Bolivia Population: 10,461,053

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 History
Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and countercoups. Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production. In December 2005, Bolivians elected Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president - by the widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule in 1982 - after he ran on a promise to change the country's traditional political class and empower the nation's poor, indigenous majority. However, since taking office, his controversial strategies have exacerbated racial and economic tensions between the Amerindian populations of the Andean west and the non-indigenous communities of the eastern lowlands. In December 2009, President MORALES easily won reelection, and his party took control of the legislative branch of the government, which will allow him to continue his process of change. In October 2011, the country held its first judicial elections to appoint judges to the four highest courts.

 Geography
Landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru
Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil
Geographic coordinates: 17 00 S, 65 00 W
Area: total: 1,098,581 sq km
land: 1,083,301 sq km
water: 15,280 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land Boundaries: total: 6,940 km
border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,423 km, Chile 860 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 1,075 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m
Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 3.49%
permanent crops: 0.2%
other: 96.31% (2011)
Irrigated land: 1,282 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: flooding in the northeast (March to April) volcanism: volcanic activity in Andes Mountains on the border with Chile; historically active volcanoes in this region are Irruputuncu (elev. 5,163 m), which last erupted in 1995, and Olca-Paruma
Current Environment Issues: the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
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 People
Nationality: noun: Bolivian(s)
adjective: Bolivian
Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, white 15%
Languages: Spanish (official) 60.7%, Quechua (official) 21.2%, Aymara (official) 14.6%, foreign languages 2.4%, other 1.2% (2001 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist) 5%
Population: 10,461,053 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.8% (male 1,800,381/female 1,733,366)
15-24 years: 19.9% (male 1,053,952/female 1,028,169)
25-54 years: 35.9% (male 1,825,535/female 1,928,945)
55-64 years: 5.6% (male 272,980/female 311,312)
65 years and over: 4.8% (male 223,933/female 282,480) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 66 %
youth dependency ratio: 57.9 %
elderly dependency ratio: 8.1 %
potential support ratio: 12.3 (2013)
Median age: total: 23.1 years
male: 22.3 years
female: 23.8 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.63% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 23.77 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 6.67 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 67% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: LA PAZ (capital) 1.715 million; Santa Cruz 1.584 million; Sucre 307,000 (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 21.2 note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 180 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
Infant mortality rate: total: 39.76 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 43.44 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 35.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.22 years
male: 65.47 years
female: 71.11 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.87 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 60.5% (2008)
Health expenditures: 4.8% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 1.22 physicians/1,000 population (2001)
Hospital bed density: 1.1 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 96% of population
rural: 71% of population
total: 88% of population

unimproved:
urban: 4% of population
rural: 29% of population
total: 12% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 35% of population
rural: 10% of population
total: 27% of population

unimproved:
urban: 65% of population
rural: 90% of population
total: 73% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 12,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 17.9% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 4.5% (2008)
Education expenditures: 7.6% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.2%
male: 95.8%
female: 86.8% (2009 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 13 years (2007)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 9.2%
male: 7.3%
female: 11.8% (2002)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Plurinational State of Bolivia
conventional short form: Bolivia
local long form: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
local short form: Bolivia
Government type: republic; note - the new constitution defines Bolivia as a "Social Unitarian State"
Capital: name: La Paz (administrative capital)
geographic coordinates: 16 30 S, 68 09 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

note: Sucre (constitutional capital)
Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Constitution: 7 February 2009
Legal system: civil law system with influences from Roman, Spanish, canon (religious), French, and indigenous law
Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term and are eligible for re-election once; election last held on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in 2014)

election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma reelected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma 64%; Manfred REYES VILLA 26%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana 6%; Rene JOAQUINO 2%; other 2%
Legislative branch: bicameral Plurinational Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (36 seats; members are elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats total; 70 uninominal deputies directly elected from a single district, 7 "special" indigenous deputies directly elected from non-contiguous indigenous districts, and 53 plurinominal deputies elected by proportional representation from party lists; all deputies serve five-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in 2014)

election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 26, PPB-CN 10; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 89, PPB-CN 36, UN 3, AS 2; note - as of 15 February 2013, the current composition of the Chamber of Deputies is: MAS 88, PPB-CN 37, UN 3, AS 2
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (consists of 12 judges); Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal (consists of 7 primary and 7 alternate magistrates); Plurinational Electoral Organ (consists of 7 members) note - the 2009 constitution reformed the procedure for selecting judicial officials for the Supreme Court, Constitutional Tribunal, and the Plurinational Electoral Organ by direct national vote, which occurred in October 2011 judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal judges elected by popular vote from list of candidates pre-selected by Plurinational Legislative Assembly for 6-year terms); Plurinational Electoral Organ members - 6 judges elected by the Assembly and 1 appointed by the president; judges and members serve 6-year terms

subordinate courts: Agro-Environmental Court; Council of the Judiciary; District Courts (in each of the 9 administrative departments)
Political parties and leaders: Bacada Indigena or BI Bolivia-National Convergence or PPB-CN [Adrian OLIVA] Fearless Movement or MSM [Juan DE GRANADO Cosio] Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma] National Unity or UN [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana] People or Gente [Roman LOAYZA] Social Alliance or AS [Rene JOAQUINO]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Bolivian Workers Central or COB Federation of Neighborhood Councils of El Alto or FEJUVE Landless Movement or MST National Coordinator for Change or CONALCAM Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB other: Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations (including Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia or CIDOB and National Council of Ayullus and Markas of Quollasuyu or CONAMAQ); Interculturales union or CSCIB; labor unions (including the Central Bolivian Workers' Union or COB and Cooperative Miners Federation or FENCOMIN)
International organization participation: CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): llama; Andean condor
National anthem: name: "Cancion Patriotica" (Patriotic Song)
lyrics/music: Jose Ignacio de SANJINES/Leopoldo Benedetto VINCENTI

note: adopted 1852
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Freddy BERSATTI Tudela
chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410
FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York note: as of September 2008, the US has expelled the Bolivian ambassador to the US
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Larry MEMMOTT
embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, Casilla 425, La Paz
mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032
telephone: [591] (2) 216-8000
FAX: [591] (2) 216-8111 note: in September 2008, the Bolivian Government expelled the US Ambassador to Bolivia, and the countries have yet to reinstate ambassadors
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 Economy
Bolivia is one of the poorest and least developed countries in Latin America. Following a disastrous economic crisis during the early 1980s, reforms spurred private investment, stimulated economic growth, and cut poverty rates in the 1990s. The period 2003-05 was characterized by political instability, racial tensions, and violent protests against plans - subsequently abandoned - to export Bolivia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large Northern Hemisphere markets. In 2005, the government passed a controversial hydrocarbons law that imposed significantly higher royalties and required foreign firms then operating under risk-sharing contracts to surrender all production to the state energy company in exchange for a predetermined service fee. The global recession slowed growth, but Bolivia recorded the highest growth rate in South America during 2009. During 2010-12 high world commodity prices sustained rapid growth and large trade surpluses. However, a lack of foreign investment in the key sectors of mining and hydrocarbons, along with growing conflict among social groups pose challenges for the Bolivian economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $56.14 billion (2012 est.) $53.34 billion (2011 est.) $50.72 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $27.43 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.2% (2012 est.) 5.2% (2011 est.) 4.1% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,200 (2012 est.) $5,000 (2011 est.) $4,900 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 25.3% of GDP (2012 est.) 28.4% of GDP (2011 est.) 21.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 60.6%
government consumption: 13.7%
investment in fixed capital: 18.3%
investment in inventories: -1.5%
exports of goods and services: 46.9%
imports of goods and services: -38.1% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 60.6%
government consumption: 13.7%
investment in fixed capital: 18.3%
investment in inventories: -1.5%
exports of goods and services: 46.9%
imports of goods and services: -38.1% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; Brazil nuts; timber
Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing, jewelry
Industrial production growth rate: 5.2% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 4.718 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 32%
industry: 20%
services: 48% (2010 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7.5% (2012 est.) 5.7% (2011 est.) note: data are for urban areas; widespread underemployment
Population below poverty line: 49.6%

note: based on percent of population living on less than the international standard of $2/day (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1%
highest 10%: 45.4% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 53 (2010) 57.9 (1999)
Budget: revenues: $12.64 billion
expenditures: $12.17 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 46.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 34.6% of GDP (2012 est.) 36.5% of GDP (2011 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (2012 est.) 9.9% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: $271.8 million (2012 est.) $537.2 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $10.65 billion (2012 est.) $8.332 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: natural gas, soybeans and soy products, crude petroleum, zinc ore, tin
Exports - partners: Brazil 40.3%, US 17.7%, Argentina 7.7%, Peru 5.3% (2012)
Imports: $7.653 billion (2012 est.) $7.126 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum products, plastics, paper, aircraft and aircraft parts, prepared foods, automobiles, insecticides
Imports - partners: Chile 20.8%, Brazil 19.9%, Argentina 11.7%, US 9.9%, Peru 7.1%, Venezuela 6%, China 4.8% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $13.93 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $12.02 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $7.007 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $6.474 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $8.81 billion (31 December 2012) $7.75 billion (31 December 2011)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $8 million (31 December 2011) $21 million (31 December 2010)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $7.69 billion (31 December 2012) $6.089 billion (31 December 2011) $3.915 billion (31 December 2010)
Exchange rates: bolivianos (BOB) per US dollar - 6.96 (2012 est.) 6.9875 (2011 est.) 7.0167 (2010 est.) 7.07 (2009) 7.253 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 6.94 billion kWh (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 103
Electricity - consumption: 6.301 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.317 million kW (2012 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 58.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 39.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 40,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0.07 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 209.8 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 314,700 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 45,840 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 864.7 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 14,150 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 48.97 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 8.59 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 40.28 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 281.5 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 13.29 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 879,000 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 83
Cellular Phones in use: 8.355 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: Bolivian National Telecommunications Company was privatized in 1995 but re-nationalized in 2007; the primary trunk system is being expanded and employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; system operations, reliability, and coverage have steadily improved.

domestic: most telephones are concentrated in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and other capital cities; mobile-cellular telephone use expanding rapidly and, in 2011, teledensity reached about 80 per 100 persons

international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media: large number of radio and TV stations broadcasting with private media outlets dominating; state-owned and private radio and TV stations generally operating freely, although both pro-government and anti-government groups have attacked media outlets in response to their reporting (2010)
Internet country code: .bo
Internet hosts: 180,988 (2012)
Internet users: 1.103 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 855 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 7
Airports (paved runways): total 21
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 834
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 47
914 to 1,523 m: 151
under 914 m: 631 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 5,457 km; liquid petroleum gas 51 km; oil 2,511 km; refined products 1,627 km (2013)
Railways: total 3,652 km

narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)
Roadways: total 80,488 km
paved: 11,993 km
unpaved: 68,495 km (2010)
Waterways: 10,000 km (commercially navigable almost exclusively in the northern and eastern parts of the country) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 18

by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 14, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2

foreign-owned: 5 (Syria 4, UK 1, (2010)
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Puerto Aguirre (Paraguay/Parana) note: Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay
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 Military
Military branches: Bolivian Armed Forces: Bolivian Army (Ejercito Boliviano, EB), Bolivian Naval Force (Fuerza Naval Boliviana, FNB; includes Marines), Bolivian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana, FAB) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-49 years of age for 12-month compulsory male and female military service; Bolivian citizenship required; 17 years of age for voluntary service; when annual number of volunteers falls short of goal, compulsory recruitment is effected, including conscription of boys as young as 14; 15-19 years of age for voluntary premilitary service, provides exemption from further military service (2013)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,472,490
females age 16-49: 2,535,768 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,762,260
females age 16-49: 2,013,281 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 108,334
female: 104,945 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 0.9% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile offers instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian natural gas; contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Argentina
Illicit drugs: world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 35,000 hectares under cultivation in 2009, an increase of ten percent over 2008; third largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 195 metric tons potential pure cocaine in 2009, a 70 percent increase over 2006; transit country for Peruvian and Colombian cocaine destined for Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Europe; weak border controls; some money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade; major cocaine consumption (2008)
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