Grenada Population: 111,219

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 History
Carib Indians inhabited Grenada when Christopher COLUMBUS discovered the island in 1498, but it remained uncolonized for more than a century. The French settled Grenada in the 17th century, established sugar estates, and imported large numbers of African slaves. Britain took the island in 1762 and vigorously expanded sugar production. In the 19th century, cacao eventually surpassed sugar as the main export crop; in the 20th century, nutmeg became the leading export. In 1967, Britain gave Grenada autonomy over its internal affairs. Full independence was attained in 1974 making Grenada one of the smallest independent countries in the Western Hemisphere. Grenada was seized by a Marxist military council on 19 October 1983. Six days later the island was invaded by US forces and those of six other Caribbean nations, which quickly captured the ringleaders and their hundreds of Cuban advisers. Free elections were reinstituted the following year and have continued since then.

 Geography
The administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada
Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago
Geographic coordinates: 12 07 N, 61 40 W
Area: total: 344 sq km
land: 344 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: twice the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 121 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds
Terrain: volcanic in origin with central mountains
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors
Land use: agricultural land: 32.3% arable land 8.8%; permanent crops 20.6%; permanent pasture 2.9% forest: 50%
other: 17.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 20 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November
Current Environment Issues: NA
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Grenadian(s)
adjective: Grenadian
Ethnic groups: African descent 89.4%, mixed 8.2%, East Indian 1.6%, other 0.9% (includes indigenous) (2001 est.)
Languages: English (official), French patois
Religions: Roman Catholic 44.6%, Protestant 43.5% (includes Anglican 11.5%, Pentecostal 11.3%, Seventh Day Adventist 10.5%, Baptist 2.9%, Church of God 2.6%, Methodist 1.8%, Evangelical 1.6%, other 1.3%), Jehovah's Witness 1.1%, Rastafarian 1.1%, other 6.2%, none 3.6%
Population: 111,219 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 24.15% (male 13,935/female 12,928)
15-24 years: 15.55% (male 8,609/female 8,684)
25-54 years: 40.36% (male 23,001/female 21,891)
55-64 years: 10.1% (male 5,753/female 5,476)
65 years and over: 9.84% (male 5,041/female 5,901) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 50.7%
youth dependency ratio: 39.9%
elderly dependency ratio: 10.8%
potential support ratio: 9.3% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 30.9 years
male: 30.9 years
female: 31 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.46% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 15.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 35.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.33% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: SAINT GEORGE'S (capital) 38,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 27 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births male: 9.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.3 years male: 71.7 years
female: 77.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.04 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 6.1% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.66 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Hospital bed density: 3.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 95.3% of population
total: 96.6% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 4.7% of population
total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 98.3% of population
total: 98% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 1.7% of population
total: 2% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 24.6% (2014)
Literacy:
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2009)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Grenada
etymology: probably named for the Spanish city of Granada; in Spanish "granada" means "pomegranate"
Government type: parliamentary democracy (Parliament); a Commonwealth realm
Capital: name: Saint George's
geographic coordinates: 12 03 N, 61 45 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petite Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick
Independence: 7 February 1974 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 7 February (1974)
Constitution: previous 1967; latest presented 19 December 1973, effective 7 February 1974, suspended 1979 following a revolution, but restored in 1983; amended 1991 (Constitutional Judicature Act, 1991); note - in late 2015, as part of constitutional reform, Parliament completed its first reading of a package of amendments (2016)
Legal system: common law based on English model
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Cecile LA GRENADE (since 7 May 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Keith MITCHELL (since 20 February 2013)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (13 seats; members appointed by the governor general - 10 on the advice of the prime minister and 3 on the advice of the opposition party leader; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Representatives (15 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 19 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NNP 59%, NDC 41%; seats by party - NNP 15
Judicial branch: highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Grenada; the ECSC - with its headquarters on St. Lucia - is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 19 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the member states judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by the Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, and independent body of judicial officials; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62

subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; Court of Magisterial Appeals
Political parties and leaders: Grenada United Labor Party or GULP [Wilfred HAYES] National Democratic Congress or NDC [Tillman THOMAS] New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Committee for Human Rights in Grenada or CHRG New Jewel Movement Support Group The British Grenada Friendship Society The New Jewel 19 Committee
International organization participation: ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO
National symbol(s): Grenada dove, Bougainvillea flower; national colors: red, yellow, green
National anthem: name: "Hail Grenada"
lyrics/music: Irva Merle BAPTISTE/Louis Arnold MASANTO

note: adopted 1974
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ethelstan A. FRIDAY (since 3 September 2013)
chancery: 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2561
FAX: [1] (202) 265-2468
consulate(s) general: Miami
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: the US does not have an embassy in Grenada; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Grenada
embassy: Lance-aux-Epines Stretch, Saint George's
mailing address: P. O. Box 54, Saint George's
telephone: [1] (473) 444-1173 through 1176
FAX: [1] (473) 444-4820
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 Economy
Grenada relies on tourism as its main source of foreign exchange especially since the construction of an international airport in 1985. Strong performances in construction and manufacturing, together with the development of tourism and higher education - especially in medicine - contributed to growth in national output; however, economic growth remained stagnant in 2010-14, after a sizable contraction in 2009, because of the global economic slowdown's effects on tourism and remittances. Gross national saving – and wealth – has been declining since 2010. Hurricanes Ivan (2004) and Emily (2005) severely damaged the agricultural sector - particularly nutmeg and cocoa cultivation - which had been a key driver of economic growth. Grenada has rebounded from the devastating effects of the hurricanes but is now saddled with the debt burden from the rebuilding process. Public debt-to-GDP is about 110%, leaving the MITCHELL administration limited room to engage in public investments and social spending. MITCHELL in 2013 announced a structural adjustment program that includes a plan to increase tax revenue.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.511 billion (2016 est.) $1.467 billion (2015 est.) $1.381 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $1.028 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2016 est.) 6.2% (2015 est.) 7.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $14,100 (2016 est.) $13,700 (2015 est.) $13,000 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 0.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 2.1% of GDP (2015 est.) 1.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 80.3%
government consumption: 15.1%
investment in fixed capital: 17%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 23.8%
imports of goods and services: -36.1% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 80.3%
government consumption: 15.1%
investment in fixed capital: 17%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 23.8%
imports of goods and services: -36.1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, citrus, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, vegetables
Industries: food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction
Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 59,900 (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 11%
industry: 20%
services: 69% (2008 est.)
Unemployment rate: 33.5% (2013) 25% (2008)
Population below poverty line: 38% (2008 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $274.6 million
expenditures: $308.9 million (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 26.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 110% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (2016 est.) -1.4% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$130 million (2016 est.) -$157 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $44.2 million (2016 est.) $43.8 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: nutmeg, bananas, cocoa, fruit and vegetables, clothing, mace
Exports - partners: Nigeria 44.7%, St. Lucia 10.8%, Antigua and Barbuda 7.3%, St. Kitts and Nevis 6.6%, Dominica 6.6%, US 5.8% (2015)
Imports: $313.7 million (2016 est.) $310.4 million (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: food, manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel
Imports - partners: Trinidad and Tobago 49.6%, US 16.4% (2015)
Debt - external: $679 million (2013 est.) $538 million (2010 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2016 est.) 2.7 (2015 est.) 2.7 (2014 est.) 2.7 (2013 est.) 2.7 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 200 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 200 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 50,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 98.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 2,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 2,259 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 500,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 120,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate, automatic, island-wide telephone system

domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links

international: country code - 1-473; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago a (2015)
Broadcast media: the Grenada Broadcasting Network, jointly owned by the government and the Caribbean Communications Network of Trinidad and Tobago, operates a TV station and 2 radio stations; multi-channel cable TV subscription service is available; a dozen private radio (2007)
Internet country code: .gd
Internet users: total: 60,000 percent of population: 53.8% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 3 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 1,127 km
paved: 687 km
unpaved: 440 km (2001)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Saint George's
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 Military
Military branches: no regular military forces; Royal Grenada Police Force (includes Coast Guard) (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Illicit drugs: small-scale cannabis cultivation; lesser transshipment point for marijuana and cocaine to US
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