Ethiopia Population: 102,374,044

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 History
Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front. A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea in the late 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission (EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea. In August 2012, longtime leader Prime Minister MELES Zenawi died in office and was replaced by his Deputy Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn, marking the first peaceful transition of power in decades.

 Geography
Landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; Ethiopia is, therefore, the most populous landlocked country in the world; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean
Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 38 00 E
Area: total: 1,104,300 sq km
land: 1 million sq km
water: 104,300 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 5,925 km border countries (6): Djibouti 342 km, Eritrea 1,033 km, Kenya 867 km, Somalia 1,640 km, South Sudan 1,299 km, Sudan 744 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 36.3% arable land 15.2%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 20% forest: 12.2%
other: 51.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 2,900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts volcanism: volcanic activity in the Great Rift Valley; Erta Ale (elev. 613 m), which has caused frequent lava flows in recent years, is the country's most active volcano; Dabbahu became active in 2005, forcing evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Alayta, Dalaffilla, Dallol, Dama Ali, Fentale, Kone, Manda Hararo, and Manda-Inakir
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
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 People
Nationality: noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian
Ethnic groups: Oromo 34.4%, Amhara (Amara) 27%, Somali (Somalie) 6.2%, Tigray (Tigrinya) 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Afar (Affar) 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 8.8% (2007 est.)
Languages: Oromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)
Religions: Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.5%, traditional 2.7%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)
Population: 102,374,044 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.71% (male 22,430,798/female 22,316,910)
15-24 years: 20.04% (male 10,182,973/female 10,332,626)
25-54 years: 29.45% (male 14,970,645/female 15,178,999)
55-64 years: 3.89% (male 1,939,635/female 2,047,041)
65 years and over: 2.91% (male 1,338,985/female 1,635,432) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 81.6%
youth dependency ratio: 75.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 6.3%
potential support ratio: 15.8% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 17.8 years
male: 17.6 years
female: 18 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.88% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 36.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 19.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.89% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: ADDIS ABABA (capital) 3.238 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.6 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 353 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 51.1 deaths/1,000 live births male: 58.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 43.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 62.2 years male: 59.8 years
female: 64.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.07 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 28.6% (2010/11)
Health expenditures: 4.9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 6.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 57.3% of population

unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 42.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 27.2% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 28% of population

unimproved:
urban: 72.8% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 72% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.15% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 730,300 (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 23,400 (2014 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 3.3% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 25.2% (2014)
Education expenditures: 4.5% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 49.1%
male: 57.2%
female: 41.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 8 years male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2012)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 7.3% male: 5%
female: 9.6% (2013 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form: Ityop'iya
former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
abbreviation: FDRE
etymology: the country name derives from the Greek word "Aethiopia," which in classical times referred to lands south of Egypt in the Upper Nile region
Government type: federal parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Addis Ababa
geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples)
Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)
National holiday: National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)
Constitution: several previous; latest drafted June 1994, adopted 8 December 1994, entered into force 21 August 1995 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President MULATU Teshome Wirtu (since 7 October 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn (since 21 September 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers DEMEKE Mekonnen Hassen and DEBRETSION Gebre-Michael

cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by both chambers of Parliament for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister designated by the majority party following legislative elections

election results: MULATU Teshome Wirtu (OPDO) elected president by acclamation
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation or Yefedereshein Mikir Bete (108 seats; members indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 5-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives or Yehizb Tewokayoch Mekir Bete (547 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Federation is responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues and the House of People's Representatives is responsible for passing legislation

elections: last held on 24 May 2015 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: House of Representatives percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 500, SPDP 24, BGPDP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, APDO 1, HNL 1, independent 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Federal Supreme Court or Supreme Imperial Court (consists of 11 judges); note - the Federal Supreme Court has jurisdiction for all constitutional issues judge selection and term of office: president and vice president of Federal Supreme Court nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; other Supreme Court judges nominated by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; judges serve until retirement at age 60

subordinate courts: federal high courts and federal courts of first instance; state court systems (mirror structure of federal system); sharia courts and customary and traditional courts
Political parties and leaders: Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [Mohammed KEDIR] Argoba People Democratic Organization or APDO Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Party or BGPDP Blue Party (Semayawi Party) [Yanatan TESFAYE, spokesman] Ethiopian Federal Democratic Forum or FORUM [Dr. Moga FRISSA] (a UDJ-led 6-party alliance established for the 2010 parliamentary elections) Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [Hailemarian DESALEGN] (including the following organizations: Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM; Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO; Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement or SEPDM; Tigray People's Liberation Front or TPLF) Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM Harari National League or HNL [YASIN Husein] Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP
Political pressure groups and leaders: Ethiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): Abyssinian lion (traditional), yellow pentagram with five rays of light on a blue field (promoted by current government); national colors: green, yellow, red
National anthem: name: "Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enat Ethiopia" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)
lyrics/music: DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu

note: adopted 1992
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador GIRMA Birru Geda (since 6 January 2011)
chancery: 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200
FAX: [1] (202) 587-0195
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Seattle consulate(s): Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Peter H. VROOMAN (since 2016)
embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address: P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone: [251] 11 130-6000
FAX: 124-2401 [251] 11 124 2401
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 Economy
Ethiopia has grown at a rate between 8% and 11% annually for more than a decade and the country is the fifth-fastest growing economy among the 188 IMF member countries. This growth has been driven by sustained progress in the agricultural and service sectors. Ethiopia has the lowest level of income-inequality in Africa and one of the lowest in the world, with a Gini coefficient comparable to that of the Scandinavian countries. Yet despite progress toward eliminating extreme poverty, Ethiopia remains one of the poorest countries in the world, due both to rapid population growth and a low starting base. Changes in rainfall associated with world-wide weather patterns resulted in the worst drought in thirty years in 2015/2016, creating food insecurity for millions of Ethiopians. Almost 80% of Ethiopia’s population is still employed in the agricultural sector, but services have surpassed agriculture as the principal source of GDP. Under Ethiopia's constitution, the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to tenants. Since 2005, the Ethiopian government has introduced a system to register traditional land use rights and provide certificates documenting these rights. Initial surveys show that land-use certificates have significantly increased the willingness of farmers to invest in improvements on their land, from terracing to irrigation. However, title rights in urban areas, particularly Addis Ababa, are poorly regulated, and subject to corruption. Ethiopia’s export earnings are led by the services sector - primarily Ethiopian airlines - followed by several commodities. While coffee remains the largest foreign exchange earner, Ethiopia is diversifying exports and commodities such as gold, sesame, khat, livestock and horticulture products are becoming increasingly important. Manufacturing represents less than 8% of total exports. The banking, insurance, telecommunications, and micro-credit industries are restricted to domestic investors, but Ethiopia has attracted significant foreign investment in textiles, leather, commercial agriculture, and light manufacturing. Ethiopia remains a one-party state with a planned economy. In the fall of 2015, the government finalized and published the current 2016-2020 five year plan, known as the Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP II). GTP II emphasizes developing manufactures in sectors where Ethiopia has a comparative advantage in exporting, including textiles and garments, leather goods, and processed agricultural products. New infrastructure projects are to include power production and distribution, roads, rails, airports and industrial parks. To support industrialization, Ethiopia plans to increase power generation by 8,320 MW, up from an installed capacity of 2,000 MW, by building three more major dams and expanding to other sources of renewable energy. Construction is underway on an electric railway network that will connect Ethiopia to all its neighbors, with a link to the Port of Djibouti already finished and partially functioning. A tripling of capacity at the international airport in Addis Ababa to 25 million passengers will be completed in 2017, while construction of a completely new airport is being planned by 2025. Meanwhile, the domestic airport network has expanded to nineteen airports in a country where mountains and deserts make developing and maintaining a road network challenging. Despite difficult topography, more than a hundred thousand kilometers of roads have been built, connecting previously isolated regions.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $174.7 billion (2016 est.) $164.1 billion (2015 est.) $148.9 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $69.22 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (2016 est.) 10.2% (2015 est.) 10.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,900 (2016 est.) $1,800 (2015 est.) $1,700 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 29% of GDP (2016 est.) 31.7% of GDP (2015 est.) 30.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 65.9%
government consumption: 10.2%
investment in fixed capital: 37.6%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 8.7%
imports of goods and services: -22.3% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 65.9%
government consumption: 10.2%
investment in fixed capital: 37.6%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 8.7%
imports of goods and services: -22.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: cereals, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, vegetables, khat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish
Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, garments, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Industrial production growth rate: 9% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 50.97 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 85%
industry: 5%
services: 10% (2009 est.)
Unemployment rate: 17.5% (2012 est.) 18% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 29.6% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 25.6% (2005)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 33 (2011) 30 (2000)
Budget: revenues: $10.07 billion
expenditures: $11.85 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 14.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 54.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 49.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: official data cover central government debt, including debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury and treasury debt owned by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragov
Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.1% (2016 est.) 10.1% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$7.427 billion (2016 est.) -$7.392 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $2.932 billion (2016 est.) $2.935 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee (27%, by value), oilseeds (17%), edible vegetables including khat (17%), gold (13%), flowers (7%), live animals (7%), raw leather products (3%), meat products (3%)
Exports - partners: Switzerland 14.3%, China 11.7%, US 9.5%, Netherlands 8.8%, Saudi Arabia 5.9%, Germany 5.7% (2015)
Imports: $14.7 billion (2016 est.) $15.87 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and aircraft (14%, by value), metal and metal products, (14%), electrical materials, (13%), petroleum products (12%), motor vehicles, (10%), chemicals and fertilizers (4%)
Imports - partners: China 20.4%, US 9.2%, Saudi Arabia 6.5%, India 4.5% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.956 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $3.113 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $22.49 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $19.04 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: birr (ETB) per US dollar - 23.25 (2016 est.) 21.55 (2015 est.) 21.55 (2014 est.) 19.8 (2013 est.) 17.71 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 9.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 6.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.4 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 8.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 88.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 3.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 430,000 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 61,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 58,740 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 9.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 42.312 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate telephone system with the Ethio Telecom maintaining a monopoly over telecommunication services; open-wire, microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service

domestic: the number of mobile telephones is increasing steadily from a small base and now stands at over 40 per 100 persons

international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: 6 public TV stations broadcasting nationally and 10 public radio broadcasters; 7 private radio stations and 18 community radio stations (2015)
Internet country code: .et
Internet users: total: 11.538 million percent of population: 11.6% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 57 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 17
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 40

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
Railways: total 681 km
(Ethiopian segment of the 781 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge

note: railway is under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia (2015)
Roadways: total 110,414 km
paved: 14,354 km
unpaved: 96,060 km (2015)
Merchant marine: total 8

by type: cargo 8 (2010)
Ports and terminals: Ethiopia is landlocked and uses the ports of Djibouti in Djibouti and Berbera in Somalia
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 Military
Military branches: Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Ethiopian Air Force (Ye Ityopya Ayer Hayl, ETAF) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but the military can conduct callups when necessary and compliance is compulsory (2012)
Military expenditures: 0.91% of GDP (2012) 1.1% of GDP (2011) 0.91% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 337,925 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 254,965 (Somalia) (refugees); 155,276 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers); 37,959 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2016) IDPs: 450,000 (border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000; ethnic clashes; and ongoing fighting between the Ethiopian military and separatist rebel groups in the Sumale and Oromiya regions; natural disasters; intercommunal violence; most IDPs live in Sumale state) (2015)
Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe, as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia (legal in all three countries); the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money laundering center
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