Liechtenstein Population: 37,009

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 Background
The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719. Occupied by both French and Russian troops during the Napoleonic Wars, it became a sovereign state in 1806 and joined the Germanic Confederation in 1815. Liechtenstein became fully independent in 1866 when the Confederation dissolved. Until the end of World War I, it was closely tied to Austria, but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to enter into a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral), the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth. In 2000, shortcomings in banking regulatory oversight resulted in concerns about the use of financial institutions for money laundering. However, Liechtenstein implemented anti-money laundering legislation and a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty with the US that went into effect in 2003.

 Geography
Along with Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation
Location: Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland
Geographic coordinates: 47 16 N, 9 32 E
Area: total: 160 sq km land: 160 sq km water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: total: 76 km border countries: Austria 34.9 km, Switzerland 41.1 km
Coastline: 0 km (doubly landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Ruggeller Riet 430 m highest point: Vorder-Grauspitz 2,599 m
Natural resources: hydroelectric potential, arable land
Land use: arable land: 21.88% permanent crops: 0% other: 78.12% (2011)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: NA
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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 People
Nationality: noun: Liechtensteiner(s) adjective: Liechtenstein
Ethnic groups: Liechtensteiner 65.6%, other 34.4% (2000 census)
Languages: German (official), Alemannic dialect
Religions: Roman Catholic (official) 76.2%, Protestant 7%, unknown 10.6%, other 6.2% (June 2002)
Population: 37,009 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.9% (male 3,101/female 2,785) 15-24 years: 11.7% (male 2,183/female 2,149) 25-54 years: 43.6% (male 8,026/female 8,110) 55-64 years: 13.4% (male 2,466/female 2,478) 65 years and over: 15.4% (male 2,570/female 3,141) (2013 est.)
Median age: total: 42.1 years
male: 41.1 years female: 43.1 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.81% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 10.67 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 6.89 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 4.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 14% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 0.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: VADUZ (capital) 5,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.26 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.36 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.64 deaths/1,000 live births female: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.59 years
male: 79.45 years female: 84.29 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.69 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Education expenditures: 2.1% of GDP (2008)
Literacy: definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 100% male: 100% female: 100%
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years
male: 16 years female: 14 years (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein conventional short form: Liechtenstein local long form: Fuerstentum Liechtenstein local short form: Liechtenstein
Government type: hereditary constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Vaduz geographic coordinates: 47 08 N, 9 31 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 11 communes (Gemeinden, singular - Gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz
Independence: 23 January 1719 (Principality of Liechtenstein established); 12 July 1806 (independence from the Holy Roman Empire); 24 August 1866 (independence from the German Confederation)
National holiday: Assumption Day, 15 August
Constitution: 5 October 1921; amended 15 September 2003
Legal system: civil law system influenced by Swiss, Austrian, and German law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers on 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968); note - on 15 August 2004, HANS ADAM transferred the official duties of the ruling prince to ALOIS, but HANS ADAM retains status of chief of state head of government: Head of Government (Prime Minister) Adrian HASLER (since 27 March 2013) cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Parliament, confirmed by the monarch (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Landtag usually appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the largest minority party in the Landtag usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch if there is a coalition government
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Landtag (25 seats; members elected by popular vote under proportional representation to serve four-year terms) elections: last held on 3 February 2013 (next to be held in February 2017) election results: percent of vote by party - FBP 40.0%, VU 33.5%, DU 15.3% FL 11.1%; seats by party - FBP 10, VU 8, DU 4, FL 3
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof (consists of 5 judges); Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgericht (consists of 5 judges and 5 alternates) judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts elected by the Landtag and appointed by the monarch; Supreme Court judges serve 4-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judge tenure NA subordinate courts: Court of Appeal or Obergericht (second instance), Court of Justice (first instance), Administrative Court, county courts
Political parties and leaders: The Free List (Die Freie Liste) or FL [Wolfgang MARXER] the independents (Die Unabhaengigen) or DU [Harry QUADERER] Progressive Citizens' Party (Fortschrittliche Buergerpartei) or FBP [Alexander BATLINER] Fatherland Union (Vaterlaendische Union) or VU [Jakob BUECHEL]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: CD, CE, EBRD, EFTA, IAEA, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WIPO, WTO
National symbol(s):
National anthem: name: "Oben am jungen Rhein" (High Above the Young Rhine) lyrics/music: Jakob Joseph JAUCH/Josef FROMMELT note: adopted 1850, revised 1963; the anthem uses the tune of "God Save the Queen"
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Claudia FRITSCHE chancery: 2900 K Street, NW, Suite 602B, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 331-0590 FAX: [1] (202) 331-3221
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Liechtenstein; the US Ambassador to Switzerland is accredited to Liechtenstein
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 Economy
Despite its small size and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service sector and likely the second highest per capita income in the world. The Liechtenstein economy is widely diversified with a large number of small businesses. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 20% - and easy incorporation rules have induced many holding companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein providing 30% of state revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the EU) since May 1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe. Since 2008, Liechtenstein has faced renewed international pressure - particularly from Germany - to improve transparency in its banking and tax systems. In December 2008, Liechtenstein signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement with the US. Upon Liechtenstein's conclusion of 12 bilateral information-sharing agreements, the OECD in October 2009 removed the principality from its "grey list" of countries that had yet to implement the organization's Model Tax Convention. By the end of 2010, Liechtenstein had signed 25 Tax Information Exchange Agreements or Double Tax Agreements. In 2011 Liechtenstein joined the Schengen area, which allows passport-free travel across 26 European countries.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $3.2 billion (2009) $3.216 billion (2008) $3.159 billion (2007)
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $5.113 billion (2010)
GDP - real growth rate: -0.5% (2009 est.) 1.8% (2008 est.) 3.1% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $89,400 (2009 est.) $90,600 (2008 est.) $89,700 (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, dental products, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism, optical instruments
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Labor force: 35,250 (2010) note: 51% of the labor force in Liechtenstein commuted daily from Austria, Switzerland, or Germany (2012)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 0.8% industry: 39.4% services: 59.9% (2010)
Unemployment rate: 2.5% (2011) 2.2% (2010)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $1.29 billion expenditures: $1.372 billion (2011 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 25.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.2% (2011) 0.7% (2010)
Exports: $3.76 billion (2011 est.) $3.191 billion (2010 est.) note: trade data exclude trade with Switzerland
Exports - commodities: small specialty machinery, connectors for audio and video, parts for motor vehicles, dental products, hardware, prepared foodstuffs, electronic equipment, optical products
Imports: $2.218 billion (2011 est.) $1.806 billion (2010 est.) note: trade data exclude trade with Switzerland
Imports - commodities: agricultural products, raw materials, energy products, machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
Debt - external: $0 (2001)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Swiss francs (CHF) per US dollar - 0.9374 (2012) 0.8876 (2011) 1.0429 (2010) 1.0881 (2009) 1.0774 (2008)
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 Energy
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 19,600 (2011) country comparison to the world: 191
Cellular Phones in use: 37,000 (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: automatic telephone system domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available; combined telephone service subscribership exceeds 150 per 100 persons international: country code - 423; linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay (2011)
Broadcast media: relies on foreign terrestrial and satellite broadcasters for most broadcast media services; first Liechtenstein-based TV station established August 2008; Radio Liechtenstein operates multiple radio stations; a Swiss-based broadcaster operates several radio stations in Liechtenstein (2008)
Internet country code: .li
Internet hosts: 14,278 (2012)
Internet users: 23,000 (2009)
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 Transportation
Pipelines: gas 20 km (2013)
Railways: total 9 km
standard gauge: 9 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified) note: belongs to the Austrian Railway System connecting Austria and Switzerland (2008)
Roadways: total 380 km
paved: 380 km (2010)
Waterways: 28 km (2010)
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 Military
Liechtenstein has no military forces, but the modern National Police maintains close relations with neighboring forces. (2013)
Military branches: no regular military forces; National Police maintains close relations with neighboring forces (2013)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 8,009 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 6,538 females age 16-49: 6,746 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 219 female: 211 (2010 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Refugees and internally displaced persons: stateless persons: 5 (2012)
Illicit drugs: has strengthened money laundering controls, but money laundering remains a concern due to Liechtenstein's sophisticated offshore financial services sector
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Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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