Kyrgyzstan Population: 5,548,042

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 Background
A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of Kyrgyzstan was formally annexed to Russia in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. Kyrgyzstan became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAEV, who had run the country since 1990. Subsequent presidential elections in July 2005 were won overwhelmingly by former prime minister Kurmanbek BAKIEV. Over the next few years, the new president manipulated the parliament to accrue new powers for himself. In July 2009, after months of harassment against his opponents and media critics, BAKIEV won re-election in a presidential campaign that the international community deemed flawed. In April 2010, violent protests in Bishkek led to the collapse of the BAKIEV regime and his eventual fleeing to Minsk, Belarus. His successor, Roza OTUNBAEVA, served as transitional president until Almazbek ATAMBAEV was inaugurated in December 2011. Continuing concerns include: the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, poor interethnic relations, and terrorism.

 Geography
Landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
Location: Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan
Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 75 00 E
Area: total: 199,951 sq km land: 191,801 sq km water: 8,150 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land Boundaries: total: 3,051 km border countries: China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,224 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
Terrain: peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
Natural resources: abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
Land use: arable land: 6.38% permanent crops: 0.37% other: 93.24% note: Kyrgyzstan has the world's largest natural-growth walnut forest (2011)
Irrigated land: 10,210 sq km (2005)
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Kyrgyzstani(s) adjective: Kyrgyzstani
Ethnic groups: Kyrgyz 64.9%, Uzbek 13.8%, Russian 12.5%, Dungan 1.1%, Ukrainian 1%, Uighur 1%, other 5.7% (1999 census)
Languages: Kyrgyz (official) 64.7%, Uzbek 13.6%, Russian (official) 12.5%, Dungun 1%, other 8.2% (1999 census)
Religions: Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%
Population: 5,548,042 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.7% (male 842,511/female 805,295) 15-24 years: 19.4% (male 547,456/female 530,702) 25-54 years: 39.2% (male 1,063,702/female 1,111,423) 55-64 years: 6.8% (male 162,851/female 213,254) 65 years and over: 4.9% (male 104,129/female 166,719) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 52.7 % youth dependency ratio: 46.4 % elderly dependency ratio: 6.4 % potential support ratio: 15.7 (2013)
Median age: total: 25.4 years
male: 24.5 years female: 26.4 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.97% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 23.67 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 6.83 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -7.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 35.3% of total population (2011) rate of urbanization: 1.31% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BISHKEK (capital) 854,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 23.6 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 71 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 29.73 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 34.05 deaths/1,000 live births female: 25.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.75 years
male: 65.58 years female: 74.21 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.71 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 47.8% (2005/06)
Health expenditures: 6.2% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 2.3 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density: 5.06 beds/1,000 population (2007)
Drinking water source: improved: urban: 99% of population rural: 85% of population total: 90% of population unimproved: urban: 1% of population rural: 15% of population total: 10% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved: urban: 94% of population rural: 93% of population total: 93% of population unimproved: urban: 6% of population rural: 7% of population total: 7% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 9,800 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 15.5% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 2.7% (2006)
Education expenditures: 5.8% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.2% male: 99.5% female: 99% (2009 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years
male: 12 years female: 13 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 14.6%
male: 13.6% female: 16.2% (2006)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy local short form: Kyrgyzstan former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Bishkek geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (oblastlar, singular - oblasty) and 1 city* (shaar); Batken Oblasty, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol) note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence: 31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
Constitution: 27 June 2010
Legal system: civil law system which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Almazbek ATAMBAEV (since 1 December 2011) head of government: Prime Minister Jantoro SATYBALDIEV (since 5 September 2012); First Deputy Prime Minister - Joomart OTORBAEV (since 5 September 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers - Tayyrbek SARPASHEV and Kamila TALIEVA (since 5 September 2012), Tokon MAMYTOV (since 19 June 2013) cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president; ministers in charge of defense and security are appointed solely by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held on 30 October 2011 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister nominated by the parliamentary party holding more than 50% of the seats; if no such party exists, the president selects the party that will form a coalition majority and government election results: Almazbek ATAMBAEV elected president; percent of vote - Almazbek ATAMBAEV 63.2%, Adakhan MADUMAROV 14.7%, Kamchybek TASHIEV 14.3%, other 7.8%; Jantoro SATYBALDIEV elected prime minister; parliamentary vote - 111-2
Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kengesh (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held on 10 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015) election results: Supreme Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Ata-Jurt 28, SDPK 26, Ar-Namys 25, Respublika 23, Ata-Meken 18
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 25 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president; Supreme Court judges serve for 10 years, Constitutional Court judges serve for 15 years; mandatory retirement at age 70 for judges of both courts subordinate courts: Higher Court of Arbitration; oblast (provincial) and city courts
Political parties and leaders: Ar-Namys (Dignity) Party [Feliks KULOV] Ata-Jurt (Homeland) [Kamchybek TASHIEV, Akhmat KELDIBEKOV] Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAEV] Butun Kyrgyzstan (All Kyrgyzstan) [Adakhan MADUMAROV] Respublika [Omurbek BABANOV] Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan (SDPK) [Almazbek ATAMBAEV]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Adilet (Justice) Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA] Citizens Against Corruption [Tolekan ISMAILOVA] Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA] Kylym Shamy (Torch of the Century) [Aziza ABDIRASULOVA] Precedent Partnership Group [Nurbek TOKTAKUNOV] Societal Analysis Public Association [Rita KARASARTOVA] Union of True Muslims [Nurlan MOTUEV]
International organization participation: ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): gyrfalcon
National anthem: name: "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni" (National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic) lyrics/music: Djamil SADYKOV and Eshmambet KULUEV/Nasyr DAVLESOV and Kalyi MOLDOBASANOV note: adopted 1992
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mukhtar JUMALIEV chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 449-9822 FAX: [1] (202) 386-7550 consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela SPRATLEN embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016 mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [996] (312) 551-241, (517) 777-217 FAX: [996] (312) 551-264
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 Economy
Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with a dominant agricultural sector. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and electricity. The economy depends heavily on gold exports - mainly from output at the Kumtor gold mine - and on remittances from Kyrgyzstani migrant workers primarily in Russia. Following independence, Kyrgyzstan was progressive in carrying out market reforms, such as an improved regulatory system and land reform. Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. Much of the government's stock in enterprises has been sold. Drops in production had been severe after the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991, but by mid-1995, production began to recover and exports began to increase. In 2005, the BAKIEV government and international financial institutions initiated a comprehensive medium-term poverty reduction and economic growth strategy. The government made steady strides in controlling its substantial fiscal deficit, nearly closing the gap between revenues and expenditures in 2006, before boosting expenditures more than 20% in 2007-08. GDP grew about 8% annually in 2007-08, partly due to higher gold prices internationally, but slowed to 2.9% in 2009. The overthrow of President BAKIEV in April 2010 and subsequent ethnic clashes left hundreds dead and damaged infrastructure. Shrinking trade and agricultural production, as well as the political instability caused by the change in government, caused GDP to contract 0.5% in 2010. The fiscal deficit widened to 11% of GDP in 2010, reflecting significant increases in crisis-related spending, including both rehabilitation of damaged infrastructure and bank recapitalization. The economy grew 5.7% in 2011, but slowed to around 1% in 2012, primarily due to an 83% decrease in production from Kumtor. As a result, the budget deficit increased at year's end. Progress in fighting corruption, improving transparency in licensing, business permits and taxations, restructuring domestic industry, and attracting foreign aid and investment are key to future growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $13.5 billion (2012 est.) $13.62 billion (2011 est.) $12.85 billion (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $6.473 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -0.9% (2012 est.) 6% (2011 est.) -0.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,400 (2012 est.) $2,500 (2011 est.) $2,300 (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 2.4% of GDP (2012 est.) 19% of GDP (2011 est.) 18.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 86.5% government consumption: 20.7% investment in fixed capital: 25.7% investment in inventories: -0.5% exports of goods and services: 53.3% imports of goods and services: -85.7% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 86.5% government consumption: 20.7% investment in fixed capital: 25.7% investment in inventories: -0.5% exports of goods and services: 53.3% imports of goods and services: -85.7% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
Industries: small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
Industrial production growth rate: -20% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 2.344 million (2007)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 48% industry: 12.5% services: 39.5% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8.6% (2011 est.) 18% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: 33.7% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 27.8% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 33.4 (2007) 29 (2001)
Budget: revenues: $1.908 billion expenditures: $2.138 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 29.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (2012 est.) 16.5% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$546.3 million (2012 est.) -$252.4 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $2 billion (2012 est.) $2.271 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: gold, cotton, wool, garments, meat, tobacco; mercury, uranium, electricity; machinery; shoes
Exports - partners: Uzbekistan 28.8%, Kazakhstan 22%, Russia 14.6%, China 7%, UAE 6.3%, Afghanistan 5.7% (2012)
Imports: $4.981 billion (2012 est.) $3.936 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: China 55.9%, Russia 17.7%, Kazakhstan 6.4% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.066 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.835 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $3.722 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $5.486 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $1.572 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.312 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $39.6 million (31 December 2012 est.) $39.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $165 million (31 December 2011) $79 million (31 December 2010) $71.84 million (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: soms (KGS) per US dollar - 47.005 (2012 est.) 46.144 (2011 est.) 45.964 (2010 est.) 42.905 (2009) 36.108 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 14.9 billion kWh (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 82
Electricity - consumption: 7.29 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 2.62 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - imports: 535 million kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 3.64 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 20.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 79.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 1,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 2,387 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 40 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 2,607 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 16,640 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 5,902 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 28,940 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 12.5 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 462.5 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: NA (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 450 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 4.131 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 502,000 (2011) country comparison to the world: 99
Cellular Phones in use: 6.277 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is being upgraded; loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) are being used to install a digital network, digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links domestic: fixed-line penetration remains low and concentrated in urban areas; multiple mobile-cellular service providers with growing coverage; mobile-cellular subscribership was about 115 per 100 persons in 2011 international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat); connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line (2011)
Broadcast media: state-run TV broadcaster operates 2 nationwide networks and 6 regional stations; roughly 20 private TV stations operating with most rebroadcasting other channels; state-run radio broadcaster operates 2 networks; about 20 private radio stations (2007)
Internet country code: .kg
Internet hosts: 115,573 (2012)
Internet users: 2.195 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 28 (2013) country comparison to the world: 122
Airports (paved runways): total 18
over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 8 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 480 km; oil 16 km (2013)
Railways: total 470 km
broad gauge: 470 km 1.520-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 34,000 km
(2003)
Waterways: 600 km (2010)
Ports and terminals: Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)
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 Military
Military branches: Ground Forces, Air Force (includes Air Defense Forces) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary male military service in the Armed Forces or Interior Ministry; service obligation - 1 year, with optional fee-based 3-year service in the callup mobilization reserve; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2013)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,456,881 females age 16-49: 1,470,317 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,119,224 females age 16-49: 1,257,263 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 56,606 female: 54,056 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 2.8% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of 130 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes over enclaves and other areas
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 172,000 (June 2010 violence in southern Kyrgyzstan between the Kyrgyz majority and the Uzbek minority) (2012) stateless persons: 15,473 (2012); note - most stateless people were born in Kyrgystan, have lived there many years, or are married to a Kyrgyz citizen; in 2009, Kyrgyzstan adopted a national action plan to speed up the exchange of old Soviet passports for Kyrgyz ones; stateless people are unable to register marriages and births, to travel within the country or abroad, to own property, or to receive social benefits
Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates
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Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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