem: name: "Tautiska giesme" (The National Song)
lyrics/music: Vincas KUDIRKA

note: adopted 1918, restored 1990; written in 1898 while Lithuania was a part of Russia; banned during the Soviet occupation from 1940 to 1990
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Rolandas KRISCIUNAS (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah A. MCCARTHY (since 5 February 2013)
embassy: Akmenu gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106
mailing address: American Embassy, Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106
telephone: [370] (5) 266-5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266-5510
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 Economy
Lithuania gained membership in the WTO in May 2001 and joined the EU in May 2004. Lithuania's trade with the EU and CIS countries accounts for approximately 87.3% of total trade. Foreign investment and EU funding have aided in the transition from the former planned economy to a market economy. The three former Soviet Baltic republics were severely hit by the 2008-09 financial crisis, but Lithuania has rebounded and become one of the fastest growing economies in the EU. Lithuania’s ongoing recovery hinges on export growth, which is being hampered by economic slowdowns in the EU and Russia. Lithuania joined the euro zone on 1 January 2015 and is under review for membership in the OECD.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $85.79 billion (2016 est.) $83.62 billion (2015 est.) $82.29 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $42.78 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.6% (2016 est.) 1.6% (2015 est.) 3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $29,900 (2016 est.) $28,800 (2015 est.) $28,100 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 16.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 16.6% of GDP (2015 est.) 21.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 65.7%
government consumption: 17.3%
investment in fixed capital: 19.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 72.9%
imports of goods and services: -75.2% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 65.7%
government consumption: 17.3%
investment in fixed capital: 19.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 72.9%
imports of goods and services: -75.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs, pork, cheese; fish
Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, lasers, electronic com
Industrial production growth rate: 3.3% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 1.459 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 7.9%
industry: 19.6%
services: 72.5% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8.2% (2016 est.) 9.1% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 4% (2008 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 29.1% (2008)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 35.5 (2009) 34 (1999)
Budget: revenues: $14.68 billion
expenditures: $15.12 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 34.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 41.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 45.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: official data; data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, debt issued by subnational entities, as well as int
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2016 est.) -0.7% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$676 million (2016 est.) -$710 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $23.52 billion (2016 est.) $24.81 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: refined fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles, foodstuffs, plastics
Exports - partners: Russia 13.7%, Latvia 9.8%, Poland 9.7%, Germany 7.8%, Estonia 5.3%, Belarus 4.6%, UK 4.5%, US 4.4%, Netherlands 4% (2015)
Imports: $25.92 billion (2016 est.) $26.93 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: oil, natural gas, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals
Imports - partners: Russia 16.9%, Germany 11.5%, Poland 10.3%, Latvia 7.6%, Netherlands 5.1%, Italy 4.5% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.697 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $8.728 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Debt - external: $34.48 billion (31 March 2016 est.) $31.6 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $16.33 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $15.63 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $3.727 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $3.427 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $3.964 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $4.075 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $5.661 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: litai (LTL) per US dollar - 0.9129 (2016 est.) 0.9012 (2015 est.) 0.9012 (2014 est.) 0.7525 (2013 est.) 2.69 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 3.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 9.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 900 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 8.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 3.9 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 68.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 3.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 7.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 2,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 1,316 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 191,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 12 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 202,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 54,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 173,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 23,960 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 2.78 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 2.78 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 17 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 4.184 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 145 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access

domestic: rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of fixed-line connections; mobile-cellular teledensity stands at about 145 per 100 persons

international: country code - 370; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2015)
Broadcast media: public broadcaster operates 3 channels with the third channel - a satellite channel - introduced in 2007; various privately owned commercial TV broadcasters operate national and multiple regional channels; many privately owned local TV stations; multi-cha (2007)
Internet country code: .lt
Internet users: total: 2.059 million percent of population: 71.4% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 61 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 22
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 9 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 39
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 36 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 1,921 km; refined products 121 km (2013)
Railways: total 1,768 km
broad gauge: 1,746 km 1.520-m gauge (122 km electrified) standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 84,166 km
paved: 72,297 km (includes 312 km of expressways)
unpaved: 11,869 km (2012)
Waterways: 441 km (navigable year round) (2007)
Merchant marine: total 38

by type: cargo 20, container 1, passenger/cargo 6, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 2

foreign-owned: 8 (Denmark 8)

registered in other countries: 22 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belize 1, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 1, Norway 1, Panama 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9, unknown 3) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Klaipeda
oil terminals: Butinge oil terminal LNG terminal(s) (import): Klaipeda
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 Military
Military branches: Lithuanian Armed Forces (Lietuvos Ginkluotosios Pajegos): Land Forces (Sausumos Pajegos), Naval Forces (Karines Juru Pajegos), Air Forces (Karines Oro Pajegos), Special Forces (Specialiuju Operaciju Pajegos); Volunteer Forces (Savanoriu Pajegos) (2015)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for military service; 9-month service obligation; Lithuania converted to a professional military in the fall of 2008, although the decision continues under judicial review; a new law passed in March 2015 restored conscription on a limited, 5-year basis; in March 2016, Lithuania's National Security and Defense Council recommended permanently restoring conscription service (2016)
Military expenditures: 1.48% of GDP (2016) 1.11% of GDP (2015) 0.9% of GDP (2014) 0.8% of GDP (2013) 0.97% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; boundary demarcated with Latvia and Lithuania; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 3,466 (2015)
Illicit drugs: transshipment and destination point for cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and opiates from Southwest Asia, Latin America, Western Europe, and neighboring Baltic countries; growing production of high-quality amphetamines, but limited production of cannabis, methamphetamines; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation
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