Finland Population: 5,266,114

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 History
Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the European Union since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are a high standard of education, equality promotion, and national social security system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.

 Geography
Long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E
Area: total: 338,145 sq km
land: 303,815 sq km
water: 34,330 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Montana
Land Boundaries: total: 2,654 km
border countries: Norway 727 km, Sweden 614 km, Russia 1,313 km
Coastline: 1,250 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m
Natural resources: timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone
Land use: arable land: 6.65%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 93.34% (2011)
Irrigated land: 685.8 sq km (2010)
Current Environment Issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish
Ethnic groups: Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)
Languages: Finnish (official) 91.2%, Swedish (official) 5.5%, other (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) 3.3% (2007)
Religions: Lutheran Church of Finland 82.5%, Orthodox Church 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.1%, none 15.1% (2006)
Population: 5,266,114 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.8% (male 424,571/female 410,042)
15-24 years: 12.3% (male 329,625/female 316,585)
25-54 years: 38.3% (male 1,026,525/female 988,772)
55-64 years: 14.4% (male 374,685/female 385,933)
65 years and over: 19.2% (male 421,854/female 587,522) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 55 %
youth dependency ratio: 25.5 %
elderly dependency ratio: 29.5 %
potential support ratio: 3.4 (2013)
Median age: total: 43 years
male: 41.2 years
female: 44.8 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.06% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 10.36 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 10.42 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 85% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: HELSINKI (capital) 1.107 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 27.9 (2005 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 5 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.38 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.68 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.55 years
male: 76.09 years
female: 83.15 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Health expenditures: 9% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 2.74 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 6.2 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,600 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 23% (2008)
Education expenditures: 6.8% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 18 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 18.9%
male: 19.3%
female: 18.4% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland
local short form: Suomi/Finland
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Helsinki
geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]
Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Russia)
National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Constitution: 1 March 2000
Legal system: civil law system based on the Swedish model; note - the president may request the Supreme Court to review laws
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Jyrki KATAINEN (since 22 June 2011)

cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to parliament (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 February 2012 (next to be held in February 2018); the parliament elects a prime minister who is then appointed to office by the president

election results: percent of vote - Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 36.96%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 18.76%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (Kesk) 17.53%, Timo SOINI (TF) 9.4%, Paavo LIPPONEN (SDP) 6.7%, Paavo ARHINMĂ„KI (Vas) 5.48%, Eva BIAUDET (SFP) 2.7%, Sari ESSAYAH (KD) 2.47%; a runoff election between NIINISTO and HAAVISTO was held 5 February 2012 - NIINISTO 62.59%, HAAVISTO 37.41%; Jyrki KATAINEN elected prime minister; election results 118-72

note: government coalition - Kok, SDP, Vihr, SFP, Vas, and KD (2013)
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 17 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)

election results: percent of vote by party - Kok 20.4%, SDP 19.1%, TF 19.1%, Kesk 15.8%, Vas 8.1%, Vihr 7.3%, SFP 4.3%, KD 4%, other 1.9%; seats by party - Kok 44, SDP 42, TF 39, Kesk 35, Vas 14, Vihr 10, SFP 9, KD 6, other 1 (the constituency of Aland)
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges including the court president and organized into 3 chambers) note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction, and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights
Political parties and leaders: Center Party or Kesk [Juha SIPILA] Christian Democrats or KD [Paivi RASANEN] Green League or Vihr [Ville NIINISTO] Left Alliance or Vas [Paavo ARHINMAKI] National Coalition Party or Kok [Jyrki KATAINEN] Social Democratic Party or SDP [Jutta URPILAINEN] Swedish People's Party or SFP [Carl HAGLUND] The Finns Party or TF [Timo SOINI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): lion
National anthem: name: "Maamme" (Our Land)
lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS

note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ritva KOUKKU-RONDE
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Bruce J. ORECK
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 616250
FAX: [358] (9) 6162 5800
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 Economy
Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita output almost as high as that of Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Trade is important with exports accounting for over one third of GDP in recent years. Finland is strongly competitive in manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in high-tech exports such as mobile phones. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU in recent years and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in 2009, with Finland experiencing one of the deepest contractions in the euro zone. A recovery of exports, domestic trade, and household consumption stimulated economic growth in 2010-11. The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio, turning previously strong budget surpluses into deficits, but Finland has taken action to ensure it will meet EU deficit targets by 2013 and retains its triple-A credit rating. Finland's main challenge in 2013 will be to stimulate growth in the face of weak demand in EU export markets and government austerity measures meant to reduce its budget deficit. Longer-term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $200.7 billion (2012 est.) $201.1 billion (2011 est.) $195.7 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $250.1 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -0.2% (2012 est.) 2.8% (2011 est.) 3.3% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $37,000 (2012 est.) $37,200 (2011 est.) $36,400 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 18.7% of GDP (2012 est.) 20.6% of GDP (2011 est.) 21% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 56.3%
government consumption: 24.8%
investment in fixed capital: 19.4%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 39.8%
imports of goods and services: -40.5% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 56.3%
government consumption: 24.8%
investment in fixed capital: 19.4%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 39.8%
imports of goods and services: -40.5% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
Industries: metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Industrial production growth rate: -1.8% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 2.69 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and forestry: 4.4%
industry: 15.5% construction: 7.1% commerce: 21.3% finance, insurance, and business
services: 13.3% transport and communications: 9.9% public services: 28.5% (2011)
Unemployment rate: 7.8% (2012 est.) 7.8% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 24.7% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 26.8 (2008) 25.6 (1991)
Budget: revenues: $134.5 billion
expenditures: $139.8 billion note: Central Government Budget (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 53.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 53% of GDP (2012 est.) 49.1% of GDP (2011 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.2% (2012 est.) 3.3% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$3.6 billion (2012 est.) -$1.86 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $73.4 billion (2012 est.) $79.15 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber
Exports - partners: Sweden 11.1%, Russia 9.9%, Germany 9.4%, Netherlands 6.4%, US 6.1%, UK 5.1%, China 4.6% (2012)
Imports: $73.15 billion (2012 est.) $80.89 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains
Imports - partners: Russia 17.8%, Sweden 14.8%, Germany 13.9%, Netherlands 8%, China 4.4% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $11.08 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $10.35 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $599.3 billion (31 December 2012) $478.5 billion (31 December 2011)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $134.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $128.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $186.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $173 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $143.1 billion (31 December 2011) $118.2 billion (31 December 2010) $91.02 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7778 (2012 est.) 0.7185 (2011 est.) 0.755 (2010 est.) 0.7198 (2009 est.) 0.6827 (2008 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 76.16 billion kWh (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 39
Electricity - consumption: 77.66 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 5.218 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 15.72 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 16.32 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 52.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 16.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 19.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 12% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 215,700 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 301,500 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 204,800 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 133,600 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 103,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 4.101 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 4.101 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 54.4 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 1.08 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 73
Cellular Phones in use: 8.94 million (2009)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system with excellent service

domestic: digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive mobile-cellular network provide domestic needs

international: country code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Sweden; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) (2011)
Broadcast media: a mix of publicly operated TV stations and privately owned TV stations; the 2 publicly owned TV stations recently expanded services and the largest private TV station has introduced several special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-channel subscription services are available; all TV signals have been broadcast digitally since September 2007; analog broadcasts via cable networks were terminated in February 2008; public broadcasting maintains a network of 13 national and 25 regional radio stations; a large number of private radio broadcasters (2008)
Internet country code: .fi; note - Aland Islands assigned .ax
Internet hosts: 4.763 million (2012)
Internet users: 4.393 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 148 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 39
Airports (paved runways): total 74
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 74

914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 71 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 1,689 km (2010)
Railways: total 5,944 km
broad gauge: 5,944 km 1.524-m gauge (3,067 km electrified) (2013)
Roadways: total 78,000 km
paved: 50,000 km (includes 700 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,000 km

note: there 78,000 km of highways, 350,000 km of private and forest roads, and 26,000 km of urban roads giving Finland a total 450,000 km
(2012)
Waterways: 8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport is used frequently in the summer and is widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finand also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013)
Merchant marine: total 97

by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 25, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, container 3, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 16, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 31, vehicle carrier 3

foreign-owned: 5 (Cyprus 1, Estonia 2, Iceland 1, Sweden 1)

registered in other countries: 47 (Bahamas 8, Germany 3, Gibraltar 2, Malta 3, Netherlands 13, Panama 2, Sweden 16) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma
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 Military
Military branches: Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Puolustusvoimat), Navy (Merivoimat; includes Coastal Defense Forces), Air Force (Ilmavoimat) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for male voluntary and compulsory - and female voluntary - national military and nonmilitary service; service obligation 6-12 months; military obligation to age 60 (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,155,368
females age 16-49: 1,106,193 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 955,151
females age 16-49: 912,983 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 32,599
female: 31,416 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 2% of GDP (2005 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 2,017 (2012)
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