Italy Population: 61,482,297

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 History
Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include sluggish economic growth, high youth and female unemployment, organized crime, corruption, and economic disparities between southern Italy and the more prosperous north.

 Geography
Strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe
Location: Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia
Geographic coordinates: 42 50 N, 12 50 E
Area: total: 301,340 sq km
land: 294,140 sq km
water: 7,200 sq km

note: includes Sardinia and Sicily

Size comparison: slightly larger than Arizona
Land Boundaries: total: 1,899.2 km
border countries: Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 199 km, Switzerland 740 km
Coastline: 7,600 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc)
Natural resources: coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land
Land use: arable land: 22.57%
permanent crops: 8.37%
other: 69.07% (2011)
Irrigated land: 39,510 sq km (2007)
Natural hazards: regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Etna (elev. 3,330 m), which is in eruption as of 2010, is Europe's most active volcano; flank eruptions pose a threat to nearby Sicilian villages; Etna, along with the famous Vesuvius, which remains a threat to the millions of nearby residents in the Bay of Naples area, have both been deemed "Decade Volcanoes" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Stromboli, on its namesake island, has also been continuously active with moderate volcanic activity; other historically active volcanoes include Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Larderello, Pantelleria, Vulcano, and Vulsini
Current Environment Issues: air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Italian(s)
adjective: Italian
Ethnic groups: Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)
Languages: Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
Religions: Christian 80% (overwhelming Roman Catholic with very small groups of Jehova Witnesses and Protestants), Muslims NEGL (about 700,000 but growing), Atheists and Agnostics 20%
Population: 61,482,297 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 13.8% (male 4,335,746/female 4,148,249)
15-24 years: 9.9% (male 3,059,140/female 3,035,991)
25-54 years: 43.2% (male 13,133,733/female 13,416,626)
55-64 years: 12.3% (male 3,675,324/female 3,913,918)
65 years and over: 20.8% (male 5,454,283/female 7,309,287) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 54.3 %
youth dependency ratio: 21.7 %
elderly dependency ratio: 32.6 %
potential support ratio: 3.1 (2013)
Median age: total: 44.2 years
male: 43 years
female: 45.3 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.34% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 8.94 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 10.01 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 4.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 68% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: ROME (capital) 3.357 million; Milan 2.962 million; Naples 2.27 million; Turin 1.662 million; Palermo 872,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 27.7 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 4 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.33 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.54 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.95 years
male: 79.32 years
female: 84.73 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.41 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 62.7% note: percent of women aged 20-49 (1995/96)
Health expenditures: 9.5% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 4.24 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 3.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 140,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 19.8% (2008)
Education expenditures: 4.7% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99.2%
female: 98.7% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 29.1%
male: 27.1%
female: 32% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Italian Republic
conventional short form: Italy
local long form: Repubblica Italiana
local short form: Italia former: Kingdom of Italy
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Rome
geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 29 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 15 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 5 autonomous regions (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma) regions: Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Lazio (Latium), Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte (Piedmont), Puglia (Apulia), Toscana (Tuscany), Umbria, Veneto (Venetia) autonomous regions: Friuli-Venezia Giulia; Sardegna (Sardinia); Sicilia (Sicily); Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-South Tyrol) or Trentino-Suedtirol (German); Valle d'Aosta (Aosta Valley) or Vallee d'Aoste (French)
Independence: 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1870)
National holiday: Republic Day, 2 June (1946)
Constitution: passed 11 December 1947, effective 1 January 1948; amended many times
Legal system: civil law system; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25)
Executive branch: chief of state: President Giorgio NAPOLITANO (since 15 May 2006)

head of government: Prime Minister Enrico LETTA (since 17 April 2013); note - the prime minister is referred to as the President of the Council of Ministers

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and nominated by the President of the Republic (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of parliament and 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by parliament; note - elections were held in February, but resulted in a political stalemate to be determined by formal talks beginning in March; by mid-April 2013 no governing coaliton has been formed; on 18 April 2013 indirect elections for president were begun; on the sixth round Giorgio NAPOLITANO was elected president with 739 votes

election results: Giorgio NAPOLITANO elected president on the sixth round of voting; electoral college vote - 739
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (315 seats; members elected by proportional vote with the winning coalition in each region receiving 55% of seats from that region; members to serve five-year terms; and up to 5 senators for life appointed by the president of the Republic) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; members elected by popular vote with the winning national coalition receiving 54% of chamber seats; members to serve five-year terms); note - it has not been clarified if each president has the power to designate up to five senators or if five is the number of senators for life who might sit in the Senate

elections: Senate - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Pier Luigi BERSANI coalition 123 (PD 111, SEL 7, SVP 2, other 3), Silvio BERLUSCONI coalition 117 (PdL 98, LN 18, other 1), M5S 54, Mario MONTI coalition 19, other 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Pier Luigi BERSANI coalition 345 (PD 297, SEL 37, CD 6 SVP 5), Silvio BERLUSCONI coalition 125 (PdL 98, LN 18, FdI 9), M5S 109, Mario MONTI coalition 47, other 4; note - President NAPOLITANO dissolved Parliament on 22 December 2012
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation or Corte Suprema di Cassazione (organized into penal, civil, administrative, and military divisions, each with a president and several judges); Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (consists of 15 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Superior Council of the Judiciary, headed by the president, to serve NA terms; Constitutional Court judges - 5 appointed by the president, 5 elected by parliament, 5 elected by select higher courts; judges serve up to 9 years)

subordinate courts: various lower civil and criminal courts (primary and secondary tribunals, courts, and courts of appeal)
Political parties and leaders: Center-right coalition [Silvio BERLUSCONI]: People of Freedom or PdL [Silvio BERLUSCONI] Northern League or LN [Roberto MARONI] Brothers of Italy or Fdl [Giorgia MELONI and Ignazio LA RUSSA] The Right or LD [Francesco STORACE] other minor parties Italy Common Good (Center-Left) [Pier Luigi BERSANI]: Democratic Party or PD [Pier Luigi BERSANI] Left Ecology Freedom or SEL [Nichi VENDOLA] Italian Socialist Party or PSI [Riccardo NENCINI] Democratic Centre or CD [Bruno TABACCI and Massimo DONADI] South Tyrolean People's Party or SVP [Luis DURNWALDER] With Monti for Italy (Centrist): Civic Choice or SC [Mario MONTI] Union of the Center or UdC [Pier Ferdinando CASINI] Future and Freedom for Italy or FLI [Gianfranco FINI] other coalitions and parties: Civil Revolution or RC [Antonio INGROIA] Act to Stop the Decline or FiD [Oscar GIANNINO] Five Star Movment or M5S [Beppe GRILLO]
Political pressure groups and leaders: manufacturers and merchants associations - Confcommercio; Confindustria organized farm groups - Confcoltivatori; Confagricoltura; Roman Catholic Church three major trade union confederations - Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Susanna CAMUSSO] which is left wing; Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNI], which is Roman Catholic centrist; Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] which is lay centrist
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): white, five-pointed star (Stella d'Italia)
National anthem: name: "Il Canto degli Italiani" (The Song of the Italians)
lyrics/music: Goffredo MAMELI/Michele NOVARO

note: adopted 1946; the anthem, originally written in 1847, is also known as "L'Inno di Mameli" (Mameli's Hymn), and "Fratelli D'Italia" (Brothers of Italy)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Claudio BISOGNIERO
chancery: 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-4400
FAX: [1] (202) 518-2154
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco consulate(s): Detroit, Newark (NJ), San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador David THORNE
embassy: Via Vittorio Veneto 121, 00187-Rome mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624
telephone: [39] (06) 46741
FAX: [39] (06) 4674-2244
consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples
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 Economy
Italy has a diversified industrial economy, which is divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, highly subsidized, agricultural south, where unemployment is high. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family-owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 17% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors. Italy is the third-largest economy in the euro-zone, but its exceptionally high public debt and structural impediments to growth have rendered it vulnerable to scrutiny by financial markets. Public debt has increased steadily since 2007, topping 126% of GDP in 2012, and investor concerns about the broader euro-zone crisis at times have caused borrowing costs on sovereign government debt to rise to euro-era records. During the second half of 2011 the government passed three austerity packages to reduce its budget deficit and help bring down borrowing costs. These measures included a hike in the value-added tax, pension reforms, and cuts to public administration. The government also faces pressure from investors and European partners to sustain its recent efforts to address Italy's long-standing structural impediments to growth, such as labor market inefficiencies and widespread tax evasion. In 2012 economic growth and labor market conditions deteriorated, with growth at -2.3% and unemployment rising to nearly 11%, with youth unemployment around 35%. The government has undertaken several reform initiatives designed to increase long-term economic growth. Italy's GDP is now 7% below its 2007 pre-crisis level.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.863 trillion (2012 est.) $1.908 trillion (2011 est.) $1.901 trillion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $2.014 trillion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -2.4% (2012 est.) 0.4% (2011 est.) 1.7% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $30,600 (2012 est.) $31,500 (2011 est.) $31,500 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 16.9% of GDP (2012 est.) 16.5% of GDP (2011 est.) 16.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 60.7%
government consumption: 20.5%
investment in fixed capital: 18.2%
investment in inventories: -0.6%
exports of goods and services: 30.3%
imports of goods and services: -29.1% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 60.7%
government consumption: 20.5%
investment in fixed capital: 18.2%
investment in inventories: -0.6%
exports of goods and services: 30.3%
imports of goods and services: -29.1% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish
Industries: tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
Industrial production growth rate: -4.2% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 25.65 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 3.9%
industry: 28.3%
services: 67.8% (2011)
Unemployment rate: 10.6% (2012 est.) 8.4% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 19.6% (2011)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 26.8% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 31.9 (2011) 27.3 (1995)
Budget: revenues: $972.5 billion
expenditures: $1.034 trillion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 48.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 127% of GDP (2012 est.) 120.8% of GDP (2011 est.)

note: Italy reports its data on public debt according to guidelines set out in the Maastricht Treaty; general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year, in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the central government, state government, local government and social security funds
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (2012 est.) 2.9% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$30.3 billion (2012 est.) -$71.87 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $478.9 billion (2012 est.) $503.1 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; food, beverages and tobacco; minerals, nonferrous metals
Exports - partners: Germany 12.8%, France 11.3%, US 6.6%, Switzerland 5.8%, UK 5%, Spain 4.8% (2012)
Imports: $453.5 billion (2012 est.) $524 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, and tobacco
Imports - partners: Germany 15.7%, France 8.9%, China 7%, Netherlands 5.8%, Spain 4.8%, Belgium 4.1% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $181.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $173.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $2.493 trillion (31 December 2012 est.) $2.35 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $453.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $436.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $661.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $617 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $431.5 billion (31 December 2011) $318.1 billion (31 December 2010) $317.3 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7778 (2012 est.) 0.7185 (2011 est.) 0.755 (2010 est.) 0.7198 (2009 est.) 0.6827 (2008 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 302.6 billion kWh (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 13
Electricity - consumption: 313.8 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - exports: 1.787 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - imports: 47.52 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 122.3 million kW (2011 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 65% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 18% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 15.8% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Crude oil - production: 99,200 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 6,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 1.591 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 523.2 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 1.887 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1.454 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 628,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 393,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas - production: 8.364 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 77.83 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 123 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 70.37 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 66 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 416.4 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 22.116 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 13
Cellular Phones in use: 96.005 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services

domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks

international: country code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat (2011)
Broadcast media: two Italian media giants dominate - the publicly owned Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI) with 3 national terrestrial stations and privately owned Mediaset with 3 national terrestrial stations; a large number of private stations and Sky Italia - a satellite TV network; RAI operates 3 AM/FM nationwide radio stations; some 1,300 commercial radio stations (2007)
Internet country code: .it
Internet hosts: 25.662 million (2012)
Internet users: 29.235 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 129 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 45
Airports (paved runways): total 98
over 3,047 m: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 31
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 31

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 20 (2013)
Heliports: 5 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 20,223 km; oil 1,393 km; refined products 1,574 km (2013)
Railways: total 20,255 km
standard gauge: 18,611 km 1.435-m gauge (12,662 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 123 km 1.000-m gauge (123 km electrified); 1,290 km 0.950-m gauge (151 km electrified); 231 km 0.850-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 487,700 km
paved: 487,700 km (includes 6,700 km of expressways) (2007)
Waterways: 2,400 km (used for commercial traffic; of limited overall value compared to road and rail) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 681

by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 42, carrier 1, chemical tanker 164, container 21, liquefied gas 28, passenger 25, passenger/cargo 154, petroleum tanker 59, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 39, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 30

foreign-owned: 90 (Denmark 4, France 2, Greece 7, Luxembourg 14, Netherlands 2, Nigeria 1, Norway 6, Singapore 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 13, Taiwan 10, Turkey 4, UK 2, US 23)

registered in other countries: 201 (Bahamas 1, Belize 3, Cayman Islands 7, Cyprus 6, Georgia 2, Gibraltar 4, Greece 5, Liberia 47, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 1, Morocco 1, Netherlands 6, Panama 25, Portugal 12, Russia 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4, Singapore 5, Slovakia 2, Spain 1, Sweden 5, Turkey 1, UK 3, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Augusta, Cagliari, Genoa, Livorno, Taranto, Trieste, Venice
oil terminals: Melilli (Santa Panagia) oil terminal, Sarroch oil terminal
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 Military
Military branches: Italian Armed Forces: Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare Italiana, MMI), Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), Carabinieri Corps (Arma dei Carabinieri, CC) (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; women may serve in any military branch; Italian citizenship required; 12-month service obligation (2013)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 13,865,688
females age 16-49: 14,003,755 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 11,247,446
females age 16-49: 11,348,695 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 288,188
female: 281,671 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.8% of GDP (2005 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Italy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 11,345 (Eritrea); 9,284 (Somalia); 5,058 (Afghanistan) (2012)
stateless persons: 470 (2012)
Illicit drugs: important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling
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Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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