Spain Population: 47,370,542


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Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. More recently the government has had to focus on measures to reverse a severe economic recession that began in mid-2008. Austerity measures implemented to reduce a large budget deficit and reassure foreign investors have led to one of the highest unemployment rates in Europe.

Strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas
Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, and Pyrenees Mountains; southwest of France
Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 4 00 W
Area: total: 505,370 sq km
land: 498,980 sq km
water: 6,390 sq km

note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Size comparison: slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
Land Boundaries: total: 1,917.8 km
border countries: Andorra 63.7 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Morocco (Melilla) 9.6 km
Coastline: 4,964 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)
Climate: temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
Terrain: large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees Mountains in north
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m
Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
Land use: arable land: 24.75%
permanent crops: 9.29%
other: 65.96% (2011)
Irrigated land: 34,700 sq km (2011)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts, occasional flooding volcanism: volcanic activity in the Canary Islands, located off Africa's northwest coast; Teide (elev. 3,715 m) has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; La Palma (elev. 2,426 m), which last erupted in 1971, is the most active of the Canary Islands volcanoes; Lanzarote is the only other historically active volcano
Current Environment Issues: pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
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Nationality: noun: Spaniard(s)
adjective: Spanish
Ethnic groups: composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types
Languages: Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, and Basque 2% note: Catalan is official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian); in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Vall d'Aran), Aranese is official along with Catalan; Galician is official in Galicia; Basque is official in the Basque Country
Religions: Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%
Population: 47,370,542 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.4% (male 3,747,028/female 3,531,247)
15-24 years: 9.7% (male 2,377,992/female 2,215,742)
25-54 years: 46.2% (male 11,141,726/female 10,749,877)
55-64 years: 11.3% (male 2,600,682/female 2,738,559)
65 years and over: 17.5% (male 3,514,051/female 4,753,638) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 49.5 %
youth dependency ratio: 23 %
elderly dependency ratio: 26.6 %
potential support ratio: 3.8 (2013)
Median age: total: 41.3 years
male: 40 years
female: 42.6 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.73% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 10.14 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 8.94 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 6.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 77% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: MADRID (capital) 5.762 million; Barcelona 5.029 million; Valencia 812,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 29.3 (2006 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 6 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.35 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.68 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.37 years
male: 78.37 years
female: 84.57 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.48 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 65.7% (2006)
Health expenditures: 9.5% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 3.71 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 3.2 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 130,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,600 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 26.6% (2008)
Education expenditures: 5% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.7%
male: 98.5%
female: 97% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 46.4%
male: 48.2%
female: 44.4% (2011)
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Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form: Spain
local long form: Reino de Espana
local short form: Espana
Government type: parliamentary monarchy
Capital: name: Madrid
geographic coordinates: 40 24 N, 3 41 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: Spain is divided into two time zones including the Canary Islands
Administrative divisions: 17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias, Baleares (Balearic Islands), Ceuta*, Canarias (Canary Islands), Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna (Catalonia), Comunidad Valenciana (Valencian Community), Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Madrid, Melilla*, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco (Basque Country)

note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)
Independence: 1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain
National holiday: National Day, 12 October (1492); year when Columbus first set foot in the Americas
Constitution: approved by legislature 31 October 1978; passed by referendum 6 December 1978; signed by the king 27 December 1978
Legal system: civil law system with regional variations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975); Heir Apparent Prince FELIPE, son of the monarch, born 30 January 1968

head of government: President of the Government (Prime Minister equivalent) Mariano RAJOY (since 20 December 2011); Vice President (and Minister of the President's Office) Soraya Saenz de SANTAMARIA (since 22 December 2011)

cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding

elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually proposed president by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 20 November 2011 (next to be held in November 2015); vice president and Council of Ministers are appointed by the president

election results: Mariano RAJOY elected President of the Government; percent of vote - 44.62%
Legislative branch: bicameral; General Courts or Las Cortes Generales (National Assembly) consists of the Senate or Senado (257 seats as of 2013; 208 members directly elected by popular vote and the other 49 - as of 2013 - appointed by the regional legislatures; members to serve four-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; each of the 50 electoral provinces fills a minimum of two seats and the North African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla fill one seat each with members serving a four-year term; the other 248 members are determined by proportional representation based on popular vote on block lists who serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 20 November 2011 (next to be held by November 2015); Congress of Deputies - last held on 20 November 2011 (next to be held by November 2015)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 136, PSOE 48, CiU 9, Entesa (PSC-PSOE) 7, EAJ/PNV 4, other 4, members appointed by regional legislatures 49; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PP 44.6%, PSOE 28.8%, CiU 4.2%, IU 6.9%, Amaiur 1.4%, UPyD 4.7%, EAJ/PNV 1.3%, other 8.1%; seats by party - PP 186, PSOE 110, CiU 16, IU 11, Amaiur 7, UPyD 5, EAJ/PNV 5, other 10
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo (consists of the court president and organized into the Civil Room with a president and 9 magistrates, the Penal Room with a president and 14 magistrates, the Administrative Room with a president and 32 magistrates, the Social Room with a president and 12 magistrates, and the Military Room with a president and 7 magistrates); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional de Espana (consists of 12 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch from candidates proposed by the General Council of the Judicial Power, a 20-member body chaired by the monarch and includes presidential appointees, and lawyers and jurists elected by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the monarch for 9-year terms

subordinate courts: National Court; High Courts of Justice (in each of the autonomous communities); provincial courts; courts of first instance
Political parties and leaders: Amaiur [collective leadership] (a coalition of parties advocating the peaceful Basque independence from Spain) Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Inigo URKULLU Renteria] Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriquez] (a coalition of five parties) Convergence and Union or CiU [Artur MAS i Gavarro] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC [Artur MAS i Gavarro] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN i LLEIDA]) Entesa Catalonia de Progress (a Senate coalition grouping four Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA) Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Guillerme VAZQUEZ Vazquez] Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan HERRERA i Torres] Yes to the Future or Geroa Bai [collective leadership] (a coalition of four Navarran parties) Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey] Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS i Vies] Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Alfredo PEREZ Rubalcaba] Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Yolanda BARCINA Angulo] Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Rosa DIEZ Gonzalez] United Left or IU [Cayo LARA Moya] (a coalition of parties including the Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties)
Political pressure groups and leaders: Association for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to supporting victims of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization) 15-M or 15 May protest movement, which is also known as the Indignados, Spanish for the "indignant ones" (a loose association of grassroots organizations that advocate for greater accountability and transparency in Spanish politics, increased social justice and job creation) Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO. the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO other: business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): Pillars of Hercules
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional Espanol" (National Anthem of Spain)
lyrics/music: none/unknown

note: officially in use between 1770 and 1931, restored in 1939; the Spanish anthem has no lyrics; in the years prior to 1931 it became known as "Marcha Real" (The Royal March); it first appeared in a 1761 military bugle call book and was replaced by "Himno de Riego" in the years between 1931 and 1939; the long version of the anthem is used for the king, while the short version is used for the prince, prime minister, and occasions such as sporting events
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ramon Gil-Casares SATRUSTEGUI
chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alan D. SOLOMONT
embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 09642
telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200
FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303
consulate(s) general: Barcelona
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After almost 15 years of above average GDP growth, the Spanish economy began to slow in late 2007 and entered into a recession in the second quarter of 2008. GDP contracted by 3.7% in 2009, ending a 16-year growth trend, and by another 0.3% in 2010; GDP expanded 0.4% in 2011, before contracting 1.4% in 2012. The economy has once again fallen into recession as deleveraging in the private sector, fiscal consolidation, and continued high unemployment weigh on domestic demand and investment, even as exports have shown signs of resiliency. The unemployment rate rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to 26.0% in 2012. The economic downturn has also hurt Spain's public finances. The government budget deficit peaked at 11.2% of GDP in 2010 and the process to reduce this imbalance has been slow despite the central government's efforts to raise new tax revenue and cut spending. Spain reduced its budget deficit to 9.4% of GDP in 2011, and roughly 7.4% of GDP in 2012, above the 6.3% target negotiated between Spain and the EU. Although Spain''s large budget deficit and poor economic growth prospects remain a source of concern for foreign investors, the government''s ongoing efforts to cut spending and introduce flexibility into the labor markets are intended to assuage these concerns. The government is also taking steps to shore up the banking system, namely by using up to $130 billion in EU funds to recapitalize struggling banks exposed to the collapsed domestic construction and real estate sectors.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.434 trillion (2012 est.) $1.454 trillion (2011 est.) $1.448 trillion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $1.352 trillion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -1.4% (2012 est.) 0.4% (2011 est.) -0.3% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $31,100 (2012 est.) $31,500 (2011 est.) $31,400 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 18.5% of GDP (2012 est.) 17.8% of GDP (2011 est.) 18.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 59.2%
government consumption: 20.1%
investment in fixed capital: 19.1%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 32.2%
imports of goods and services: -31.1% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 59.2%
government consumption: 20.1%
investment in fixed capital: 19.1%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 32.2%
imports of goods and services: -31.1% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish
Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
Industrial production growth rate: -4.5% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 23.05 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 24%
services: 71.7% (2009 est.)
Unemployment rate: 25.1% (2012 est.) 21.7% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 21.1% (2012)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 26.6% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 32 (2005) 32.5 (1990)
Budget: revenues: $491.2 billion
expenditures: $634.6 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 36.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 84.1% of GDP (2012 est.) 69.3% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2012 est.) 3% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$18.8 billion (2012 est.) -$52.28 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $291.7 billion (2012 est.) $303.3 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods
Exports - partners: France 16.8%, Germany 10.8%, Italy 7.7%, Portugal 7.1%, UK 6.5% (2012)
Imports: $323.7 billion (2012 est.) $361.8 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments
Imports - partners: Germany 11.8%, France 11.5%, Italy 6.7%, China 5.6%, Netherlands 5.4%, UK 4.1% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $50.59 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $47.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $2.311 trillion (31 December 2012) $2.269 trillion (31 December 2011)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $723.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $700.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $716.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $721.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $1.031 trillion (31 December 2011) $1.172 trillion (31 December 2010) $1.297 trillion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7778 (2012 est.) 0.7185 (2011 est.) 0.755 (2010 est.) 0.7198 (2009 est.) 0.6827 (2008 est.)
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Electricity - production: 279.6 billion kWh (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 14
Electricity - consumption: 249.7 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - exports: 13.52 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 5.169 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 102.5 million kW (2012 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 48.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 7.6% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 13.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 24.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 12,090 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 1.046 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 150 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 1.211 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1.384 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 240,700 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 528,400 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Natural gas - production: 52 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 33.55 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 1.698 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 35.49 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 316.4 million Mt (2010 est.)
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Telephones in use: 19.867 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 14
Cellular Phones in use: 52.598 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: well-developed, modern facilities; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 40 per 100 persons

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 150 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries (2011)
Broadcast media: a mixture of both publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; overall, hundreds of TV channels are available including national, regional, local, public, and international channels; satellite and cable TV systems available; multiple national radio networks, a large number of regional radio networks, and a larger number of local radio stations; overall, hundreds of radio stations (2008)
Internet country code: .es
Internet hosts: 4.228 million (2012)
Internet users: 28.119 million (2009)
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Airports: 150 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 38
Airports (paved runways): total 99
over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 24
under 914 m: 24 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 51

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 36 (2013)
Heliports: 10 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 10,481 km; oil 616 km; refined products 3,461 km (2013)
Railways: total 15,293 km
broad gauge: 11,919 km 1.668-m gauge (6,950 km electrified) standard gauge: 1,392 km 1.435-m gauge (1,054 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,954 km 1.000-m gauge (815 km electrified); 28 km 0.914-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 681,298 km
paved: 681,298 km (includes 15,152 km of expressways) (2008)
Waterways: 1,000 km (2012)
Merchant marine: total 132

by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 19, chemical tanker 8, container 5, liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 43, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 9, vehicle carrier 7

foreign-owned: 27 (Canada 4, Germany 4, Italy 1, Mexico 1, Norway 10, Russia 6, Switzerland 1)

registered in other countries: 103 (Angola 1, Argentina 3, Bahamas 6, Brazil 12, Cape Verde 1, Cyprus 6, Ireland 1, Malta 8, Morocco 9, Panama 30, Peru 1, Portugal 18, Uruguay 5, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Algeciras, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Tarragona, Valencia (Spain); Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands)
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Military branches: Spanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola, AE; includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service by a Spanish citizen or legal immigrant, 2-3 year obligation; women allowed to serve in all SAF branches, including combat units; no conscription, but Spanish Government retains right to mobilize citizens 19-25 years of age in a national emergency; mandatory retirement of non-NCO enlisted personnel at age 45 or 58, depending on service length (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 11,759,557
females age 16-49: 11,204,688 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 9,603,939
females age 16-49: 9,116,928 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 217,244
female: 205,278 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.2% of GDP (2005 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 36 (2012)
Illicit drugs: despite rigorous law enforcement efforts, North African, Latin American, Galician, and other European traffickers take advantage of Spain's long coastline to land large shipments of cocaine and hashish for distribution to the European market; consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering site for Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations and organized crime
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