Djibouti Population: 846,687

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 History
The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became Djibouti in 1977. Hassan Gouled APTIDON installed an authoritarian one-party state and proceeded to serve as president until 1999. Unrest among the Afar minority during the 1990s led to a civil war that ended in 2001 with a peace accord between Afar rebels and the Somali Issa-dominated government. In 1999, Djibouti's first multiparty presidential election resulted in the election of Ismail Omar GUELLEH as president; he was reelected to a second term in 2005 and extended his tenure in office via a constitutional amendment, which allowed him to serve a third term in 2011 and begin a fourth term in 2016. Djibouti occupies a strategic geographic location at the intersection of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden and serves as an important shipping portal for goods entering and leaving the east African highlands and transshipments between Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. The government holds longstanding ties to France, which maintains a significant military presence in the country, and has strong ties with the US. Djibouti hosts several thousand members of US armed services at US-run Camp Lemonnier.

 Geography
Strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; mostly wasteland; Lac Assal (Lake Assal) is the lowest point in Africa and the saltiest lake in the world
Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia
Geographic coordinates: 11 30 N, 43 00 E
Area: total: 23,200 sq km
land: 23,180 sq km
water: 20 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land Boundaries: total: 528 km border countries (3): Eritrea 125 km, Ethiopia 342 km, Somalia 61 km
Coastline: 314 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: desert; torrid, dry
Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: potential geothermal power, gold, clay, granite, limestone, marble, salt, diatomite, gypsum, pumice, petroleum
Land use: agricultural land: 73.4% arable land 0.1%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 73.3% forest: 0.2%
other: 26.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 10 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods volcanism: experiences limited volcanic activity; Ardoukoba (elev. 298 m) last erupted in 1978; Manda-Inakir, located along the Ethiopian border, is also historically active
Current Environment Issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; limited arable land; desertification; endangered species
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Djiboutian(s)
adjective: Djiboutian
Ethnic groups: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, other 5% (includes French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian)
Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%
Population: 846,687 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.71% (male 134,604/female 133,840)
15-24 years: 21.54% (male 85,805/female 96,587)
25-54 years: 38.37% (male 134,945/female 189,930)
55-64 years: 4.7% (male 18,257/female 21,538)
65 years and over: 3.68% (male 13,992/female 17,189) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 58.5%
youth dependency ratio: 51.9%
elderly dependency ratio: 6.6%
potential support ratio: 15.1% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 23.5 years
male: 21.8 years
female: 24.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.18% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 23.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 5.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 77.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: DJIBOUTI (capital) 529,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.71 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.84 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 229 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 47.2 deaths/1,000 live births male: 54.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.2 years male: 60.7 years
female: 65.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.35 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 19% (2012)
Health expenditures: 10.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Hospital bed density: 1.4 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 64.7% of population
total: 90% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 35.3% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 59.8% of population
rural: 5.1% of population
total: 47.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 40.2% of population
rural: 94.9% of population
total: 52.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.55% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 9,400 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 600 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 8.5% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 29.8% (2012)
Education expenditures: 4.5% of GDP (2010)
Literacy:
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 6 years male: 7 years
female: 6 years (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti
conventional short form: Djibouti
local long form: Republique de Djibouti/Jumhuriyat Jibuti
local short form: Djibouti/Jibuti
former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland
etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Djibouti
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Djibouti
geographic coordinates: 11 35 N, 43 09 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 6 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjourah
Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)
Constitution: approved by referendum 4 September 1992; amended 2006, 2008, 2010 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system based primarily on the French civil code (as it existed in 1997), Islamic religious law (in matters of family law and successions), and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since 8 May 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Abdoulkader Kamil MOHAMED (since 1 April 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term; (constitution amended in 2010 to allow a third term); election last held on 8 April 2016 (next to be held by 2021); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Ismail Omar GUELLEH reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH (RPP) 87%, Omar Elmi KHAIREH (represented the USN) 7.3%, other 5.6%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale, formerly the Chamber of Deputies (65 seats; 52 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 13 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 22 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - UMP 61.5%, USN 35.6%, CDU 3.0%; seats by party - UMP 43, USN 21, CDU 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of NA magistrates); Constitutional Council (consists of 6 magistrates) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court magistrates appointed by the president with the advice of the Superior Council of the Magistracy or CSM, a 10-member body consisting of 4 judges, 3 members (non parliamentarians and judges) appointed by the president, and 3 appointed by the National Assembly president or speaker; magistrates appointed for life with retirement at age 65; Constitutional Council magistrate appointments - 2 by the president of the republic, 2 by the president of the National Assembly, and 2 by the CSM; magistrates appointed for 8-year, non-renewable terms

subordinate courts: High Court of Appeal; 5 Courts of First Instance; customary courts; State Court (replaced sharia courts in 2003)
Political parties and leaders: Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh] Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH] Djibouti Development Party or PDD [Mohamed Daoud CHEHEM] Front pour la Restauration de l'Unite Democratique or FRUD [Ali Mohamed DAOUD] Movement for Development and Liberty or MODEL [Sheikh Guirreh MEIDAL] People's Rally for Progress or RPP [Ismail Omar GUELLEH] (governing party) Peoples Social Democratic Party or PPSD [Moumin Bahdon FARAH] Republican Alliance for Democracy or ARD [Ahmed YOUSSOUF] Union for a Presidential Majority or UMP (a coalition of parties including RPP, FRUD, PND, and PPSD) Union for Democracy and Justice or UDJ [Ismail GUEDI Hared] Union for National Salvation or USN (an umbrella coalition comprising PRD, PDD, MODEL, ARD, and UDJ) [Ahmed Youssouf HOUMER]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU (candidates), COMESA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): red star; national colors: light blue, green, white, red
National anthem: name: "Jabuuti" (Djibouti)
lyrics/music: Aden ELMI/Abdi ROBLEH

note: adopted 1977
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Siad DOUALEH (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 1156 15th Street NW, Suite 515, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270
FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas P. KELLY (since 13 October 2014)
embassy: Lot 350-B, Haramouss
mailing address: B.P. 185, Djibouti
telephone: [253] 21 45 30 00
FAX: [253] 21 45 31 29
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 Economy
Djibouti's economy is based on service activities connected with the country's strategic location as a deepwater port on the Red Sea. Three-fourths of Djibouti's inhabitants live in the capital city; the remainder are mostly nomadic herders. Scant rainfall and less than 4% arable land limits crop production to small quantities of fruits and vegetables, and most food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an international transshipment and refueling center. Imports, exports, and re-exports represent 70% of port activity at Djibouti's container terminal. Reexports consist primarily of coffee from landlocked neighbor Ethiopia. Djibouti has few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance development projects. An official unemployment rate of nearly 50% - with youth unemployment near 80% - continues to be a major problem. Inflation declined to 3% in 2014 due to low international food prices and a decline in electricity tariffs. Djibouti’s reliance on diesel-generated electricity and imported food and water leave average consumers vulnerable to global price shocks, though in mid-2015 Djibouti passed new legislation to liberalize the energy sector. The government has emphasized infrastructure development for transportation and energy and Djibouti – with the help of foreign partners – has begun to increase and modernize its port capacity.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $3.345 billion (2016 est.) $3.141 billion (2015 est.) $2.949 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $1.894 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (2016 est.) 6.5% (2015 est.) 6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,400 (2016 est.) $3,300 (2015 est.) $3,100 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 10.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 28.9% of GDP (2015 est.) 18.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 60.5%
government consumption: 32%
investment in fixed capital: 42.2%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 34.8%
imports of goods and services: -69.9% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 60.5%
government consumption: 32%
investment in fixed capital: 42.2%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 34.8%
imports of goods and services: -69.9% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels, animal hides
Industries: construction, agricultural processing, shipping
Industrial production growth rate: 4.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 294,600 (2012)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate: 60% (2014 est.) 59% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line: 23%

note: percent of population below $1.25 per day at purchasing power parity (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 30.9% (2002)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 40.9 (2002)
Budget: revenues: $685.7 million
expenditures: $885.9 million (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 36.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 38.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2016 est.) 2.7% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$325 million (2016 est.) -$530 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $146.1 million (2016 est.) $141.9 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: reexports, hides and skins, coffee (in transit), scrap metal
Exports - partners: Somalia 79.8%, US 5.4%, Yemen 4.6%, UAE 4% (2015)
Imports: $992 million (2016 est.) $1.038 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, clothing
Imports - partners: China 42.1%, Saudi Arabia 14.3%, Indonesia 5.9%, India 4.4% (2015)
Debt - external: $1.339 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.09 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $1.767 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.368 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DJF) per US dollar - 177.7 (2016 est.) 177.72 (2015 est.) 177.72 (2014 est.) 177.72 (2013 est.) 177.72 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 400 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 400 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 100,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 98.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 6,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 402.7 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 6,509 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 1.8 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 312,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 38 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate, as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country

domestic: Djibouti Telecom is the sole provider of telecommunications services and utilizes mostly a microwave radio relay network; fiber-optic cable is installed in the capital; rural areas connected via wireless local loop radio systems; mobile cellular coverage

international: country code - 253; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable systems providing links to Asia, the Middle East, Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean and 1 Arabsat); Medarabtel regi (2015)
Broadcast media: state-owned Radiodiffusion-Television de Djibouti operates the sole terrestrial TV station, as well as the only 2 domestic radio networks; no private TV or radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code: .dj
Internet users: total: 99,000 percent of population: 11.9% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 13 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 3
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Railways: total 100 km
(Djibouti segment of the 781 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railway)
narrow gauge: 100 km 1.000-m gauge

note: railway is under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia but is largely inoperable (2008)
Roadways: total 3,065 km
paved: 1,379 km
unpaved: 1,686 km (2000)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Djibouti
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 Military
Military branches: Djibouti Armed Forces (Forces Armees Djiboutiennes, FAD): Djibouti National Army (includes Navy, Djiboutian Air Force (Force Aerienne Djiboutienne, FAD), National Gendarmerie (GN)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; 16-25 years of age for voluntary military training; no conscription (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Djibouti maintains economic ties and border accords with "Somaliland" leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions in Somalia; Kuwait is chief investor in the 2008 restoration and upgrade of the Ethiopian-Djibouti rail link; in 2008, Eritrean troops moved across the border on Ras Doumera peninsula and occupied Doumera Island with undefined sovereignty in the Red Sea
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 12,363 (Somalia) (2015); 19,636 (Yemen) (2016)
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