Guatemala Population: 15,189,958

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 History
The Maya civilization flourished in Guatemala and surrounding regions during the first millennium A.D. After almost three centuries as a Spanish colony, Guatemala won its independence in 1821. During the second half of the 20th century, it experienced a variety of military and civilian governments, as well as a 36-year guerrilla war. In 1996, the government signed a peace agreement formally ending the internal conflict, which had left more than 200,000 people dead and had created, by some estimates, about 1 million refugees.

 Geography
No natural harbors on west coast
Location: Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Mexico, and bordering the Gulf of Honduras (Caribbean Sea) between Honduras and Belize
Geographic coordinates: 15 30 N, 90 15 W
Area: total: 108,889 sq km
land: 107,159 sq km
water: 1,730 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land Boundaries: total: 1,667 km border countries (4): Belize 266 km, El Salvador 199 km, Honduras 244 km, Mexico 958 km
Coastline: 400 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 41.2% arable land 14.2%; permanent crops 8.8%; permanent pasture 18.2% forest: 33.6%
other: 25.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 3,375 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: numerous volcanoes in mountains, with occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast extremely susceptible to hurricanes and other tropical storms volcanism: significant volcanic activity in the Sierra Madre range; Santa Maria (elev. 3,772 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pacaya (elev. 2,552 m), which erupted in May 2010 causing an ashfall on Guatemala City and prompting evacuations, is one of the country's most active volcanoes with frequent eruptions since 1965; other historically active volcanoes include Acatenango, Almolonga, Atitlan, Fuego, and Tacana
Current Environment Issues: deforestation in the Peten rainforest; soil erosion; water pollution
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Guatemalan(s)
adjective: Guatemalan
Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - in local Spanish called Ladino) and European 59.4%, K'iche 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9%, Q'eqchi 6.3%, other Mayan 8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%, other 0.1% (2001 census)
Languages: Spanish (official) 60%, Amerindian languages 40% note: there are 23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca
Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, indigenous Mayan beliefs
Population: 15,189,958 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 35.02% (male 2,711,683/female 2,608,295)
15-24 years: 21.8% (male 1,663,484/female 1,647,749)
25-54 years: 33.53% (male 2,425,931/female 2,666,790)
55-64 years: 5.23% (male 377,642/female 416,939)
65 years and over: 4.42% (male 311,165/female 360,280) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 70.9%
youth dependency ratio: 62.6%
elderly dependency ratio: 8.3%
potential support ratio: 12.1% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 21.7 years
male: 21 years
female: 22.4 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.79% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 24.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 51.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: GUATEMALA CITY (capital) 2.918 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 20.3 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008/09 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 88 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 22 deaths/1,000 live births male: 23.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.3 years male: 70.3 years
female: 74.4 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.83 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 6.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.93 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 0.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 98.4% of population
rural: 86.8% of population
total: 92.8% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1.6% of population
rural: 13.2% of population
total: 7.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 77.5% of population
rural: 49.3% of population
total: 63.9% of population

unimproved:
urban: 22.5% of population
rural: 50.7% of population
total: 36.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.57% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 54,600 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,700 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 16.4% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 12.6% (2015)
Education expenditures: 3% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.5%
male: 87.4%
female: 76.3% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 6.3% male: 6.5%
female: 5.8% (2013 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Guatemala
conventional short form: Guatemala
local long form: Republica de Guatemala
local short form: Guatemala
etymology: name derives from the Mayan word meaning "land of trees"
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Guatemala City
geographic coordinates: 14 37 N, 90 31 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa
Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution: several previous; latest adopted 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986; suspended, reinstated, and amended in 1994 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; note - active duty members of the armed forces and police by law cannot vote and are restricted to their barracks on election day
Executive branch: chief of state: President Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera (since 14 January 2016); Vice President Jafeth CABRERA Franco (since 14 January 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera (since 14 January 2016); Vice President Jafeth CABRERA Franco (since 14 January 2016)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (not eligible for consecutive terms); election last held in 2 rounds on 6 September and 25 October 2015 (next to be held in September 2019)

election results: Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera (FNC) elected president; percent of vote in first round - Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera (FNC) 23.8%, Sandra TORRES (UNE) 19.8%, Manuel BALDIZON (LIDER) 19.6%; percent of vote in second round - Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera (FNC) 67.4%, Sandra TORRES (UNE) 32.6%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de la Republica (158 seats; 127 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies within each of the country's 22 departments by simple majority vote and 31 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 6 September 2015 (next to be held in September 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - LIDER 19.10%, UNE 14.83%, TODOS 9.74%, PP 9.43%, FCN 8.75%, EG 6.24%, PU 5.69%, UCN 5.43%, Winaq-URNG-MAIZ 4.32%, Convergence 3.84%, VIVA 3.66%, PAN 3.42, FUERZA 2.07%, other 3.48%; seats by party - LIDER 44, UNE 36, TODOS 18, PP 17, FCN 11, EG 7, UCN 6, PU 5, Winaq-URNG-MAIZ 3, Convergence 3, VIVA 3, PAN 3, FUERZA 2
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 13 magistrates including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - the court president also supervises trial judges countrywide; Constitutional Court or Corte de Constitucionalidad (consists of 5 judges and 5 alternates) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court magistrates elected by the Congress of the Republic from candidates proposed by the Postulation Committee, an independent body of deans of the country's university law schools, representatives of the country's law associations, and representatives of the Courts of Appeal; magistrates elected for concurrent, renewable 5-year terms; Constitutional Court judges - 1 elected by the Congress of the Republic, 1 by the Supreme Court, 1 by the president of the republic, 1 by the (public) University of San Carlos, and 1 by the lawyers bar association; judges elected for concurrent, renewable 5-year terms; the presidency of the court rotates among the magistrates for a single 1-year term

subordinate courts: numerous first instance and appellate courts
Political parties and leaders: Commitment, Renewal, and Order or CREO [Roberto GONZALEZ Diaz-Duran] Convergence Democratic Union or UD [Edwin Armando MARTINEZ Herrera] Encounter for Guatemala or EG [Nineth MONTENEGRO Cottom] Everyone Together for Guatemala or TODOS [Felipe ALEJOS] FUERZA [Maurico REDFORD] Grand National Alliance or GANA [Jaime Antonio MARTINEZ Lohayza] Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or Winaq-URNG [Angel SANCHEZ Viesca] Institutional Republican Party (formerly the Guatemalan Republican Front) or PRI [Luis Fernando PEREZ] National Advancement Party or PAN [Juan GUTIERREZ Strauss] National Unity for Hope or UNE [Sandra TORRES] Nationalist Change Union or UCN [Mario ESTRADA] National Convergence Front or FCN [Edgar Justino OVALLE Maldonado] New National Alternative or ANN [Pablo MONSANTO] Patriot Party or PP [Ingrid Roxana BALDETTI Elias] Renewed Democratic Liberty or LIDER [Manuel BALDIZON] Unionista Party or PU [Alvaro ARZU Irigoyen] Victoria (Victory) [Amilcar RIVERA] Vision with Values or VIVA [Harold CABALLEROS] (part of a coalition with EG during the last legislative election)
Political pressure groups and leaders: Alliance Against Impunity or AI (includes among others Center for Legal Action on Human Rights (CALDH), Family and Friends of the Disappeared of Guatemala (FAMDEGUA)) Civic and Political Convergence of Women Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF Foundation for the Development of Guatemala or FUNDESA Guatemala Visible Mutual Support Group or GAM Movimiento PRO-Justicia National Union of Agriculture Workers or UNAGRO
International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): quetzal (bird); national colors: blue, white
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional de Guatemala" (National Anthem of Guatemala)
lyrics/music: Jose Joaquin PALMA/Rafael Alvarez OVALLE

note: adopted 1897, modified lyrics adopted 1934; Cuban poet Jose Joaquin PALMA anonymously submitted lyrics to a public contest calling for a national anthem; his authorship was not discovered until 1911
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gladys Marithza RUIZ SANCHEZ (since 2 June 2016)
chancery: 2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 745-4952
FAX: [1] (202) 745-1908 consulate(s): Del Rio (TX), San Bernadino (CA), Silver Spring (MD), Tucson (AZ)
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, McAllen (TX), Miami, New York, Phoenix, Providence (RI), San Francisco, Silver Spring (MD), Tucson (AZ)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Todd D. ROBINSON (since 10 October 2014)
embassy: 7-01 Avenida Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City
mailing address: DPO AA 34024
telephone: [502] 2326-4000
FAX: [502] 2326-4654
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 Economy
Guatemala is the most populous country in Central America with a GDP per capita roughly half the average for Latin America and the Caribbean. The agricultural sector accounts for 13.6% of GDP and 31% of the labor force; key agricultural exports include sugar, coffee, bananas, and vegetables. Guatemala is the top remittance recipient in Central America as a result of Guatemala's large expatriate community in the US. These inflows are a primary source of foreign income, equivalent to over one-half of the country's exports or one-tenth of its GDP. The 1996 peace accords, which ended 36 years of civil war, removed a major obstacle to foreign investment, and since then Guatemala has pursued important reforms and macroeconomic stabilization. The Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) entered into force in July 2006, spurring increased investment and diversification of exports, with the largest increases in ethanol and non-traditional agricultural exports. While CAFTA-DR has helped improve the investment climate, concerns over security, the lack of skilled workers, and poor infrastructure continue to hamper foreign direct investment. The distribution of income remains highly unequal with the richest 20% of the population accounting for more than 51% of Guatemala's overall consumption. More than half of the population is below the national poverty line, and 23% of the population lives in extreme poverty. Poverty among indigenous groups, which make up more than 40% of the population, averages 79%, with 39.8% of the indigenous population living in extreme poverty. Nearly one-half of Guatemala's children under age five are chronically malnourished, one of the highest malnutrition rates in the world. Guatemala is facing growing fiscal pressures exacerbated by multiple corruption scandals in 2015 that led to the resignation of the president, vice president, and numerous high-level economic officials.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $132.3 billion (2016 est.) $127.9 billion (2015 est.) $122.8 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $68.39 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (2016 est.) 4.1% (2015 est.) 4.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $7,900 (2016 est.) $7,900 (2015 est.) $7,700 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 12.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 13.1% of GDP (2015 est.) 11.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 84.4%
government consumption: 10.4%
investment in fixed capital: 13.3%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 21.4%
imports of goods and services: -30% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 84.4%
government consumption: 10.4%
investment in fixed capital: 13.3%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 21.4%
imports of goods and services: -30% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens
Industries: sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 3.2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 4.623 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 31.2%
industry: 14.4%
services: 54.4% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate: 2.9% (2014 est.) 3% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line: 59.3% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.3%
highest 10%: 42.4% (2006)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 53 (2014 est.) 56 (2011)
Budget: revenues: $7.39 billion
expenditures: $8.186 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 10.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 27.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 28.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (2016 est.) 2.4% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$323 million (2016 est.) -$202 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $11.43 billion (2016 est.) $10.83 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: sugar, coffee, petroleum, apparel, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom, manufacturing products, precious stones and metals, electricity
Exports - partners: US 34.9%, El Salvador 8.4%, Honduras 7.3%, Nicaragua 5%, Canada 4.6%, Mexico 4.3%, Costa Rica 4.1% (2015)
Imports: $16.76 billion (2016 est.) $16.38 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, grain, fertilizers, electricity, mineral products, chemical products, plastic materials and products
Imports - partners: US 38.3%, China 13.4%, Mexico 11.8%, El Salvador 4.9% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $8.803 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $7.746 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $19.09 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $18.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: quetzales (GTQ) per US dollar - 7.648 (2016 est.) 7.6548 (2015 est.) 7.6548 (2014 est.) 7.7322 (2013 est.) 7.83 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 10 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 8.915 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 1.025 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 664 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 3.73 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 61.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 29.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 8.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Crude oil - production: 10,040 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 8,711 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 83.07 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 1,228 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 87,840 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 12,960 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 100,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 2.96 billion cu m (1 January 2006 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 13 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 18.121 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 121 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala

domestic: state-owned telecommunications company privatized in the late 1990s opened the way for competition; fixed-line teledensity roughly 10 per 100 persons; fixed-line investments are being concentrated on improving rural connectivity; mobile-cellular teledensi

international: country code - 502; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the SAM-1 fiber-optic submarine cable system that, together, provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connecte (2015)
Broadcast media: 4 privately owned national terrestrial TV channels dominate TV broadcasting; multi-channel satellite and cable services are available; 1 government-owned radio station and hundreds of privately owned radio stations (2007)
Internet country code: .gt
Internet users: total: 4.043 million percent of population: 27.1% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 291 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 16

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 275

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 77
under 914 m: 195 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: oil 480 km (2013)
Railways: total 800 km

narrow gauge: 800 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 17,332 km
paved: 7,483 km
unpaved: 9,849 km (includes 4,795 km of rural roads) (2015)
Waterways: 990 km (260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during high-water season) (2012)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla
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 Military
Military branches: National Army of Guatemala (Ejercito Nacional de Guatemala, ENG; includes Guatemalan Navy (Fuerza de Mar, including Marines) and Guatemalan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Guatemalteca, FAG)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: all male citizens between the ages of 18 and 50 are eligible for military service; in practice, most of the force is volunteer, however, a selective draft system is employed, resulting in a small portion of 17-21 year-olds conscripted; conscript service obligation varies from 1 to 2 years; women can serve as officers (2013)
Military expenditures: 0.42% of GDP (2014) 0.46% of GDP (2013) 0.44% of GDP (2012) 0.41% of GDP (2011) 0.42% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: annual ministerial meetings under the Organization of American States-initiated Agreement on the Framework for Negotiations and Confidence Building Measures continue to address Guatemalan land and maritime claims in Belize and the Caribbean Sea; Guatemala persists in its territorial claim to half of Belize, but agrees to Line of Adjacency to keep Guatemalan squatters out of Belize's forested interior; both countries agreed in April 2012 to hold simultaneous referenda, scheduled for 6 October 2013, to decide whether to refer the dispute to the ICJ for binding resolution, but this vote was suspended indefinitely; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the US
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 251,000 (more than three decades of internal conflict that ended in 1996 displaced mainly the indigenous Maya population and rural peasants; ongoing drug cartel and gang violence) (2015)
Illicit drugs: major transit country for cocaine and heroin; in 2005, cultivated 100 hectares of opium poppy after reemerging as a potential source of opium in 2004; potential production of less than 1 metric ton of pure heroin; marijuana cultivation for mostly domestic consumption; proximity to Mexico makes Guatemala a major staging area for drugs (particularly for cocaine); money laundering is a serious problem; corruption is a major problem
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