Bolivia Population: 10,969,649

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 History
Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and countercoups. Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production. In December 2005, Bolivians elected Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president - by the widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule in 1982 - after he ran on a promise to change the country's traditional political class and empower the nation's poor, indigenous majority. In December 2009 and October 2014, President MORALES easily won reelection. His party maintained control of the legislative branch of the government, which has allowed him to continue his process of change. In October 2011, the country held its first judicial elections to select judges for the four highest courts. MORALES has publicly described the elected judiciary as a failed experiment that has not resolved judicial backlogs or extended pre-trial detention. He has called for a public referendum on the judicial system.

 Geography
Landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru
Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil
Geographic coordinates: 17 00 S, 65 00 W
Area: total: 1,098,581 sq km
land: 1,083,301 sq km
water: 15,280 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land Boundaries: total: 7,252 km border countries (5): Argentina 942 km, Brazil 3,403 km, Chile 942 km, Paraguay 753 km, Peru 1,212 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 34.3% arable land 3.6%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 30.5% forest: 52.5%
other: 13.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 3,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: flooding in the northeast (March to April) volcanism: volcanic activity in Andes Mountains on the border with Chile; historically active volcanoes in this region are Irruputuncu (elev. 5,163 m), which last erupted in 1995, and Olca-Paruma
Current Environment Issues: the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
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 People
Nationality: noun: Bolivian(s)
adjective: Bolivian
Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 68%, indigenous 20%, white 5%, cholo/chola 2%, black 1%, other 1%, unspecified 3% ; 44% of respondents indicated feeling part of some indigenous group, predominantly Quechua or Aymara note: results among surveys vary based on the wording of the ethnicity question and the available response choices; the 2001 national census did not provide "mestizo" as a response choice, resulting in a much higher proportion of respondents identifying themselves as belonging to one of the available indigenous ethnicity choices; the use of "mestizo" and "cholo" varies among response choices in surveys, with surveys using the terms interchanageably, providing one or the other as a response choice, or providing the two as separate response choices (2009 est.)
Languages: Spanish (official) 60.7%, Quechua (official) 21.2%, Aymara (official) 14.6%, foreign languages 2.4%, Guarani (official) 0.6%, other native languages 0.4%, none 0.1% note: Bolivia's 2009 constitution designates Spanish and all indigenous languages as official; 36 indigenous languages are specified, including some that are extinct (2001 est.)
Religions: Roman Catholic 76.8%, Evangelical and Pentecostal 8.1%, Protestant 7.9%, other 1.7%, none 5.5% (2012 est.)
Population: 10,969,649 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.36% (male 1,808,567/female 1,740,760)
15-24 years: 19.55% (male 1,086,134/female 1,058,584)
25-54 years: 37.08% (male 1,986,514/female 2,081,415)
55-64 years: 5.83% (male 296,197/female 343,394)
65 years and over: 5.18% (male 250,749/female 317,335) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 63.7%
youth dependency ratio: 53.1%
elderly dependency ratio: 10.6%
potential support ratio: 9.4% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 24 years
male: 23.3 years
female: 24.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.54% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 22.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 68.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.26% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: Santa Cruz 2.107 million; LA PAZ (capital) 1.816 million; Cochabamba 1.24 million; Sucre (constitutional capital) 372,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 21.2 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 206 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 36.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 39.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.2 years male: 66.4 years
female: 72.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.68 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 60.5% (2008)
Health expenditures: 6.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density: 1.1 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 96.7% of population
rural: 75.6% of population
total: 90% of population

unimproved:
urban: 3.3% of population
rural: 24.4% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 60.8% of population
rural: 27.5% of population
total: 50.3% of population

unimproved:
urban: 39.2% of population
rural: 72.5% of population
total: 49.7% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.29% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 18,200 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 800 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 15.8% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 4.5% (2008)
Education expenditures: 7.3% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.7%
male: 97.8%
female: 93.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2007)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 6.2% male: 5.1%
female: 7.8% (2011 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Plurinational State of Bolivia
conventional short form: Bolivia
local long form: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
local short form: Bolivia
etymology: the country is named after Simon BOLIVAR, a 19th-century leader in the South American wars for independence
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: La Paz (administrative capital); Sucre (constitutional [legislative and judicial] capital)
geographic coordinates: 16 30 S, 68 09 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Constitution: many previous; latest drafted 6 August 2006 - 9 December 2008, approved by referendum 25 January 2009, effective 7 February 2009; amended 2013 (2015)
Legal system: civil law system with influences from Roman, Spanish, canon (religious), French, and indigenous law
Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019); note - a presidential candidate wins an election one of 3 ways

election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma reelected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma 61%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana 24.5%; Jorge QUIROGA 9.1%; other 5.4%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Plurinational Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (36 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; 70 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 53 indirectly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote, and 7 - apportioned to non-contiguous, rural areas in 7 of the 9 states - directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019)

election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 25, UD 9, PDC 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 88, UD 32, PDC 10
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (consists of 12 judges); Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal (consists of 7 primary and 7 alternate magistrates); Plurinational Electoral Organ (consists of 7 members) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal judges elected by popular vote from list of candidates pre-selected by Plurinational Legislative Assembly for 6-year terms); Plurinational Electoral Organ members - 6 judges elected by the Assembly and 1 appointed by the president; judges and members serve 6-year terms; note - the 2009 constitution reformed the procedure for selecting judicial officials for the Supreme Court, Constitutional Tribunal, and the Plurinational Electoral Organ by direct national vote, which occurred in October 2011

subordinate courts: Agro-Environmental Court; Council of the Judiciary; District Courts (in each of the 9 administrative departments)
Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez] Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma] United Democrats or UD [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Bolivian Workers Central or COB Federation of Neighborhood Councils of El Alto or FEJUVE Landless Movement or MST National Coordinator for Change or CONALCAM Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB other: Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations (including Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia or CIDOB and National Council of Ayullus and Markas of Quollasuyu or CONAMAQ); Interculturales union or CSCIB; labor unions (including the Central Bolivian Workers' Union or COB and Cooperative Miners Federation or FENCOMIN)
International organization participation: CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): llama, Andean condor; national colors: red, yellow, green
National anthem: name: "Cancion Patriotica" (Patriotic Song)
lyrics/music: Jose Ignacio de SANJINES/Leopoldo Benedetto VINCENTI

note: adopted 1852
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Freddy BERSATTI Tudela
chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-4155
FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Washington,DC note: as of September 2008, the US expelled the Bolivian ambassador to the US
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Peter Brennan (since June 2014
embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, Casilla 425, La Paz
mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032
telephone: [591] (2) 216-8000
FAX: [591] (2) 216-8111 note: in September 2008, the Bolivian Government expelled the US Ambassador to Bolivia, and the countries have yet to reinstate ambassadors
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 Economy
Bolivia is a resource rich country with strong growth attributed to captive markets for natural gas exports – to Brazil and Argentina. Gas accounts for roughly 50% of Bolivia's total exports and will fund more than half of its 2015 budget. However, the country remains one of the least developed countries in Latin America because of state-oriented policies that deter investment and growth. Following a disastrous economic crisis during the early 1980s, reforms spurred private investment, stimulated economic growth, and cut poverty rates in the 1990s. The period 2003-05 was characterized by political instability, racial tensions, and violent protests against plans - subsequently abandoned - to export Bolivia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large Northern Hemisphere markets. In 2005, the government passed a controversial hydrocarbons law that imposed significantly higher royalties and required foreign firms then operating under risk-sharing contracts to surrender all production to the state energy company in exchange for a predetermined service fee. The global recession slowed growth, but Bolivia recorded the highest growth rate in South America during 2009 and has averaged 5.3% growth each year since 2009. High commodity prices between 2010 and 2013 sustained rapid growth and large trade surpluses. The global decline in oil prices in late 2014 exerted downward pressure on the price Bolivia receives for exported gas and resulted in lower GDP growth rates and losses in government revenue in 2015. A lack of foreign investment in the key sectors of mining and hydrocarbons, along with conflict among social groups, pose challenges for the Bolivian economy. In 2015, President Evo MORALES expanded efforts to court international investment and boost Bolivia’s energy production capacity. MORALES passed an investment law and promised not to nationalize additional industries in an effort to improve the investment climate.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $78.35 billion (2016 est.) $75.56 billion (2015 est.) $72.06 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $35.7 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.7% (2016 est.) 4.8% (2015 est.) 5.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $7,200 (2016 est.) $7,000 (2015 est.) $6,800 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 12.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 13.2% of GDP (2015 est.) 20.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 69.3%
government consumption: 18.2%
investment in fixed capital: 20.4%
investment in inventories: -1.4%
exports of goods and services: 29%
imports of goods and services: -35.5% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 69.3%
government consumption: 18.2%
investment in fixed capital: 20.4%
investment in inventories: -1.4%
exports of goods and services: 29%
imports of goods and services: -35.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: soybeans, quinoa, Brazil nuts, sugarcane, coffee, corn, rice, potatoes, chia, coca
Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing, jewelry
Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 4.993 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 32%
industry: 20%
services: 47.9% (2009 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7.5% (2016 est.) 7.4% (2015 est.) note: data are for urban areas; widespread underemployment
Population below poverty line: 45%

note: based on percent of population living on less than the international standard of $2/day (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.8%
highest 10%: 33.6% (2012 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 46.6 (2012) 57.9 (1999)
Budget: revenues: $15.44 billion
expenditures: $17.66 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 43.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 47% of GDP (2016 est.) 38.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (2016 est.) 4.1% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$2.34 billion (2016 est.) -$1.923 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $7.528 billion (2016 est.) $8.197 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: natural gas, mineral ores, gold, soybeans and soy products, tin
Exports - partners: Brazil 28.1%, Argentina 16.9%, US 12.1%, Colombia 6.3%, China 5.3%, Japan 4.7%, South Korea 4.3% (2015)
Imports: $8.981 billion (2016 est.) $9.069 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, petroleum products, vehicles, iron and steel, plastics
Imports - partners: China 17.9%, Brazil 16.5%, Argentina 11.8%, US 10.6%, Peru 6.2%, Japan 5.2%, Chile 4.6% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $11 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $13.06 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $11.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $9.035 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $10.56 billion (31 December 2013) $8.809 billion (31 December 2012)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $0 (31 December 2013 est.) $0 (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $9.684 billion (31 December 2013) $7.689 billion (31 December 2012) $6.089 billion (31 December 2011)
Exchange rates: bolivianos (BOB) per US dollar - 6.91 (2016 est.) 6.91 (2015 est.) 6.91 (2014 est.) 6.91 (2013 est.) 6.94 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 8.4 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 7.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.2 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 68.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 30% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 55,610 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 209.8 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 54,210 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 78,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 7,292 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 19,940 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 21.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 3.536 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 17.86 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 295.9 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 16 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 10.163 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 94 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: Bolivian National Telecommunications Company was privatized in 1995 but re-nationalized in 2007; the primary trunk system is being expanded and employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; system operations, reliabili

domestic: most telephones are concentrated in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and other capital cities; mobile-cellular telephone use expanding rapidly and, in 2015, teledensity reached about 95 per 100 persons

international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: large number of radio and TV stations broadcasting with private media outlets dominating; state-owned and private radio and TV stations generally operating freely, although both pro-government and anti-government groups have attacked media outlets in resp (2010)
Internet country code: .bo
Internet users: total: 4.871 million percent of population: 45.1% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 855 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 21
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 834
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 47
914 to 1,523 m: 151
under 914 m: 631 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 5,457 km; liquid petroleum gas 51 km; oil 2,511 km; refined products 1,627 km (2013)
Railways: total 3,504 km

narrow gauge: 3,504 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 80,488 km
paved: 6,850 km
unpaved: 73,638 km (2010)
Waterways: 10,000 km (commercially navigable almost exclusively in the northern and eastern parts of the country) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 18

by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 14, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2

foreign-owned: 5 (Syria 4, UK 1, (2010)
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Puerto Aguirre (Paraguay/Parana) note: Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay
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 Military
Military branches: Bolivian Armed Forces: Bolivian Army (Ejercito Boliviano, EB), Bolivian Naval Force (Fuerza Naval Boliviana, FNB; includes Marines), Bolivian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana, FAB) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-49 years of age for 12-month compulsory male and female military service; Bolivian citizenship required; 17 years of age for voluntary service; when annual number of volunteers falls short of goal, compulsory recruitment is effected, including conscription of boys as young as 14; 15-19 years of age for voluntary premilitary service, provides exemption from further military service (2013)
Military expenditures: 1.47% of GDP (2012) 1.47% of GDP (2011) 1.47% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile offers instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian natural gas; contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Argentina
Illicit drugs: world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 30,000 hectares under cultivation in 2011, a decrease of 13 percent over 2010; third largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 265 metric tons potential pure cocaine in 2011, a 29 percent increase over 2010; transit country for Peruvian and Colombian cocaine destined for Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Europe; weak border controls; some money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade; major cocaine consumption (2013)
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