Indonesia Population: 251,160,124

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 History
The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1988, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his "New Order" government. After rioting toppled Suharto in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.

 Geography
Archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E
Area: total: 1,904,569 sq km
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 2,830 km
border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
Coastline: 54,716 km
Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m
Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use: arable land: 12.34%
permanent crops: 10.5%
other: 77.16% (2011)
Irrigated land: 67,220 sq km (2005)
Natural hazards: occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, western Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
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 People
Nationality: noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups: Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)
Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)
Religions: Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)
Population: 251,160,124 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.6% (male 34,049,541/female 32,844,509)
15-24 years: 17.1% (male 21,883,499/female 21,117,498)
25-54 years: 42.2% (male 53,766,202/female 52,325,932)
55-64 years: 7.6% (male 8,879,503/female 10,164,470)
65 years and over: 6.4% (male 7,038,904/female 9,090,066) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 51.8 %
youth dependency ratio: 43.8 %
elderly dependency ratio: 7.9 %
potential support ratio: 12.6 (2013)
Median age: total: 28.9 years
male: 28.4 years
female: 29.5 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.99% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 17.38 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 6.31 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 50.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.45% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: JAKARTA (capital) 9.121 million; Surabaya 2.509 million; Bandung 2.412 million; Medan 2.131 million; Semarang 1.296 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 22.5 (2007 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 220 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 26.06 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 30.47 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 21.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.9 years
male: 69.33 years
female: 74.59 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 61.9% (2012)
Health expenditures: 2.6% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.29 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density: 0.6 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 92% of population
rural: 74% of population
total: 82% of population

unimproved:
urban: 8% of population
rural: 26% of population
total: 18% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 73% of population
rural: 39% of population
total: 54% of population

unimproved:
urban: 27% of population
rural: 61% of population
total: 46% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 310,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 8,300 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 4.8% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 19.6% (2007)
Education expenditures: 3% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.8%
male: 95.6%
female: 90.1% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 22.2%
male: 21.6%
female: 23% (2009)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

note: Indonesia is divided into three time zones
Administrative divisions: 31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta*

note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
Independence: 17 August 1945 (declared)
National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Constitution: August 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002
Legal system: civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law
Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch: chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president and vice president elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; presidential election last held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in 2014)

election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president; percent of vote - Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO 60.8%, MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri 26.8%, Jusuf KALLA 12.4%
Legislative branch: People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house; it consists of members of the DPR and DPD and has role in inaugurating and impeaching the president and in amending the constitution but does not formulate national policy; House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (560 seats, members elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and passes legislation at the national level; House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions (132 members, four from each of Indonesia's origianal 30 provinces, two special regions, and one special capital city district)

elections: last held on 9 April 2009 (next to be held in 2014)

election results: percent of vote by party - PD 20.9%, GOLKAR 14.5%, PDI-P 14.0%, PKS 7.9%, PAN 6.0%, PPP 5.3%, PKB 4.9%, GERINDRA 4.5%, HANURA 3.8%, others 18.2%; seats by party - PD 148, GOLKAR 107, PDI-P 94, PKS 57, PAN 46, PPP 37, PKB 28, GERINDRA 26, HANURA 17 note: 29 other parties received less than 2.5% of the vote so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement age; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts
Political parties and leaders: Democrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO] Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE] Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [SUHARDI] Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri] National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR] National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA] People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO] Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Anis MATTA] United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Commission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI
International organization participation: ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): garuda (mythical bird)
National anthem: name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)
lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN

note: adopted 1945
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dino Patti DJALAL
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kristen F. BAUER
embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259 consulate general: Surabaya presence post: Medan consular agent: Bali
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 Economy
Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, grew more than 6% annually in 2010-12. The government made economic advances under the first administration of President YUDHOYONO (2004-09), introducing significant reforms in the financial sector, including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market development and supervision. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth in 2009. The government has promoted fiscally conservative policies, resulting in a debt-to-GDP ratio of less than 25%, a fiscal deficit below 3%, and historically low rates of inflation. Fitch and Moody's upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The government in 2013 faces the ongoing challenge of improving Indonesia''s insufficient infrastructure to remove impediments to economic growth, labor unrest over wages, and reducing its fuel subsidy program in the face of high oil prices.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.237 trillion (2012 est.) $1.164 trillion (2011 est.) $1.093 trillion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $878.2 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.2% (2012 est.) 6.5% (2011 est.) 6.2% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,100 (2012 est.) $4,800 (2011 est.) $4,600 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 32.6% of GDP (2012 est.) 33.1% of GDP (2011 est.) 33% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 54.6%
government consumption: 8.9%
investment in fixed capital: 33.2%
investment in inventories: 2.2%
exports of goods and services: 24.3%
imports of goods and services: -25.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 54.6%
government consumption: 8.9%
investment in fixed capital: 33.2%
investment in inventories: 2.2%
exports of goods and services: 24.3%
imports of goods and services: -25.8% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: rubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices
Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instuments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 5.2% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 118.1 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 38.9%
industry: 22.2%
services: 47.9% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 6.1% (2012 est.) 6.6% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 11.7% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 29.9% (2009)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 36.8 (2009) 39.4 (2005)
Budget: revenues: $164 billion
expenditures: $180.9 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 18.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 23% of GDP (2012 est.) 22.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (2012 est.) 5.4% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$20.73 billion (2012 est.) $2.069 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $187 billion (2012 est.) $191.1 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partners: Japan 15.9%, China 11.4%, Singapore 9%, South Korea 7.9%, US 7.8%, India 6.6%, Malaysia 5.9% (2012)
Imports: $178.5 billion (2012 est.) $157.3 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: China 15.3%, Singapore 13.6%, Japan 11.9%, Malaysia 6.4%, South Korea 6.2%, US 6.1%, Thailand 6% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $112.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $110.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $251.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $225.4 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $192.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $173.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $14.93 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $9.502 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $426.8 billion (31 December 2012) $390.1 billion (31 December 2011) $360.4 billion (31 December 2010)
Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar - 9,386.6 (2012 est.) 8,770.43 (2011 est.) 9,090.4 (2010 est.) 10,389.9 (2009) 9,698.9 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 183.4 billion kWh (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 23
Electricity - consumption: 158 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - imports: 2.542 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 39.9 million kW (2011 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 87% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 9.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 3.1% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Crude oil - production: 912,100 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 371,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 265,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 4 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 935,300 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1.322 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 142,400 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 407,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Natural gas - production: 82.8 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 41.35 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 41.25 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 3.994 trillion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 402.1 million Mt (2011 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 38.618 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 8
Cellular Phones in use: 249.8 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good

domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly

international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media: mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2008)
Internet country code: .id
Internet hosts: 1.344 million (2012)
Internet users: 20 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 673 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 10
Airports (paved runways): total 186
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 72
under 914 m: 37 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 487

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 460 (2013)
Heliports: 76 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 1,064 km; condensate/gas 150 km; gas 11,702 km; liquid petroleum gas 119 km; oil 7,767 km; oil/gas/water 77 km; refined products 728 km; unknown 53 km; water 44 km (2013)
Railways: total 5,042 km

narrow gauge: 5,042 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2008)
Roadways: total 496,607 km
paved: 283,102 km
unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)
Waterways: 21,579 km (2011)
Merchant marine: total 1,340

by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 618, chemical tanker 69, container 120, liquefied gas 28, passenger 49, passenger/cargo 77, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 11

foreign-owned: 69 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 8, Jordan 1, Malaysia 1, Norway 3, Singapore 46, South Korea 2, Taiwan 1, UK 2, US 2)

registered in other countries: 95 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 2, Hong Kong 10, Liberia 4, Marshall Islands 1, Mongolia 2, Panama 10, Singapore 60, Tuvalu 1, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
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 Military
Military branches: Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 65,847,171
females age 16-49: 63,228,017 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 54,264,299
females age 16-49: 53,274,361 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 2,263,892
female: 2,191,267 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 0.9% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 180,000 (government offensives against rebels in Aceh; most IDPs in Aceh, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi Provinces, and Maluku) (2011)
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy
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