Czech Republic Population: 10,162,921

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 History
At the close of World War I, the Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, having rejected a federal system, the new country's predominantly Czech leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the increasingly strident demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Slovaks, the Sudeten Germans, and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). On the eve of World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the Czech part of the country and Slovakia became an independent state allied with Germany. After the war, a reunited but truncated Czechoslovakia (less Ruthenia) fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create "socialism with a human face," ushering in a period of repression known as "normalization." The peaceful "Velvet Revolution" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a nonviolent "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.

 Geography
Landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe
Location: Central Europe, between Germany, Poland, Slovakia, and Austria
Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 15 30 E
Area: total: 78,867 sq km
land: 77,247 sq km
water: 1,620 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land Boundaries: total: 1,989 km
border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 815 km, Poland 615 km, Slovakia 197 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain: Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Labe (Elbe) River 115 m
highest point: Snezka 1,602 m
Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber
Land use: arable land: 40.12%
permanent crops: 0.96%
other: 58.92% (2011)
Irrigated land: 385.3 sq km (2007)
Natural hazards: flooding
Current Environment Issues: air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Czech(s)
adjective: Czech
Ethnic groups: Czech 63.7%, Moravian 4.9%, Slovak 1.4%, other 30% (2011 census)
Languages: Czech 95.4%, Slovak 1.6%, other 3% (2011 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 10.3%, Protestant (includes Czech Brethren and Hussite) 0.8%, other and unspecified 54.6%, none 34.2% (2011 census)
Population: 10,162,921 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 13.4% (male 701,936/female 663,571)
15-24 years: 11.1% (male 575,726/female 548,800)
25-54 years: 43.6% (male 2,255,899/female 2,179,195)
55-64 years: 14.2% (male 699,149/female 748,529)
65 years and over: 17.6% (male 723,059/female 1,067,057) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 46.1 %
youth dependency ratio: 21.7 %
elderly dependency ratio: 24.4 %
potential support ratio: 4.1 (2013)
Median age: total: 41.4 years
male: 40 years
female: 43.1 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.15% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 8.55 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 11.01 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 73.4% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.24% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: PRAGUE (capital) 1.276 million (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 27.6 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 5 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.67 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.56 years
male: 74.29 years
female: 81.01 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.29 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 86.3% note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2008)
Health expenditures: 7.9% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 3.67 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density: 7.1 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 97% of population
total: 98% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 3% of population
total: 2% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 32.7% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 2% (2007)
Education expenditures: 4.4% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: NA
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 16 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 21.3%
male: 21.6%
female: 20.9% (2012)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Czech Republic
conventional short form: Czech Republic
local long form: Ceska republika
local short form: Cesko
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Prague
geographic coordinates: 50 05 N, 14 28 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky (South Bohemia), Jihomoravsky (South Moravia), Karlovarsky (Karlovy Vary), Kralovehradecky (Hradec Kralove), Liberecky (Liberec), Moravskoslezsky (Moravia-Silesia), Olomoucky (Olomouc), Pardubicky (Pardubice), Plzensky (Pilsen), Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky (Central Bohemia), Ustecky (Usti), Vysocina (Highlands), Zlinsky (Zlin)
Independence: 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia); note - although 1 January is the day the Czech Republic came into being, the Czechs commemorate 28 October 1918, the day the former Czechoslovakia declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as their independence day
National holiday: Czechoslovak Founding Day, 28 October (1918)
Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992, effective 1 January 1993; amended several times
Legal system: in 2014, a new civil code will replace the existing civil law system, which is based on former Austro-Hungarian civil codes and socialist theory and has been amended 40 times since the Communist regime fell in 1989
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Milos ZEMAN (since 8 March 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Jiri RUSNOK (since 10 July 2013); Deputy Prime Ministers Jan FISCHER and Martin PECINA (both since 10 July 2013); note - Jiri RUSNOK appointed head of a caretaker government following the resignation of Petr NECAS

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: constitutional amendment passed in 2012 introduced presidential election by popular vote instead of by Parliament; president elected for a five-year term (may not serve more than two consecutive terms); elections last held on 11-12 January 2013 with a runoff on 25-26 January 2013 (next to be held in January 2018); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Milos ZEMAN elected president; percent of popular vote - Milos ZEMAN 54.8%, Karel SCHWARZENBERG 45.2%
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held in two rounds on 12-13 and 19-20 October 2012 (next to be held in October 2014); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 28-29 May 2010 (next to be held in 2014)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CSSD 48, ODS 15, KDU-CSL 4, TOP 09 4, North Bohemians 2, KSCM 2, Green 1, Ostravak 1, Pirate 1, independent 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CSSD 22.1%, ODS 20.2%, TOP 09 16.7%, KSCM 11.3%, VV 10.9%, other 18.8%; seats by party - CSSD 54, ODS 49, TOP 09 41, KSCM 26, VV 11, unaffiliated 19
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into Civil Law and Commercial Division, and Criminal Division each with a court chief justice, vice justice, and several judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 justices); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 28 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the Chamber of Deputies and appointed by the president; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed for 10-year, renewable terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the president of the Court; judge term NA

subordinate courts: High Court; superior, regional, and district courts
Political parties and leaders: Association of Independent Candidates-European Democrats or SNK-ED [Zdenka MARKOVA] Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Pavel BELOBRADEK] Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Petr NECAS] Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP] Czech Pirate Party [Ivan BARTOS] Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Bohuslav SOBOTKA] Green Party [Ondrej LISKA] Liberal Democrats or LIDEM [Karolina PEAKE] North Bohemians Ostravak Movement Public Affairs or VV [Radek JOHN] Tradice Odpovednost Prosperita 09 or TOP 09 [Karel SCHWARZENBERG]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Jaroslav ZAVADIL]
International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): double-tailed lion
National anthem: name: "Kde domov muj?" (Where is My Home?)
lyrics/music: Josef Kajetan TYL/Frantisek Jan SKROUP

note: adopted 1993; the anthem is a verse from the former Czechoslovak anthem originally written as part of the opera "Fidlovacka"
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Petr GANDALOVIC
chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Norman EISEN
embassy: Trziste 15, 118 01 Prague 1 - Mala Strana
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [420] 257 022 000
FAX: [420] 257 022 809
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 Economy
The Czech Republic is a stable and prosperous market economy closely integrated with the EU, especially since the country's EU accession in 2004. While the conservative, inward-looking Czech financial system has remained relatively healthy, the small, open, export-driven Czech economy remains sensitive to changes in the economic performance of its main export markets, especially Germany. When Western Europe and Germany fell into recession in late 2008, demand for Czech goods plunged, leading to double digit drops in industrial production and exports. As a result, real GDP fell 4.7% in 2009, with most of the decline occurring during the first quarter. Real GDP, however, slowly recovered with positive quarter-on-quarter growth starting in the second half of 2009 and continuing throughout 2011. In 2012, however, the economy fell into a recession due to a slump in external demand. The auto industry remains the largest single industry, and, together with its upstream suppliers, accounts for nearly 24% of Czech manufacturing. The Czech Republic produced more than a million cars for the first time in 2010, over 80% of which were exported. Foreign and domestic businesses alike voice concerns about corruption especially in public procurement. Other long term challenges include dealing with a rapidly aging population, funding an unsustainable pension and health care system, and diversifying away from manufacturing and toward a more high-tech, services-based, knowledge economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $291.7 billion (2012 est.) $295.4 billion (2011 est.) $289.9 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $196.1 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -1.2% (2012 est.) 1.9% (2011 est.) 2.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $27,600 (2012 est.) $28,100 (2011 est.) $27,600 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 21% of GDP (2012 est.) 21.5% of GDP (2011 est.) 20.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 49.6%
government consumption: 20.8%
investment in fixed capital: 23.6%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 78%
imports of goods and services: -72.7% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 49.6%
government consumption: 20.8%
investment in fixed capital: 23.6%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 78%
imports of goods and services: -72.7% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry
Industries: motor vehicles, metallurgy, machinery and equipment, glass, armaments
Industrial production growth rate: 0.2% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 5.404 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 3.1%
industry: 38.6%
services: 58.3% (2009)
Unemployment rate: 6.8% (2012 est.) 8.5% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 9% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: NA% (2009)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 31 (2009) 25.4 (1996)
Budget: revenues: $80.87 billion
expenditures: $89.39 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 41.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 45.6% of GDP (2012 est.) 41.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (2012 est.) 1.9% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$3.596 billion (2012 est.) -$6.348 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $131.7 billion (2012 est.) $136.3 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuel, chemicals
Exports - partners: Germany 31.8%, Slovakia 9.1%, Poland 6.1%, France 5.1%, UK 4.9%, Austria 4.7% (2012)
Imports: $124.2 billion (2012 est.) $131.2 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners: Germany 29.5%, Poland 7.7%, Slovakia 7.4%, China 6.3%, Netherlands 5.8%, Russia 5.3%, Austria 4.3% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $44.88 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $40.29 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $98.95 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $95.05 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $136.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $125.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $16.67 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $15.47 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $53.2 billion (31 December 2011) $73.1 billion (31 December 2010) $70.26 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: koruny (CZK) per US dollar - 19.578 (2012 est.) 17.696 (2011 est.) 19.098 (2010 est.) 19.063 (2009) 17.064 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 80.44 billion kWh (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 38
Electricity - consumption: 58.88 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 21.59 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 6.642 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 18.32 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 60% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 20.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 5.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 7.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 9,162 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 420 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 143,700 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 15 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 167,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 199,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 25,060 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 65,560 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Natural gas - production: 185 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 8.944 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 167 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 9.319 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 3.964 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 90.83 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 2.289 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 55
Cellular Phones in use: 13 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; virtually all exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay

domestic: access to the fixed-line telephone network expanded throughout the 1990s but the number of fixed line connections has been dropping since then; mobile telephone usage increased sharply beginning in the mid-1990s and the number of cellular telephone subscriptions now greatly exceeds the population

international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 6 (2 Intersputnik - Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar) (2011)
Broadcast media: roughly 130 TV broadcasters operating some 350 channels with 4 publicly operated and the remainder in private hands; 16 TV stations have national coverage with 4 being publicly operated; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; 63 radio broadcasters are registered operating roughly 80 radio stations with 15 stations publicly operated; 10 radio stations provide national coverage with the remainder local or regional (2008)
Internet country code: .cz
Internet hosts: 4.148 million (2012)
Internet users: 6.681 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 128 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 46
Airports (paved runways): total 41
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 16 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 87

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 61 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 7,160 km; oil 536 km; refined products 94 km (2013)
Railways: total 9,469 km
standard gauge: 9,449 km 1.435-m gauge (3,165 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 20 km 0.750-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 130,671 km
(includes urban roads) paved: 130,671 km (includes 730 km of expressways) (2010)
Waterways: 664 km (principally on Elbe, Vltava, Oder, and other navigable rivers, lakes, and canals) (2010)
Merchant marine:

registered in other countries: 1 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Prague (Vltava); Decin, Usti nad Labem (Elbe)
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 Military
Military branches: Army of the Czech Republic (Armada Ceske Republiky): Joint Forces Command (Spolocene Sily; includes Land Forces (Pozemni Sily) and Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,506,826
females age 16-49: 2,407,634 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 2,072,267
females age 16-49: 1,988,839 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 49,999
female: 47,501 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1% of GDP (2011 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: while threats of international legal action never materialized in 2007, 915,220 Austrians, with the support of the popular Freedom Party, signed a petition in January 2008, demanding that Austria block the Czech Republic's accession to the EU unless Prague closes its controversial Soviet-style nuclear plant in Temelin, bordering Austria
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 1,502 (2012)
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets; susceptible to money laundering related to drug trafficking, organized crime; significant consumer of ecstasy (2008)
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