Honduras Population: 8,448,465

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 History
Once part of Spain's vast empire in the New World, Honduras became an independent nation in 1821. After two and a half decades of mostly military rule, a freely elected civilian government came to power in 1982. During the 1980s, Honduras proved a haven for anti-Sandinista contras fighting the Marxist Nicaraguan Government and an ally to Salvadoran Government forces fighting leftist guerrillas. The country was devastated by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, which killed about 5,600 people and caused approximately $2 billion in damage. Since then, the economy has slowly rebounded.

 Geography
Has only a short Pacific coast but a long Caribbean shoreline, including the virtually uninhabited eastern Mosquito Coast
Location: Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the Gulf of Fonseca (North Pacific Ocean), between El Salvador and Nicaragua
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 86 30 W
Area: total: 112,090 sq km
land: 111,890 sq km
water: 200 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Tennessee
Land Boundaries: total: 1,520 km
border countries: Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km, Nicaragua 922 km
Coastline: Caribbean Sea 669 km; Gulf of Fonseca 163 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: natural extension of territory or to 200 nm
Climate: subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Terrain: mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Cerro Las Minas 2,870 m
Natural resources: timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 9.07%
permanent crops: 3.91%
other: 87.02% (2011)
Irrigated land: 878.5 sq km (2007)
Natural hazards: frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; extremely susceptible to damaging hurricanes and floods along the Caribbean coast
Current Environment Issues: urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of fresh water), as well as several rivers and streams, with heavy metals
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Honduran(s)
adjective: Honduran
Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, black 2%, white 1%
Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian dialects
Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant 3%
Population: 8,448,465 (July 2013 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 35.5% (male 1,530,385/female 1,466,136)
15-24 years: 21.2% (male 913,818/female 878,340)
25-54 years: 34.8% (male 1,482,548/female 1,459,341)
55-64 years: 4.6% (male 178,514/female 208,243)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 145,626/female 185,514) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 65.8 %
youth dependency ratio: 58.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 7.4 %
potential support ratio: 13.6 (2013)
Median age: total: 21.6 years
male: 21.3 years
female: 22 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.79% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 24.16 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 5.09 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 52% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: TEGUCIGALPA (capital) 1 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 20.1 (2006 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 100 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 19.28 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.83 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.81 years
male: 69.14 years
female: 72.56 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.94 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 65.2% (2005/06)
Health expenditures: 6.8% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.57 physicians/1,000 population (2000)
Hospital bed density: 0.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 95% of population
rural: 79% of population
total: 87% of population

unimproved:
urban: 5% of population
rural: 21% of population
total: 13% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 85% of population
rural: 69% of population
total: 77% of population

unimproved:
urban: 15% of population
rural: 31% of population
total: 23% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.8% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 39,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,500 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 18.4% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 8.6% (2006)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.1%
male: 85.3%
female: 84.9% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 7%
male: 5.2%
female: 11.2% (2005)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Honduras
conventional short form: Honduras
local long form: Republica de Honduras
local short form: Honduras
Government type: democratic constitutional republic
Capital: name: Tegucigalpa
geographic coordinates: 14 06 N, 87 13 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: none scheduled for 2013
Administrative divisions: 18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro
Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution: 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982; amended many times
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Porfirio LOBO Sosa (since 27 January 2010); Vice President Maria Antonieta GUILLEN de Bogran (since 27 January 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Porfirio LOBO Sosa (since 27 January 2010); Vice President Maria Antonieta GUILLEN de Bogran (since 27 January 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held on 29 November 2009 (next to be held in November 2013)

election results: Porfirio LOBO Sosa elected president; percent of vote - Porfirio LOBO Sosa 56.3%, Elvin SANTOS Lozano 38.1%, other 5.6%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (128 seats; members elected proportionally by department to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 29 November 2009 (next to be held in November 2013)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PNH 71, PL 45, DC 5, UD 4, PINU 3
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (9 principal judges - including the court president - and 7 alternates; court organized into civil, criminal, and labor chambers); note - the court has both judicial and constitutional jurisdiction judge selection and term of office: court president elected by his peers; judges elected by the National Congress from candidates proposed by the Nominating Board, a diverse 7-member group of judicial officials, other government and non-government officials selected by each of their organizations; judges elected by Congress for renewable, 7-year terms

subordinate courts: courts of appeal; courts of first instance; peace courts
Political parties and leaders: Anti-Corruption Party or PAC [Salvador NASRALLA] Christian Democratic Party or DC [Felicito AVILA Ordonez] Broad Political Electoral Front in Resistance or FAPER [Andres PAVON] Democratic Unification Party or UD [Cesar HAM] Freedom and Refounding Party or LIBRE [Jose Manuel ZELAYA Rosales] Liberal Party or PL [Elvin SANTOS Brito] National Party of Honduras or PNH [Ricardo ALVAREZ] Social Democratic Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Jorge Rafael AGUILAR Paredes]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Beverage and Related Industries Syndicate or STIBYS Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras or CODEH Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP General Workers Confederation or CGT Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH National Union of Campesinos or UNC Popular Bloc or BP United Confederation of Honduran Workers or CUTH United Farm Workers' Movement of the Aguan (MUCA)
International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC (suspended), IOM, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OAS (suspended), OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO (suspended), WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): scarlet macaw; white-tailed deer
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional de Honduras" (National Anthem of Honduras)
lyrics/music: Augusto Constancio COELLO/Carlos HARTLING

note: adopted 1915; the anthem's seven verses chronicle Honduran history; on official occasions, only the chorus and last verse are sung
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jorge Ramon HERNANDEZ Alcerro
chancery: Suite 4-M, 3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-2604
FAX: [1] (202) 966-9751
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Belmont (MA), Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Phoenix, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa J. KUBISKE
embassy: Avenida La Paz, Apartado Postal No. 3453, Tegucigalpa
mailing address: American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa
telephone: [504] 2236-9320, 2238-5114
FAX: [504] 2236-9037
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 Economy
Honduras, the second poorest country in Central America, suffers from extraordinarily unequal distribution of income, as well as high underemployment. While historically dependent on the export of bananas and coffee, Honduras has diversified its export base to include apparel and automobile wire harnessing. Nearly half of Honduras's economic activity is directly tied to the US, with exports to the US accounting for 30% of GDP and remittances for another 20%. The US-Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) came into force in 2006 and has helped foster foreign direct investment, but physical and political insecurity, as well as crime and perceptions of corruption, may deter potential investors; about 70% of FDI is from US firms. The economy registered modest economic growth of 3.0%-4.0% from 2010 to 2012, insufficient to improve living standards for the nearly 65% of the population in poverty. An 18-month IMF Standby Arrangement expired in March 2012 and was not renewed, due to the country's growing budget deficit and weak current account performance. Public sector workers complained of not receiving their salaries in November and December 2012, and government suppliers are owed at least several hundred million dollars in unpaid contracts. The government announced in January 2013 that loss-making public enterprises will be forced to submit financial rescue plans before receiving their budget allotments for 2013.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $38.42 billion (2012 est.) $37.2 billion (2011 est.) $35.86 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $18.39 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.3% (2012 est.) 3.7% (2011 est.) 3.7% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $4,700 (2012 est.) $4,600 (2011 est.) $4,600 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 16% of GDP (2012 est.) 18.9% of GDP (2011 est.) 16.6% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 78.6%
government consumption: 16.2%
investment in fixed capital: 25.4%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 49%
imports of goods and services: -69.4% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 78.6%
government consumption: 16.2%
investment in fixed capital: 25.4%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 49%
imports of goods and services: -69.4% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: bananas, coffee, citrus, corn, African palm; beef; timber; shrimp, tilapia, lobster
Industries: sugar, coffee, woven and knit apparel, wood products, cigars
Industrial production growth rate: 1.6% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 3.437 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 39.2%
industry: 20.9%
services: 39.8% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.5% (2012 est.) 4.9% (2011 est.) note: about one-third of the people are underemployed
Population below poverty line: 60% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.4%
highest 10%: 42.4% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 57.7 (2007) 53.8 (2003)
Budget: revenues: $3.074 billion
expenditures: $4.169 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 16.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 34.8% of GDP (2012 est.) 32.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.2% (2012 est.) 6.8% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.661 billion (2012 est.) -$1.503 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $7.931 billion (2012 est.) $7.8 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: apparel, coffee, shrimp, automobile wire harnesses, cigars, bananas, gold, palm oil, fruit, lobster, lumber
Exports - partners: US 40%, Germany 9.7%, El Salvador 6%, Belgium 5.9%, Guatemala 4.5%, Nicaragua 4.1% (2012)
Imports: $11.18 billion (2012 est.) $10.99 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, industrial raw materials, chemical products, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: US 44.3%, Guatemala 8.5%, China 6%, El Salvador 5.6%, Mexico 5.5% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.533 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $2.793 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $4.782 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $4.452 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: lempiras (HNL) per US dollar - 19.638 (2012 est.) 19.051 (2011 est.) 18.9 (2010 est.) 18.9 (2009) 18.983 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 6.326 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 110
Electricity - consumption: 4.8 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 46 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports: 100,000 kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.697 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 63.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 30.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 5.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 58,150 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 8,419 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 54,100 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 8.288 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 609,200 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 91
Cellular Phones in use: 8.062 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: fixed-line connections are increasing but still limited; competition among multiple providers of mobile-cellular services is contributing to a sharp increase in subscribership

domestic: beginning in 2003, private sub-operators allowed to provide fixed-lines in order to expand telephone coverage contributing to a small increase in fixed-line teledensity; mobile-cellular subscribership is roughly 100 per 100 persons

international: country code - 504; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2011)
Broadcast media: multiple privately owned terrestrial TV networks, supplemented by multiple cable TV networks; Radio Honduras is the lone government-owned radio network; roughly 300 privately owned radio stations (2007)
Internet country code: .hn
Internet hosts: 30,955 (2012)
Internet users: 731,700 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 103 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 54
Airports (paved runways): total 13

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 90

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 73 (2013)
Railways: total 44 km

narrow gauge: 44 km 1.067-m gauge

note: (4 km are in use) (2012)
Roadways: total 14,742 km
paved: 3,367 km
unpaved: 11,375 km (1,543 km summer only)

note: there are another 8,951 km of non-offical roads used by the coffee industry (2012)
Waterways: 465 km (most navigable only by small craft) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 88

by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 39, carrier 2, chemical tanker 5, container 1, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 21, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 3

foreign-owned: 47 (Bahrain 5, Canada 1, Chile 1, China 2, Egypt 2, Greece 4, Israel 1, Japan 4, Lebanon 2, Montenegro 1, Panama 1, Singapore 11, South Korea 6, Taiwan 1, Thailand 2, UAE 1, UK 1, US 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): La Ceiba, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo, Tela
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 Military
Military branches: Honduran Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de Honduras, FFAA): Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Honduran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Hondurena, FAH) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary 2- to 3-year military service; no conscription (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,045,914
females age 16-49: 1,991,418 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,525,578
females age 16-49: 1,539,688 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 95,895
female: 92,087 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.5% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras border in 1992 with final settlement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca with consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned in the ICJ ruling, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca; Honduras claims the Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize in its constitution, but agreed to a joint ecological park around the cays should Guatemala consent to a maritime corridor in the Caribbean under the OAS-sponsored 2002 Belize-Guatemala Differendum
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for drugs and narcotics; illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption; corruption is a major problem; some money-laundering activity
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