Lebanon Population: 4,131,583

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 History
Following World War I, France acquired a mandate over the northern portion of the former Ottoman Empire province of Syria. The French demarcated the region of Lebanon in 1920 and granted this area independence in 1943. Since independence the country has been marked by periods of political turmoil interspersed with prosperity built on its position as a regional center for finance and trade. The country's 1975-90 civil war that resulted in an estimated 120,000 fatalities, was followed by years of social and political instability. Sectarianism is a key element of Lebanese political life. Neighboring Syria has long influenced Lebanon's foreign policy and internal policies, and its military occupied Lebanon from 1976 until 2005. The Lebanon-based Hizballah militia and Israel continued attacks and counterattacks against each other after Syria's withdrawal, and fought a brief war in 2006. Lebanon's borders with Syria and Israel remain unresolved.

 Geography
Nahr el Litani is the only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity
Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria
Geographic coordinates: 33 50 N, 35 50 E
Area: total: 10,400 sq km
land: 10,230 sq km
water: 170 sq km

Size comparison: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut
Land Boundaries: total: 454 km
border countries: Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km
Coastline: 225 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows
Terrain: narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Qornet es Saouda 3,088 m
Natural resources: limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land
Land use: arable land: 10.72%
permanent crops: 12.06%
other: 77.22% (2011)
Irrigated land: 1,040 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
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 People
Nationality: noun: Lebanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Lebanese
Ethnic groups: Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1% note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab but rather as descendents of the ancient Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians
Languages: Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
Religions: Muslim 59.7% (Shia, Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian 39% (Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Melkite Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Syrian Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Syrian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Chaldean, Assyrian, Coptic, Protestant), other 1.3%

note: 17 religious sects recognized
Population: 4,131,583 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.1% (male 467,416/female 445,352)
15-24 years: 17.5% (male 368,097/female 353,518)
25-54 years: 42.4% (male 844,217/female 906,795)
55-64 years: 8.7% (male 165,271/female 193,312)
65 years and over: 9.4% (male 178,080/female 209,525) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 41.8 %
youth dependency ratio: 29.5 %
elderly dependency ratio: 12.3 %
potential support ratio: 8.1 (2013)
Median age: total: 30.9 years
male: 29.7 years
female: 32.1 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.04% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 14.79 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 6.73 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -8.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 87.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.86% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BEIRUT (capital) 1.909 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 25 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 14.81 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 14.98 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.46 years
male: 73.86 years
female: 77.13 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.75 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 58% (2004)
Health expenditures: 7% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 3.54 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 3.5 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 98% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 2% of population (2000 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,600 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 27.4% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 4.2% (2004)
Education expenditures: 1.7% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89.6%
male: 93.4%
female: 86% (2007 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 22.1%
male: 22.3%
female: 21.5% (2007)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Lebanese Republic
conventional short form: Lebanon
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah
local short form: Lubnan
former: Greater Lebanon
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Beirut
geographic coordinates: 33 52 N, 35 30 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 6 governorates (mohafazat, singular - mohafazah); Beqaa, Beyrouth (Beirut), Liban-Nord, Liban-Sud, Mont-Liban, Nabatiye

note: two new governorates - Aakkar and Baalbek-Hermel - have been legislated but not yet implemented
Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)
Constitution: 23 May 1926; amended a number of times, most recently in 1990 to include changes necessitated by the Charter of Lebanese National Reconciliation (Ta'if Accord) of October 1989
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law based on the French civil code, Ottoman legal tradition, and religious laws covering personal status, marriage, divorce, and other family relations of the Jewish, Islamic, and Christian communities
Suffrage: 21 years of age; compulsory for all males; authorized for women at age 21 with elementary education; excludes military personnel
Executive branch:

note: following the resignation of Prime Minister Najib MIQATI and his Cabinet on 22 March 2013, the government is in caretaker status until a new prime minister is named and a new cabinet is formed chief of state: President Michel SULAYMAN (since 25 May 2008)

head of government: Prime Minister Najib MIQATI (since 7 July 2011), Deputy Prime Minister Samir MOQBIL (since 7 July 2011)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president and members of the National Assembly (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a six-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 25 May 2008 (next to be held in 2014); the prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president in consultation with the National Assembly

election results: Michel SULAYMAN elected president; National Assembly vote - 118 for, 6 abstentions, 3 invalidated; 1 seat unfilled due to death of incumbent
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Nuwab (Arabic) or Assemblee Nationale (French) (128 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of sectarian proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 7 June 2009 (next to be held in 2013)

election results: percent of vote by group - March 8 Coalition 54.7%, March 14 Coalition 45.3%; seats by group - March 14 Coalition 71; March 8 Coalition 57; seats by party following 16 July 2012 byelection held to fill one seat - March 14 Coalition 72, March 8 Coalition 56
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (organized into 4 divisions, each with a presiding judge and 2 associate judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 10 members) judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by Supreme Judicial Council, headed by the chief justice, and includes other judicial officials; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the Council of Ministers and 5 by parliament; members serve 5-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (6); Courts of First Instance; specialized tribunals, religious courts; military courts
Political parties and leaders: 14 March Coalition: Democratic Left [Ilyas ATALLAH] Democratic Renewal Movement [Nassib LAHUD] Future Movement Bloc [Sa'ad al-HARIRI] Kataeb Party [Amine GEMAYEL] Lebanese Forces [Samir JA'JA] Tripoli Independent Bloc 8 March Coalition: Development and Resistance Bloc [Nabih BERRI, leader of Amal Movement] Free Patriotic Movement [Michel AWN] Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc [Mohammad RA'AD] (includes Hizballah [Hassan NASRALLAH]) Nasserite Popular Movement [Usama SAAD] Popular Bloc [Elias SKAFF] Syrian Ba'th Party [Sayez SHUKR] Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Ali QANSO] Tashnaq [Hovig MEKHITIRIAN] Independent: Democratic Gathering Bloc [Walid JUNBLATT, leader of Progressive Socialist Party] Metn Bloc [Michel MURR]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Maronite Church [Patriarch Bishara al-Ra'i] other: note - most sects retain militias and a number of militant groups operate in Palestinian refugee camps
International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): cedar tree
National anthem: name: "Kulluna lil-watan" (All Of Us, For Our Country!)
lyrics/music: Rachid NAKHLE/Wadih SABRA

note: adopted 1927; the anthem was chosen following a nationwide competition
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Antoine CHEDID
chancery: 2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6300
FAX: [1] (202) 939-6324
consulate(s) general: Detroit, New York, Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Maura CONNELLY
embassy: Awkar, Lebanon (Awkar facing the Municipality)
mailing address: P. O. Box 70-840, Antelias, Lebanon; from US: US Embassy Beirut, 6070 Beirut Place, Washington, DC 20521-6070
telephone: [961] (4) 542600, 543600
FAX: [961] (4) 544136
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 Economy
Lebanon has a free-market economy and a strong laissez-faire commercial tradition. The government does not restrict foreign investment; however, the investment climate suffers from red tape, corruption, arbitrary licensing decisions, complex customs procedures, high taxes, tariffs, and fees, archaic legislation, and weak intellectual property rights. The Lebanese economy is service-oriented; main growth sectors include banking and tourism. The 1975-90 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and derailed Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. Following the civil war, Lebanon rebuilt much of its war-torn physical and financial infrastructure by borrowing heavily - mostly from domestic banks - saddling the government with a huge debt burden. Pledges of economic and financial reforms made at separate international donor conferences during the 2000s have mostly gone unfulfilled, including those made during the Paris III Donor Conference in 2007 following the July 2006 war. The collapse of the government in early 2011 over its backing of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon and unrest in neighboring Syria slowed economic growth to the 1-2% range in 2011-12, after four years of 8% average growth. In September 2011 the Cabinet endorsed a bill that would provide $1.2 billion in funding to improve Lebanon''s downtrodden electricity sector, but fiscal limitations will test the government''s ability to invest in other areas, such as water.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $64.22 billion (2012 est.) $63.27 billion (2011 est.) $62.34 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $41.35 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (2012 est.) 1.5% (2011 est.) 7% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $16,000 (2012 est.) $16,000 (2011 est.) $16,000 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 17.7% of GDP (2012 est.) 22.2% of GDP (2011 est.) 13.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 81.5%
government consumption: 15.2%
investment in fixed capital: 32.9%
exports of goods and services: 19.2%
imports of goods and services: -48.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 81.5%
government consumption: 15.2%
investment in fixed capital: 32.9%
exports of goods and services: 19.2%
imports of goods and services: -48.8% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: citrus, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco; sheep, goats
Industries: banking, tourism, food processing, wine, jewelry, cement, textiles, mineral and chemical products, wood and furniture products, oil refining, metal fabricating
Industrial production growth rate: 2.1% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 1.481 million note: in addition, there are as many as 1 million foreign workers (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 28% (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $9.396 billion
expenditures: $13.32 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 22.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 127.5% of GDP (2012 est.) 133.2% of GDP (2011 est.)

note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.4% (2012 est.) 5.1% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$7.85 billion (2012 est.) -$4.163 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $5.662 billion (2012 est.) $5.386 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: jewelry, base metals, chemicals, miscellaneous consumer goods, fruit and vegetables, tobacco, construction minerals, electric power machinery and switchgear, textile fibers, paper
Exports - partners: South Africa 16.9%, Switzerland 10.7%, UAE 8.7%, Saudi Arabia 8.5%, Syria 6.4%, Iraq 4.4% (2012)
Imports: $20.38 billion (2012 est.) $19.3 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum products, cars, medicinal products, clothing, meat and live animals, consumer goods, paper, textile fabrics, tobacco, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners: US 11.2%, China 8.3%, Italy 7.8%, France 7.4%, Germany 5.4%, Turkey 4.7%, Egypt 4.1%, Greece 4.1% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $52.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $48.14 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $29.02 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $24.88 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $10.16 billion (31 December 2011) $12.59 billion (31 December 2010) $12.89 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: Lebanese pounds (LBP) per US dollar - 1,507.5 (2012 est.) 1,507.5 (2011 est.) 1,507.5 (2010 est.) 1,507.5 (2009) 1,507.5 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 12.98 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 87
Electricity - consumption: 12.34 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 1.155 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.314 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 87.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 12.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 106,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 102,300 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 15.24 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 900,000 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 82
Cellular Phones in use: 3.35 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: repair of the telecommunications system, severely damaged during the civil war, now complete

domestic: two mobile-cellular networks provide good service; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership roughly 100 per 100 persons

international: country code - 961; submarine cable links to Cyprus, Egypt, and Syria; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean); coaxial cable to Syria (2011)
Broadcast media: 7 TV stations, 1 of which is state-owned; more than 30 radio stations, 1 of which is state-owned; satellite and cable TV services available; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible through partner stations (2007)
Internet country code: .lb
Internet hosts: 64,926 (2012)
Internet users: 1 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 8 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 160
Airports (paved runways): total 5
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 3

914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 88 km (2013)
Railways: total 401 km
standard gauge: 319 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 82 km 1.050-m gauge

note: rail system unusable because of the damage done during fighting in the 1980s and in 2006 (2008)
Roadways: total 6,970 km
(includes 170 km of expressways) (2005)
Merchant marine: total 29

by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 7, carrier 17, vehicle carrier 1

foreign-owned: 2 (Syria 2)

registered in other countries: 34 (Barbados 2, Cambodia 5, Comoros 2, Egypt 1, Georgia 1, Honduras 2, Liberia 1, Malta 6, Moldova 1, Panama 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Sierra Leone 2, Togo 6, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Beirut, Tripoli
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 Military
Military branches: Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF): Lebanese Army ((Al Jaysh al Lubnani) includes Lebanese Navy (Al Quwwat al Bahiriyya al Lubnaniya), Lebanese Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Lubnaniya)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 17-30 years of age for voluntary military service; 18-24 years of age for officer candidates; no conscription (2013)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,081,016
females age 16-49: 1,115,349 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 920,825
females age 16-49: 941,806 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 36,856
female: 35,121 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Lebanon-Syria boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; since 2000, Lebanon has claimed Shab'a Farms area in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights; the roughly 2,000-strong UN Interim Force in Lebanon has been in place since 1978
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 436,154 (Palestinian refugees (UNRWA)) (2011); 6,516 (Iraq) (2012); 739,823 (Syria) (2013) IDPs: at least 47,000 (1975-90 civil war, 2007 Lebanese security forces' destruction of Palestinian refugee camp) (2011)
Illicit drugs: cannabis cultivation dramatically reduced to 2,500 hectares in 2002 despite continued significant cannabis consumption; opium poppy cultivation minimal; small amounts of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin transit country on way to European markets and for Middle Eastern consumption; money laundering of drug proceeds fuels concern that extremists are benefiting from drug trafficking
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