South Korea Population: 48,955,203

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 History
An independent kingdom for much of its long history, Korea was occupied by Japan beginning in 1905 following the Russo-Japanese War. In 1910, Tokyo formally annexed the entire Peninsula. Korea regained its independence following Japan's surrender to the United States in 1945. After World War II, a democratic-based government (Republic of Korea, ROK) was set up in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula while a communist-style government was installed in the north (Democratic People's Republic of Korea, DPRK). During the Korean War (1950-53), US troops and UN forces fought alongside ROK soldiers to defend South Korea from a DPRK invasion supported by China and the Soviet Union. A 1953 armistice split the peninsula along a demilitarized zone at about the 38th parallel. PARK Chung-hee took over leadership of the country in a 1961 coup. During his regime, from 1961 to 1979, South Korea achieved rapid economic growth, with per capita income rising to roughly 17 times the level of North Korea. South Korea held its first free presidential election under a revised democratic constitution in 1987, with former ROK Army general ROH Tae-woo winning a close race. In 1993, KIM Young-sam (1993-98) became South Korea's first civilian president. South Korea today is a fully functioning modern democracy. LEE Myung-bak (2008-2013) pursued a policy of global engagement , highlighted by Seoul's hosting of the G-20 summit in November 2010 and the Nuclear Security Summit in March 2012. South Korea also secured a non-permanent seat (2013-14) on the UN Security Council and will host the 2018 Winter Olympic Games. President PARK Geun-hye took office in February 2013 and is South Korea's first female leader. Serious tensions with North Korea have punctuated inter-Korean relations in recent years, including the North's sinking of the South Korean warship Cheonan in March 2010 and its artillery attack on South Korean soldiers and citizens in November 2010. In January 2013, South Korea assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2013-14 term.

 Geography
Strategic location on Korea Strait
Location: Eastern Asia, southern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea
Geographic coordinates: 37 00 N, 127 30 E
Area: total: 99,720 sq km
land: 96,920 sq km
water: 2,800 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Indiana
Land Boundaries: total: 238 km
border countries: North Korea 238 km
Coastline: 2,413 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm; between 3 nm and 12 nm in the Korea Strait
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: not specified
Climate: temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter
Terrain: mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m
highest point: Halla-san 1,950 m
Natural resources: coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead, hydropower potential
Land use: arable land: 14.93%
permanent crops: 2.06%
other: 83% (2011)
Irrigated land: 8,804 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; low-level seismic activity common in southwest volcanism: Halla (elev. 1,950 m) is considered historically active although it has not erupted in many centuries
Current Environment Issues: air pollution in large cities; acid rain; water pollution from the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents; drift net fishing
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Korean(s)
adjective: Korean
Ethnic groups: homogeneous (except for about 20,000 Chinese)
Languages: Korean, English (widely taught in junior high and high school)
Religions: Christian 31.6% (Protestant 24%, Roman Catholic 7.6%), Buddhist 24.2%, other or unknown 0.9%, none 43.3% (2010 survey)
Population: 48,955,203 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.6% (male 3,717,701/female 3,424,490)
15-24 years: 13.6% (male 3,525,050/female 3,117,198)
25-54 years: 47.8% (male 11,925,181/female 11,491,841)
55-64 years: 11.7% (male 2,842,996/female 2,907,730)
65 years and over: 12.3% (male 2,469,093/female 3,533,923) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 37.1 %
youth dependency ratio: 20.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 16.7 %
potential support ratio: 6 (2013)
Median age: total: 39.7 years
male: 38.2 years
female: 41 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.18% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 8.33 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 83.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.71% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: SEOUL (capital) 9.778 million; Busan (Pusan) 3.439 million; Incheon (Inch'on) 2.572 million; Daegu (Taegu) 2.458 million; Daejon (Taejon) 1.497 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 29.6 (2008 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 16 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.01 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.21 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.55 years
male: 76.4 years
female: 82.91 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.24 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 80% note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2009)
Health expenditures: 6.9% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 1.97 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 10.3 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 88% of population
total: 98% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 12% of population
total: 2% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 9,500 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 7.7% (2008)
Education expenditures: 5.1% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.9%
male: 99.2%
female: 96.6% (2002)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 17 years
male: 18 years
female: 16 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 9.6%
male: 12.1%
female: 8.1% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Korea
conventional short form: South Korea
local long form: Taehan-min'guk
local short form: Han'guk
abbreviation: ROK
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Seoul
geographic coordinates: 37 33 N, 126 59 E
time difference: UTC+9 (14 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural), 6 metropolitan cities (gwangyoksi, singular and plural), 1 special city, and 1 special self-governing city provinces: Chungbuk (North Chungcheong), Chungnam (South Chungcheong), Gangwon, Gyeonggi, Gyeongbuk (North Gyeongsang), Gyeongnam (South Gyeongsang), Jeju, Jeonbuk (North Jeolla), Jeonnam (South Jeolla) metropolitan cities: Busan (Pusan), Daegu (Taegu), Daejon (Taejon), Gwangju (Kwangju), Incheon (Inch'on), Ulsan special city: Seoul special self-governing city: Sejong
Independence: 15 August 1945 (from Japan)
National holiday: Liberation Day, 15 August (1945)
Constitution: 17 July 1948; note - amended or rewritten many times; current constitution approved 29 October 1987
Legal system: mixed legal system combining European civil law, Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought
Suffrage: 19 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President PARK Geun-hye (since 25 February 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister CHUNG Hong-won (since 26 February 2013); Deputy Prime Minister HYUN Oh-seok (since 26 June 2013)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the president on the prime minister's recommendation (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a single five-year term; PARK Geun-hye elected on 19 December 2012; next election to be held in December 2017; prime minister appointed by president with consent of National Assembly

election results: PARK Geun-Hye elected president on 19 December 2012; percent of vote - PARK Geun-Hye (NFP) 51.6%, MOON Jae-In (DUP) 48%, others 0.4%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Gukhoe (300 seats; 246 members elected in single-seat constituencies, 54 elected by proportional representation; members serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 April 2012 (next to be held in April 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NFP 152, DUP 127, UPP 13, LFP 5, independents 3
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of South Korea (consists of a chief justice and 13 justices); Constitutional Court (consists of a court head and 8 justices) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president with the consent of the National Assembly; other justices appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the chief justice and consent of the National Assembly; position of the chief justice is a 6-year non-renewable term; other justices serve 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court justices appointed - 3 by the president, 3 by the National Assembly, and 3 by the Supreme Court chief justice; court head serves until retirement at age 70, while other justices serve 6-year renewable terms with mandatory retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: High Courts; District Courts; Branch Courts (organized undeer the Branch Courts); specialized courts for family and administrative issues
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or DP (formerly the Democratic United Party or DUP) [KIM Han-gil] Liberty Forward Party or LFP (now part of the NFP) New Frontier Party (NFP) or Saenuri (formerly Grand National Party) [HWANG Woo-yea] Progressive Justice Party or PJP [ROH Hoe-chan and CHO Joon-ho] United Progressive Party or UPP [LEE Jung-hee]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Catholic Priests' Association for Justice Citizen's Coalition for Economic Justice Federation of Korean Industries Federation of Korean Trade Unions Korean Confederation of Trade Unions Korean Veterans' Association Lawyers for a Democratic Society National Council of Churches People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy
International organization participation: ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CICA, CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): taegeuk (yin yang symbol)
National anthem: name: "Aegukga" (Patriotic Song)
lyrics/music: YUN Ch'i-Ho or AN Ch'ang-Ho/AHN Eaktay

note: adopted 1948, well known by 1910; both North Korea and South Korea's anthems share the same name and have a vaguely similar melody but have different lyrics
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador AHN Ho-young
chancery: 2450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-5600
FAX: [1] (202) 797-0595
consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Seattle consulate(s) general: Anchorage (AK)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sung Y. KIM
embassy: 188 Sejong-daero, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-710
mailing address: US Embassy Seoul, Unit 15550, APO AP 96205-5550
telephone: [82] (2) 397-4200
FAX: [82] (2) 725-0152
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 Economy
South Korea over the past four decades has demonstrated incredible growth and global integration to become a high-tech industrialized economy. In the 1960s, GDP per capita was comparable with levels in the poorer countries of Africa and Asia. In 2004, South Korea joined the trillion dollar club of world economies, and is currently the world's 12th largest economy. Initially, a system of close government and business ties, including directed credit and import restrictions, made this success possible. The government promoted the import of raw materials and technology at the expense of consumer goods, and encouraged savings and investment over consumption. The Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 exposed longstanding weaknesses in South Korea's development model including high debt/equity ratios and massive short-term foreign borrowing. GDP plunged by 6.9% in 1998, and then recovered by 9% in 1999-2000. Korea adopted numerous economic reforms following the crisis, including greater openness to foreign investment and imports. Growth moderated to about 4% annually between 2003 and 2007. Korea''s export focused economy was hit hard by the 2008 global economic downturn, but quickly rebounded in subsequent years, reaching 6.3% growth in 2010. The US-South Korea Free Trade Agreement was ratified by both governments in 2011 and went into effect in March 2012. Throughout 2012 the economy experienced sluggish growth because of market slowdowns in the United States, China, and the Eurozone. The incoming administration in 2013, following the December 2012 presidential election, is likely to face the challenges of balancing heavy reliance on exports with developing domestic-oriented sectors, such as services. The South Korean economy''s long term challenges include a rapidly aging population, inflexible labor market, and heavy reliance on exports - which comprise half of GDP.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.64 trillion (2012 est.) $1.608 trillion (2011 est.) $1.552 trillion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $1.156 trillion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2% (2012 est.) 3.6% (2011 est.) 6.3% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $32,800 (2012 est.) $32,300 (2011 est.) $31,400 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 31.4% of GDP (2012 est.) 31.9% of GDP (2011 est.) 32.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 53.5%
government consumption: 15.8%
investment in fixed capital: 26.7%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 56.5%
imports of goods and services: -53.4% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 53.5%
government consumption: 15.8%
investment in fixed capital: 26.7%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 56.5%
imports of goods and services: -53.4% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, root crops, barley, vegetables, fruit; cattle, pigs, chickens, milk, eggs; fish
Industries: electronics, telecommunications, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding, steel
Industrial production growth rate: 1.7% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 25.5 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 6.2%
industry: 23.8%
services: 70% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 3.2% (2012 est.) 3.4% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 16.5% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 6.4%
highest 10%: 37.7% (2011)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 41.9 (2011) 35.8 (2000)
Budget: revenues: $276.5 billion
expenditures: $260.1 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 23.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 36.7% of GDP (2012 est.) 36.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (2012 est.) 4% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: $3.14 billion (2012 est.) $26.51 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $552.6 billion (2012 est.) $551.8 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: semiconductors, wireless telecommunications equipment, motor vehicles, computers, steel, ships, petrochemicals
Exports - partners: China 24.4%, US 10.1%, Japan 7.1% (2011 est.)
Imports: $514.2 billion (2012 est.) $520.1 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil, steel, transport equipment, organic chemicals, plastics
Imports - partners: China 16.5%, Japan 13%, US 8.5%, Saudi Arabia 7.1%, Australia 5% (2011 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $327 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $306.4 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $413.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $398.7 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $138.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $133.7 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $327.5 billion (31 December 2012) $190.4 billion (31 December 2011)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $1.024 trillion (31 December 2012) $994.3 billion (31 December 2011) $1.089 trillion (31 December 2010)
Exchange rates: South Korean won (KRW) per US dollar - 1,126.47 (2012 est.) 1,108.29 (2011 est.) 1,156.1 (2010 est.) 1,276.93 (2009) 1,101.7 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 459.5 billion kWh (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 11
Electricity - consumption: 455.1 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2011)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2011)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 80.59 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 69.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 22% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 19,990 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 2.59 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: NA bbl
Refined petroleum products - production: 2.83 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 2.26 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 907,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 753,900 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Natural gas - production: 539.3 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 45.9 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 46.83 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 5.748 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 579 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 29.468 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 11
Cellular Phones in use: 52.507 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: excellent domestic and international services featuring rapid incorporation of new technologies

domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available with a combined telephone subscribership of roughly 170 per 100 persons; rapid assimilation of a full range of telecommunications technologies leading to a boom in e-commerce

international: country code - 82; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 66 (2011)
Broadcast media: multiple national TV networks with 2 of the 3 largest networks publicly operated; the largest privately owned network, Seoul Broadcasting Service (SBS), has ties with other commercial TV networks; cable and satellite TV subscription services available; publicly operated radio broadcast networks and many privately owned radio broadcasting networks, each with multiple affiliates, and independent local stations (2010)
Internet country code: .kr
Internet hosts: 315,697 (2012)
Internet users: 39.4 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 111 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 53
Airports (paved runways): total 71
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 23 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 40

914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 38 (2013)
Heliports: 466 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 2,216 km; oil 16 km; refined products 889 km (2013)
Railways: total 3,381 km
standard gauge: 3,381 km 1.435-m gauge (1,843 km electrified) (2008)
Roadways: total 103,029 km
paved: 80,642 km (includes 3,367 km of expressways)
unpaved: 22,387 km (2008)
Waterways: 1,600 km (most navigable only by small craft) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 786

by type: bulk carrier 191, cargo 235, carrier 8, chemical tanker 130, container 72, liquefied gas 44, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 15, petroleum tanker 55, refrigerated cargo 15, roll on/roll off 10, vehicle carrier 6

foreign-owned: 31 (China 6, France 2, Japan 14, Taiwan 1, US 8)

registered in other countries: 457 (Bahamas 1, Cambodia 10, Ghana 1, Honduras 6, Hong Kong 3, Indonesia 2, Kiribati 1, Liberia 2, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 41, North Korea 1, Panama 373, Philippines 1, Russia 1, Singapore 3, Tuvalu 1, unknown 8) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major ports: Incheon, Pohang, Busan, Ulsan, Yeosu container ports: Busan (16,163,842), Kwangyang (2,061,958), Incheon (1,924,644)
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 Military
Military branches: Republic of Korea Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps), Air Force (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 20-30 years of age for compulsory military service, with middle school education required; conscript service obligation - 21 months (Army, Marines), 23 months (Navy), 24 months (Air Force); 18-26 years of age for voluntary military service; women, in service since 1950, admitted to 7 service branches, including infantry, but excluded from artillery, armor, anti-air, and chaplaincy corps; HIV-positive individuals are exempt from military service (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 13,185,794
females age 16-49: 12,423,496 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 10,864,566
females age 16-49: 10,168,709 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 365,760
female: 321,225 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 2.7% of GDP (2006)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km-wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic incidents with North Korea in the Yellow Sea over the Northern Limit Line, which South Korea claims as a maritime boundary; South Korea and Japan claim Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima), occupied by South Korea since 1954
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 179 (2012)
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