Denmark Population: 5,593,785

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 History
Once the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation that is participating in the general political and economic integration of Europe. It joined NATO in 1949 and the EEC (now the EU) in 1973. However, the country has opted out of certain elements of the EU's Maastricht Treaty, including the European Economic and Monetary Union, European defense cooperation, and issues concerning certain justice and home affairs.

 Geography
Controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in greater Copenhagen
Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany (Jutland); also includes several major islands (Sjaelland, Fyn, and Bornholm)
Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 10 00 E
Area: total: 43,094 sq km
land: 42,434 sq km
water: 660 sq km

note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark (the Jutland Peninsula, and the major islands of Sjaelland and Fyn), but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts
Land Boundaries: total: 140 km border countries (1): Germany 140 km
Coastline: 7,314 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers
Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish, arable land, salt, limestone, chalk, stone, gravel and sand
Land use: agricultural land: 63.4% arable land 58.9%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 4.4% forest: 12.9%
other: 23.7% note: highest percentage of arable land for any country in the world (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 4,350 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes
Current Environment Issues: air pollution, principally from vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes and pesticides
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Dane(s)
adjective: Danish
Ethnic groups: Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish, Iranian, Somali
Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority) note: English is the predominant second language
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran (official) 80%, Muslim 4%, other (denominations of less than 1% each, includes Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Serbian Orthodox Christian, Jewish, Baptist, and Buddhist) 16% (2012 est.)
Population: 5,593,785 note: Statistics Denmark estimates the country's total population to be 5,724,456 as of 2016 Q3 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.58% (male 475,763/female 451,557)
15-24 years: 13.12% (male 374,806/female 359,344)
25-54 years: 38.88% (male 1,082,404/female 1,092,672)
55-64 years: 12.45% (male 346,371/female 350,093)
65 years and over: 18.96% (male 475,330/female 585,445) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 55.9%
youth dependency ratio: 26.3%
elderly dependency ratio: 29.6%
potential support ratio: 3.4% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 42 years
male: 41.1 years
female: 43 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.22% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 10.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 87.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: COPENHAGEN (capital) 1.268 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 29.1 (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 6 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 4.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.4 years male: 77 years
female: 82 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 10.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 3.49 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density: 3.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 99.6% of population
total: 99.6% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 0.4% of population
total: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.16% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 6,000 (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2014 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 21% (2014)
Education expenditures: 8.6% of GDP (2013)
Literacy:
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 19 years male: 18 years
female: 20 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 12.6% male: 13.7%
female: 11.5% (2014 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark
conventional short form: Denmark
local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
local short form: Danmark
etymology: the name derives from the words "Dane(s)" and "mark"; the latter referring to a march (borderland) or forest
Government type: parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Copenhagen
geographic coordinates: 55 40 N, 12 35 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: applies to continental Denmark only, not to its North Atlantic components
Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark - 5 regions (regioner, singular - region); Hovedstaden (Capital), Midtjylland (Central Jutland), Nordjylland (North Jutland), Sjaelland (Zealand), Syddanmark (Southern Denmark)

note: an extensive local government reform merged 271 municipalities into 98 and 13 counties into five regions, effective 1 January 2007
Independence: ca. 965 (unified and Christianized under HARALD I Gormson); 5 June 1849 (became a parliamentary constitutional monarchy)
National holiday: none designated; Constitution Day, 5 June (1849) is generally viewed as National Day
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 5 June 1953 amendments: proposed by the Folketing with consent of the government; passage requires approval by the next Folketing following a general election, approval by simple majority vote of at least 40 percent of voters in a referendum, and assent by the chief of state; changed several times, last in 2009 (Danish Act of Succession) (2016)
Legal system: civil law; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born on 26 May 1968)

head of government: Prime Minister Lars LOEKKE RASMUSSEN (since 28 June 2015)

cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch
Legislative branch: description: unicameral People's Assembly or Folketing (179 seats, including 2 representing Greenland and 2 representing the Faroe Islands; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms unless the Folketing is dissolved earlier)

elections: last held on 18 June 2015 (next to be held by June 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - SDP 26.3%, DF 21.1%, V 19.5%, EL 7.8%, LA 7.5%, AP 4.8%, SLP 4.6%, SF 4.2%, C 3.4%, other 0.9%; seats by party - SDP 47, DF 37, V 34, EL 14, LA 13, AP 9, SLP 8, SF 7, C 6; note - does not include each of the two seats from Greenland and the Faroe Islands
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 18 judges) judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the monarch upon the recommendation of the Minister of Justice with the advice of the Judicial Appointments Council, a 6-member independent body of judges and lawyers; judges appointed for life with retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Special Court of Indictment and Revision; 2 High Courts; Maritime and Commercial Court; county courts
Political parties and leaders: Alternative Party or AP [Uffe ELBAEK] Conservative People's Party or C [Soren PAPE POULSEN] Danish People's Party or DF [Kristian THULESEN DAHL] Liberal Alliance or LA [Anders SAMUELSEN] Liberal Party or V [Lars LOEKKE RAMUSSEN] Red-Green Alliance (Unity List) or EL [collective leadership, spokesperson Johanne SCHMIDT-NIELSEN] Social Democratic Party or SDP [Mette FREDERIKSEN] Social Liberal Party or SLP [Morten OSTERGAARD] Socialist People's Party or SF [Pia OLSEN DYHR]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Danish Employers or DA [CEO Jacob HOLBRAAD] Confederation of Danish Industries or DI [CEO Karsten DYBVAD] Confederation of Danish Labor Unions (Landsorganisationen) or LO [President Lizette RISGAARD] DaneAge Association [President Bjarne HASTRUP] Danish Shipowners' Association [Director General and CEO Anne STEFFENSEN]] Danish Bankers Association [CEO Ulrik NODGAARD] Danish Society for Nature Conservation or DN [President Ella Maria BISSCHOP-LARSEN] other: environmental groups; humanitarian relief; development assistance; human rights NGOs
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): lion, mute swan; national colors: red, white
National anthem: name: "Der er et yndigt land" (There is a Lovely Land); "Kong Christian" (King Christian)
lyrics/music: Adam Gottlob OEHLENSCHLAGER/Hans Ernst KROYER; Johannes EWALD/unknown

note: Denmark has two national anthems with equal status; "Der er et yndigt land," adopted 1844, is a national anthem, while "Kong Christian," adopted 1780, serves as both a national and royal anthem; "Kong Christian" is also known as "Kong Christian stod ved hojen mast" (King Christian Stood by the Lofty Mast) and "Kongesangen" (The King's Anthem); within Denmark, the royal anthem is played only when royalty is present and is usually followed by the national anthem; when royalty is not present, only the national anthem is performed; outside Denmark, the royal anthem is played, unless the national anthem is requested
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lars Gert LOSE (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Rufus GIFFORD (since 13 September 2013)
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen 0
mailing address: Unit 5280, DPO, AE 09716
telephone: [45] 33 41 71 00
FAX: [45] 35 43 02 23
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 Economy
This thoroughly modern market economy features a high-tech agricultural sector, advanced industry with world-leading firms in pharmaceuticals, maritime shipping and renewable energy, and a high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of food, oil, and gas and enjoys a comfortable balance of payments surplus, but depends on imports of raw materials for the manufacturing sector. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the Danish economy is characterized by extensive government welfare measures and an equitable distribution of income. An aging population will be a major long-term issue. Denmark is a member of the EU; Danish legislation and regulations conform to EU standards on almost all issues. Despite previously meeting the criteria to join the European Economic and Monetary Union, Denmark has negotiated an opt-out with the EU and is not required to adopt the euro. Within the EU, Denmark is among the strongest supporters of trade liberalization. After a long consumption-driven upswing, Denmark's economy began slowing in 2007 with the end of a housing boom. Housing prices dropped markedly in 2008-09 but, with significant regional differences, have since recovered. Household indebtedness is still relatively high at more than 305% of net disposable income in 2014, while household net worth - from private pension schemes and other assets - amounted to 546% of net disposable income. The global financial crisis exacerbated this cyclical slowdown by increasing domestic borrowing costs and lowering foreign demand for Danish exports. Denmark maintained a healthy budget surplus for many years up to 2008, but the budget balance swung into deficit in 2009. The structural budget deficit has remained below 1% and is estimated at -0.4% in 2016. Denmark is experiencing a lackluster economic recovery, having still not regained the GDP level of 2008. GDP contracted in 2012 and 2013, followed by real growth of 1.3% in 2014, and 1.2% in 2015. The government projects 1.9% growth in 2016, while private sector estimates are about 1% growth. A historically low level of unemployment rose with the economic downturn but the labor market has strengthened since 2013, and unemployment stood at about 4.5% in early 2016, based on the national measure. Productivity growth was significantly below the OECD average in 2012–2014.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $264.8 billion (2016 est.) $262.2 billion (2015 est.) $259.6 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $302.6 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1% (2016 est.) 1% (2015 est.) 1.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $46,600 (2016 est.) $46,300 (2015 est.) $46,100 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 26.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 26.6% of GDP (2015 est.) 27.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 47.5%
government consumption: 25.6%
investment in fixed capital: 18.9%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 50.8%
imports of goods and services: -43.1% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 47.5%
government consumption: 25.6%
investment in fixed capital: 18.9%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 50.8%
imports of goods and services: -43.1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: barley, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets; pork, dairy products; fish
Industries: iron, steel, nonferrous metals, chemicals, food processing, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, construction, furniture and other wood products, shipbuilding and refurbishment, windmills, pharmaceuticals, medical eq
Industrial production growth rate: 0.8% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 2.825 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 2.6%
industry: 20.3%
services: 77.1% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.2% (2016 est.) 4.6% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 13.4% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 28.7% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 24.8 (2011 est.) 24.7 (1992)
Budget: revenues: $156.9 billion
expenditures: $164.5 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 51.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 39.6% of GDP (2016 est.) 40.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as int
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.4% (2016 est.) 0.5% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: $20.34 billion (2016 est.) $20.75 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $93.6 billion (2016 est.) $95.97 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and instruments, meat and meat products, dairy products, fish, pharmaceuticals, furniture, windmills
Exports - partners: Germany 17.8%, Sweden 11.6%, US 8.4%, Norway 6.3%, UK 6.3%, Netherlands 4.4%, China 4.2% (2015)
Imports: $82.29 billion (2016 est.) $85.02 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, raw materials and semimanufactures for industry, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partners: Germany 20.4%, Sweden 12.3%, Netherlands 8.1%, China 7.3%, Norway 6.1%, UK 4.4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $61.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $65.19 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $484.8 billion (31 March 2016 est.) $519.8 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $135.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $133.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $242.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $239.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $224.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $179.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $231.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKK) per US dollar - 6.865 (2016 est.) 6.7236 (2015 est.) 6.7236 (2014 est.) 5.6125 (2013 est.) 5.79 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 31 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 32 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 9.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 14 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 56.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 43.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 156,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 98,430 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 86,480 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 611 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 189,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 154,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 167,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 182,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 4.634 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 3.182 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 2.093 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 625 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 29.93 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 42 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 7.266 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 130 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: excellent telephone and Internet services

domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network; multiple mobile-cellular communications systems

international: country code - 45; a series of fiber-optic submarine cables link Denmark with Canada, Faroe Islands, Germany, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and UK; satellite earth stations - 18 (6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaava (2015)
Broadcast media: strong public-sector TV presence with state-owned Danmarks Radio (DR) operating 6 channels and publicly owned TV2 operating roughly a half-dozen channels; broadcasts of privately owned stations are available via satellite and cable feed; DR operates 4 nat
Internet country code: .dk
Internet users: total: 5.377 million percent of population: 96.3% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 80 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 28
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 52

914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 47 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 11 km; gas 4,377 km; oil 647 km; oil/gas/water 2 km (2013)
Railways: total 2,633 km
standard gauge: 2,633 km 1.435-m gauge (642 km electrified) (2015)
Roadways: total 74,497 km
paved: 74,497 km (includes 1,188 km of expressways) (2016)
Waterways: 400 km (2010)
Merchant marine: total 367

by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 48, carrier 1, chemical tanker 125, container 94, liquefied gas 4, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 40, petroleum tanker 36, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 8, specialized tanker 3

foreign-owned: 27 (Germany 9, Greenland 1, Norway 2, Sweden 15)

registered in other countries: 582 (Antigua and Barbuda 20, Bahamas 69, Belgium 4, Brazil 3, Curacao 1, Cyprus 6, Egypt 1, France 11, Gibraltar 7, Hong Kong 42, Isle of Man 30, Italy 4, Jamaica 1, Liberia 8, Lithuania 8, Luxembourg 1, Malaysia 1, Malta 34, Marshall Islands 7, Moldova 1, Ne (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Baltic Sea - Aarhus, Copenhagen, Fredericia, Kalundborg; North Sea - Esbjerg,
river port(s): Aalborg (Langerak) dry bulk cargo port(s): Ensted (coal) cruise port(s): Copenhagen
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 Military
Military branches: Defense Command: Army Operational Command, Admiral Danish Fleet, Arctic Command, Tactical Air Command, Home Guard (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscripts serve an initial training period that varies from 4 to 12 months according to specialization; reservists are assigned to mobilization units following completion of their conscript service; women eligible to volunteer for military service (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.2% of GDP (2015) 1.17% of GDP (2014) 1.37% of GDP (2013) 1.41% of GDP (2012) 1.35% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; sovereignty dispute with Canada over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 12,988 (Syria) (2015)
stateless persons: 6,580 (2015)
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