Gibraltar Population: 29,328

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 History
Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led Spain to close the border and sever all communication links. Between 1997 and 2002, the UK and Spain held a series of talks on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004, Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar have held tripartite talks with the aim of cooperatively resolving problems that affect the local population, and work continues on cooperation agreements in areas such as taxation and financial services; communications and maritime security; policy, legal and customs services; environmental protection; and education and visa services. Throughout 2009, a dispute over Gibraltar's claim to territorial waters extending out three miles gave rise to periodic non-violent maritime confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols and in 2013, the British reported a record number of entries by Spanish vessels into waters claimed by Gibraltar following a dispute over Gibraltar's creation of an artificial reef in those waters. A new noncolonial constitution came into effect in 2007, and the European Court of First Instance recognized Gibraltar's right to regulate its own tax regime in December 2008. The UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.

 Geography
Strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain
Geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W
Area: total: 6.5 sq km
land: 6.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: more than 10 times the size of The National Mall in Washington, D.C.
Land Boundaries: total: 1.2 km border countries (1): Spain 1.2 km
Coastline: 12 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm
Climate: Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
Terrain: a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: none
Land use: agricultural land: 0% arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0% forest: 0%
other: 100% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant
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 People
Nationality: noun: Gibraltarian(s)
adjective: Gibraltar
Ethnic groups: Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, German, North Africans
Languages: English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese
Religions: Roman Catholic 78.1%, Church of England 7%, Muslim 4%, other Christian 3.2%, Jewish 2.1%, Hindu 1.8%, other 0.9%, none 2.9% (2001 est.)
Population: 29,328 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 20.12% (male 3,024/female 2,878)
15-24 years: 15.02% (male 2,305/female 2,101)
25-54 years: 38.94% (male 5,804/female 5,617)
55-64 years: 10.15% (male 1,328/female 1,649)
65 years and over: 15.76% (male 2,276/female 2,346) (2016 est.)
Median age: total: 34.5 years
male: 33.6 years
female: 33.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.24% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 14.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 100% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.07% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: GIBRALTAR (capital) 29,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.81 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 6.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.4 years male: 76.6 years
female: 82.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.91 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Gibraltar
etymology: from the Spanish derivation of the Arabic "Jabal Tariq," which means "Mountain of Tariq" and which refers to the Rock of Gibraltar
Government type: parliamentary democracy (Parliament); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
Capital: name: Gibraltar
geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday: National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or join Spain
Constitution: history: previous 1969; latest passed by referendum 30 November 2006, entered into effect 14 December 2006, entered into force 2 January 2007 amendments: proposed by Parliament and require prior consent of the British monarch (through the Secretary of State); passage requires three-quarters majority vote in Parliament followed by simple majority vote in a referendum; note – only sections 1 through 15 in Chapter 1 (Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms) can be amended by Parliament (2016)
Legal system: the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; and British citizens with six months residence or more
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Lt. Gen. Edward DAVIS (since 19 January 2016)

head of government: Chief Minister Fabian PICARDO (since 9 December 2011)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed chief minister by the governor
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament (18 seats; 17 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by majority vote and 1 appointed by Parliament as speaker; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 26 November 2015 (next to be held not later than December 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - GSLP 68.4%, GSD 31.6%; seats by party - GSLP 10, GSD 7
Judicial branch: highest resident court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of at least 3 judges, including the court president); Supreme Court of Gibraltar (consists of the chief justice and 3 judges); note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and Supreme Court judges appointed by the governor upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission, a 7-member body of judges and appointees of the governor; tenure of the Court of Appeal president based on terms of appointment; Supreme Court chief justice and judge normally appointed until retirement at age 67, but can be extended 3 years

subordinate courts: Court of First Instance; Magistrates' Court; specialized tribunals for issues relating to social security, taxes, and employment
Political parties and leaders: Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA] Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Daniel FEETHAM] Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Fabian PICARDO] Progressive Democratic Party [Nick CRUZ]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Chamber of Commerce Gibraltar Representatives Organization Women's Association
International organization participation: ICC (NGOs), Interpol (subbureau), UPU
National symbol(s): Barbary macaque; national colors: red, white, yellow
National anthem: name: "Gibraltar Anthem"
lyrics/music: Peter EMBERLEY

note: adopted 1994; serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" remains official (see United Kingdom)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
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 Economy
Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. Tax rates are low to attract foreign investment. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment. The financial sector, tourism (over 11 million visitors in 2012), gaming revenues, shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, tourism, and the shipping sector contribute 30%, 30%, and 25%, respectively, of GDP. Telecommunications, e-commerce, and e-gaming account for the remaining 15%. Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. Tax rates are low to attract foreign investment. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment. The financial sector, tourism (over 11 million visitors in 2012), gaming revenues, shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, tourism, and the shipping sector contribute 30%, 30%, and 25%, respectively, of GDP. Telecommunications, e-commerce, and e-gaming account for the remaining 15%.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.85 billion (2013 est.) $2 billion (2012 est.) $1.106 billion (2006 est.) GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.85 billion (2013 est.) $2 billion (2012 est.) $1.106 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $1.85 billion (2013 est.) GDP (official exchange rate): $1.85 billion (2013 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2008 est.) 8.8% (2007 est.) 0% (2006 est.) 6% (2008 est.) 8.8% (2007 est.) 0% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $43,000 (2008 est.) $41,200 (2007 est.) $38,400 (2006 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $43,000 (2008 est.) $41,200 (2007 est.) $38,400 (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products: none none
Industries: tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco
Industrial production growth rate: NA% NA%
Labor force: 22,910 (2013 est.) 22,910 (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NEGL
industry: 40%
services: 60% (2001) agriculture: NEGL industry: 40% services: 60% (2001)
Unemployment rate: 3% (2005 est.) 3% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA% NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $475.8 million
expenditures: $452.3 million (2008 est.) revenues: $475.8 million expenditures: $452.3 million (2008 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 25.7% of GDP (2008 est.) 25.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
Public debt: 7.5% of GDP (2008 est.) 9.3% of GDP (2006 est.) 7.5% of GDP (2008 est.) 9.3% of GDP (2006 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2013 est.) 2.2% (2012 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2013 est.) 2.2% (2012 est.)
Exports: $271 million (2004 est.) $271 million (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities: (principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods (2010 est.) (principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods (2010 est.)
Imports: $2.967 billion (2004 est.) $2.967 billion (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities: fuels, manufactured goods, foodstuffs fuels, manufactured goods, foodstuffs
Debt - external: $NA $NA
Exchange rates: Gibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar - 0.9214 (2016 est.) 0.885 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.) 0.64 (2012) Gibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar - 0.9214 (2016 est.) 0.885 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.) 0.64 (2012)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 200 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 200 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 43,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 80,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 76,680 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 3.6 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 38,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 130 (July 2014 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities

domestic: automatic exchange facilities

international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) provides TV and radio broadcasting services via 1 TV station and 4 radio stations; British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) operates 1 radio station; broadcasts from Spanish radio and TV stations are accessible (2008)
Internet country code: .gi
Internet users: total: 24,000 percent of population: 82% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 1 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 29 km
paved: 29 km (2007)
Merchant marine: total 267

by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 146, chemical tanker 64, container 28, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 8

foreign-owned: 254 (Belgium 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, Finland 2, Germany 123, Greece 8, Iceland 1, Italy 4, Jersey 1, Morocco 4, Netherlands 34, Norway 46, Sweden 11, UAE 5, UK 6)

registered in other countries: 6 (Liberia 5, Panama 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Gibraltar
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Gibraltar Regiment replaced the last British regular infantry forces in 1992
Military branches: Royal Gibraltar Regiment (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy
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