Ecuador Population: 15,439,429

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 History
What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty - New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito - gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the "Republic of the Equator." Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 30 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period was marred by political instability. Protests in Quito contributed to the mid-term ouster of three of Ecuador's last four democratically elected presidents. In late 2008, voters approved a new constitution, Ecuador's 20th since gaining independence. General elections were held in February 2013, and voters re-elected President Rafael CORREA.

 Geography
Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world
Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru
Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W
Area: total: 283,561 sq km
land: 276,841 sq km
water: 6,720 sq km

note: includes Galapagos Islands

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Nevada
Land Boundaries: total: 2,010 km
border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km
Coastline: 2,237 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 100 nm from 2,500-m isobath
Climate: tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m note: due to the fact that the earth is not a perfect sphere and has an equatorial bulge, the highest point on the planet furthest from its center is Mount Chimborazo not Mount Everest, which is merely the highest peak above sea-level
Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 4.51%
permanent crops: 5.38%
other: 90.11% (2011)
Irrigated land: 8,534 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes; landslides; volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts volcanism: volcanic activity concentrated along the Andes Mountains; Sangay (elev. 5,230 m), which erupted in 2010, is mainland Ecuador's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes in the Andes include Antisana, Cayambe, Chacana, Cotopaxi, Guagua Pichincha, Reventador, Sumaco, and Tungurahua; Fernandina (elev. 1,476 m), a shield volcano that last erupted in 2009, is the most active of the many Galapagos volcanoes; other historically active Galapagos volcanoes include Wolf, Sierra Negra, Cerro Azul, Pinta, Marchena, and Santiago
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian
Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 71.9%, Montubio 7.4%, Afroecuadorian 7.2%, Amerindian 7%, white 6.1%, other 0.4% (2010 census)
Languages: Spanish (official), indigenous (Quechua, Shuar)
Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
Population: 15,439,429 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 29% (male 2,284,815/female 2,193,648)
15-24 years: 18.7% (male 1,462,025/female 1,427,181)
25-54 years: 38.7% (male 2,908,224/female 3,061,896)
55-64 years: 6.9% (male 524,574/female 540,074)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 496,557/female 540,435) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 57.4 %
youth dependency ratio: 47.2 %
elderly dependency ratio: 10.3 %
potential support ratio: 9.8 (2013)
Median age: total: 26.3 years
male: 25.7 years
female: 26.9 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.4% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 19.23 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 5.03 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 67% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: Guayaquil 2.634 million; QUITO (capital) 1.622 million (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 21.8 (2004 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 110 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 18.48 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.73 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.15 years
male: 73.2 years
female: 79.25 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.33 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 72.7% (2004)
Health expenditures: 8.1% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 1.48 physicians/1,000 population (2000)
Hospital bed density: 1.5 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 96% of population
rural: 89% of population
total: 94% of population

unimproved:
urban: 4% of population
rural: 11% of population
total: 6% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 96% of population
rural: 84% of population
total: 92% of population

unimproved:
urban: 4% of population
rural: 16% of population
total: 8% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 37,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,200 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 21.4% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 6.2% (2004)
Education expenditures: 4.9% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.6%
male: 93.1%
female: 90.2% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2008)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 14.1%
male: 11.7%
female: 18.1% (2009)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form: Ecuador
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Quito
geographic coordinates: 0 13 S, 78 30 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)
Constitution: 20 October 2008; this is Ecuador's 20th constitution
Legal system: civil law based on the Chilean civil code with modifications
Suffrage: 18-65 years of age, universal and compulsory; 16-18, over 65, and other eligible voters, optional
Executive branch: chief of state: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 January 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 January 2007)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: the president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term and can be re-elected for another consecutive term; election last held on 17 February 2013 (next to be held in 2017)

election results: President Rafael CORREA Delgado reelected president; percent of vote - Rafael CORREA Delgado 57.2%, Guillermo LASSO 22.7%, Lucio GUTIERREZ 6.8%, Mauricio RODAS 3.9%, other 9.4%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (137 seats; members are elected through a party-list proportional representation system to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 17 February 2013 (next to be held in 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAIS 100, CREO 11, PSC 6, AVANZA 5, MUPP 5, PSP 5, other 5; note - defections by members of National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties
Judicial branch: highest court(s): National Court of Justice or Corte Nacional de Justicia (consists of 21 judges including a chief justice and organized into 5 specialized chambers); Constitutional Court or Corte Constitutional (consists of 11 judges) judge selection and term of office: justices of National Court of Justice elected by the Judiciary Council, a 9-member independent body of professionals; judges elected for 9-year, non-renewable terms, with one-third of the judges renewed every 3 years; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly from candidates selected by the president, Supreme Court, and other government officials; judges appointed for 2-year terms

subordinate courts: Fiscal Tribunal; Superior Court (one for each province); lower provincial and cantonal courts
Political parties and leaders: Alianza PAIS movement [Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado] Avanza Party or AVANZA [Ramiro GONZALEZ] Breakaway Party [Martha ROLDOS] Creating Opportunities Movement or CREO [Guillermo LASSO] Institutional Renewal and National Action Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA] Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement or MUPP [Rafael ANTUNI] Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua] Plurinational Union Movement of the Left [Alberto ACOSTA] Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Pulley, director] Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO] Socialist Party Society United for More Action or SUMA [Mauricio RODAS] Warrior's Spirit Movement [Jaime NEBOT]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Humberto CHOLANGO] Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Manuel CHUGCHILAN, president] National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN National Teacher's Union or UNE [Mariana PALLASCO]
International organization participation: CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Andean condor
National anthem: name: "Salve, Oh Patria!" (We Salute You Our Homeland)
lyrics/music: Juan Leon MERA/Antonio NEUMANE

note: adopted 1948; Juan Leon MERA wrote the lyrics in 1865; only the chorus and second verse are sung
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Saskia Nathalie CELY Suarez
chancery: 1050 30th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 465-8140
FAX: [1] (202) 333-2893
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Haven (CT), New Orleans, New York, Newark (NJ), Phoenix, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Adam NAMM
embassy: Avenida Avigiras E12-170 y Avenida Eloy Alfaro, Quito
mailing address: Avenida Guayacanes N52-205 y Avenida Avigiras
telephone: [593] (2) 398-5000
FAX: [593] (2) 398-5100
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil
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 Economy
Ecuador is substantially dependent on its petroleum resources, which have accounted for more than half of the country's export earnings and approximately two-fifths of public sector revenues in recent years. In 1999/2000, Ecuador's economy suffered from a banking crisis, with GDP contracting by 5.3% and poverty increasing significantly. In March 2000, the Congress approved a series of structural reforms that also provided for the adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Dollarization stabilized the economy, and positive growth returned in the years that followed, helped by high oil prices, remittances, and increased non-traditional exports. From 2002-06 the economy grew an average of 4.3% per year, the highest five-year average in 25 years. After moderate growth in 2007, the economy reached a growth rate of 6.4% in 2008, buoyed by high global petroleum prices and increased public sector investment. President Rafael CORREA, who took office in January 2007, defaulted in December 2008 on Ecuador's sovereign debt, which, with a total face value of approximately US$3.2 billion, represented about 30% of Ecuador's public external debt. In May 2009, Ecuador bought back 91% of its "defaulted" bonds via an international reverse auction. Economic policies under the CORREA administration - for example, an announcement in late 2009 of its intention to terminate 13 bilateral investment treaties, including one with the United States - have generated economic uncertainty and discouraged private investment. The Ecuadorian economy slowed to 1% growth in 2009 due to the global financial crisis and to the sharp decline in world oil prices and remittance flows. Growth picked up to a 3.3% rate in 2010 and nearly 8% in 2011, before falling to 5% in 2012. China has become Ecuador's largest foreign lender since Quito defaulted in 2008, allowing the government to maintain a high rate of social spending; Ecuador contracted with the Chinese government for more than $9 billion in oil for cash and project loans as of December 2012.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $155.8 billion (2012 est.) $148.4 billion (2011 est.) $137.4 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $80.93 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2012 est.) 8% (2011 est.) 3.3% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $10,200 (2012 est.) $9,900 (2011 est.) $9,300 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 26.8% of GDP (2012 est.) 27.5% of GDP (2011 est.) 24.6% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 61.3%
government consumption: 13.5%
investment in fixed capital: 26.5%
investment in inventories: 0.6%
exports of goods and services: 31%
imports of goods and services: -33% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 61.3%
government consumption: 13.5%
investment in fixed capital: 26.5%
investment in inventories: 0.6%
exports of goods and services: 31%
imports of goods and services: -33% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; fish, shrimp; balsa wood
Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals
Industrial production growth rate: 5.8% note: excludes oil refining (2012 est.)
Labor force: 6.779 million (December 2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 27.6%
industry: 18.8%
services: 53.6% (2010)
Unemployment rate: 4.9% (2012 est.) 4.2% (December 2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 27.3% (December 2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 38.3% note: data for urban households only (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 47.7 (December 2012) 50.5 (2006) note: data are for urban households
Budget: revenues: $34.53 billion
expenditures: $35.48 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 42.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 20.9% of GDP (2012 est.) 17.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.1% (2012 est.) 4.5% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.387 billion (2012 est.) -$238.4 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $24.65 billion (2012 est.) $23.08 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp, cacao, coffee, wood, fish
Exports - partners: US 37%, Chile 8.1%, Peru 7.1%, Colombia 4.6%, Japan 4.5%, Russia 4.4% (2012)
Imports: $24.58 billion (2012 est.) $23.24 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: industrial materials, fuels and lubricants, nondurable consumer goods
Imports - partners: US 28%, China 11.2%, Colombia 9.3%, Peru 4.9% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.483 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $2.958 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $17.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $16.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $17.29 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $16.71 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $6.33 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $6.33 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $5.779 billion (31 December 2011) $5.263 billion (31 December 2010) $4.248 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: the US dollar became Ecuador's currency in 2001
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 21.84 billion kWh (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 69
Electricity - consumption: 14.92 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 14.1 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports: 1.3 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 4.939 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 56.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 41.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 2.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 504,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 366,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 154,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 6.573 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 198,700 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 280,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 28,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 111,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Natural gas - production: 330 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 330 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 25,000 cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 7.985 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 24.43 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 2.211 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 56
Cellular Phones in use: 15.333 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: elementary fixed-line service, but increasingly sophisticated mobile-cellular network

domestic: fixed-line services provided by multiple telecommunications operators; fixed-line teledensity stands at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular use has surged and subscribership has reached 100 per 100 persons

international: country code - 593; landing points for the PAN-AM and South America-1 submarine cables that provide links to the west coast of South America, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and extending onward to Aruba and the US Virgin Islands in the Caribbean; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media: Ecuador has multiple TV networks and many local channels, as well as more than 300 radio stations; many TV and radio stations are privately owned; the government owns or controls 5 national TV stations and multiple radio stations; broadcast media required by law to give the government free air time to broadcast programs produced by the state (2007)
Internet country code: .ec
Internet hosts: 170,538 (2012)
Internet users: 3.352 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 432 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 20
Airports (paved runways): total 104
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 26
under 914 m: 51 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 328

914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 291 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Pipelines: extra heavy crude 527 km; gas 71 km; oil 2,131 km; refined products 1,526 km (2013)
Railways: total 965 km

narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 43,670 km
paved: 6,472 km
unpaved: 37,198 km (2007)
Waterways: 1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 44

by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 9, petroleum tanker 28, refrigerated cargo 1

registered in other countries: 4 (Panama 3, Peru 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Esmeraldas, Manta, Puerto Bolivar
river port(s): Guayaquil (Guayas)
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 Military
Military branches: Ecuadorian Armed Forces: Ecuadorian Land Force (Fuerza Terrestre Ecuatoriana, FTE), Ecuadorian Navy (Fuerza Naval del Ecuador (FNE), includes Naval Infantry, Naval Aviation, Coast Guard), Ecuadorian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana, FAE) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for selective conscript military service; conscription has been suspended; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; Air Force 18-22 years of age, Ecadorian birth requirement; 1-year service obligation (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 3,728,906
females age 16-49: 3,844,918 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 2,834,213
females age 16-49: 3,269,535 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 152,593
female: 147,143 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 2.3% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border, which thousands of Colombians also cross to escape the violence in their home country
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 122,964 (Colombia) (2012)
Illicit drugs: significant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru, with much of the US-bound cocaine passing through Ecuadorian Pacific waters; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; attractive location for cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents (2008)
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