Brunei Population: 415,717


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The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in Asia.

Close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave within Malaysia
Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E
Area: total: 5,765 sq km
land: 5,265 sq km
water: 500 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Delaware
Land Boundaries: total: 381 km
border countries: Malaysia 381 km
Coastline: 161 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land use: arable land: 0.52%
permanent crops: 0.87%
other: 98.61% (2011)
Irrigated land: 10 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Current Environment Issues: seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian
Ethnic groups: Malay 66.3%, Chinese 11.2%, indigenous 3.4%, other 19.1% (2004 est.)
Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese
Religions: Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 10%
Population: 415,717 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 24.6% (male 52,761/female 49,538)
15-24 years: 17.5% (male 35,879/female 36,767)
25-54 years: 46.8% (male 94,827/female 99,779)
55-64 years: 7.3% (male 15,594/female 14,642)
65 years and over: 3.8% (male 7,767/female 8,163) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 42 %
youth dependency ratio: 36 %
elderly dependency ratio: 6.1 %
potential support ratio: 16.4 (2013)
Median age: total: 29 years
male: 28.7 years
female: 29.2 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.67% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 17.63 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 3.43 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 76% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN (capital) 241,000 note: the boundaries of the capital city were expanded in 2007, greatly increasing the city area; the population of the capital increased tenfold (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 24 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 10.81 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12.89 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.57 years
male: 74.28 years
female: 78.97 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Health expenditures: 2.8% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 1.42 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 2.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 7.5% (2008)
Education expenditures: 3.3% of GDP (2012)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.4%
male: 97%
female: 93.9% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2011)
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Country name: conventional long form: Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei
local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
local short form: Brunei
Government type: constitutional sultanate (locally known as Malay Islamic Monarchy)
Capital: name: Bandar Seri Begawan
geographic coordinates: 4 53 N, 114 56 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei-Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Independence: 1 January 1984 (from the UK)
National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection
Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
Legal system: mixed legal system based on English common law and Islamic law
Suffrage: 18 years of age for village elections; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state (Yang Di-Pertuan Agong) and head of government

head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)

cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary
Legislative branch: the Sultan appointed a Legislative Council with 29 members in September 2005; he increased the size of the council to 33 members in June 2011; the council meets annually in March

elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA) note: the Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20 years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; it passed constitutional amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members; no timeframe for an election was announced
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of Court of Appeal and High Court, each with a chief justice and 2 judges); Sharia Court of Appeal (consists of judges appointed by the monarch) note - Brunei has a dual judicial system of secular and sharia (religious) courts; the Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London serves as the final appellate court for civil cases only judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch to serve until age 65, and older if approved by the monarch; Sharia Court of Appeal judges appointed by the monarch; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: Intermediate Court; Magistrate's Courts; Juvenile Court; small claims courts; lower sharia courts (2006)
Political parties and leaders: National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi] note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activity
International organization participation: ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CP, EAS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National anthem: name: "Allah Peliharakan Sultan" (God Bless His Majesty)
lyrics/music: Pengiran Haji Mohamed YUSUF bin Pengiran Abdul Rahim/Awang Haji BESAR bin Sagap

note: adopted 1951
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dato Yusoff Abd HAMID
chancery: 3520 International Court NW #300, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel L. SHIELDS III
embassy: Simpang 336-52-16-9, Jalan Kebangsaan, Bandar Seri Begawan, BC4115
mailing address: Unit 4280, Box 40, FPO AP 96507; P.O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan BS8675, Negara Brunei Darussalam
telephone: [673] 238-4616
FAX: [673] 238-4604
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Brunei has a small well-to-do economy that depends on revenue from natural resource extraction but encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for 60% of GDP and more than 90% of exports. Per capita GDP is among the highest in Asia, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. For Bruneian citizens the government provides for all medical services and free education through the university level. The government of Brunei has been emphasizing through policy and resource investments it strong desire to diversity its economy both within the oil and gas sector and to new sectors.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $22.04 billion (2012 est.) $21.76 billion (2011 est.) $21.29 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $16.63 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.3% (2012 est.) 2.2% (2011 est.) 2.6% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $55,300 (2012 est.) $55,400 (2011 est.) $55,000 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 20.7%
government consumption: 18%
investment in fixed capital: 14.1%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 78.9%
imports of goods and services: -31.7% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 20.7%
government consumption: 18%
investment in fixed capital: 14.1%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 78.9%
imports of goods and services: -31.7% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggs
Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction, agriculture, transportation
Industrial production growth rate: 0.1% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 205,800 (2011 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 62.8%
services: 33% (2008 est.)
Unemployment rate: 2.6% (2011) 2.7% (2010)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $7.363 billion
expenditures: $5.122 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 44.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (2012 est.) 2.1% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: $3.977 billion (2009 est.)
Exports: $12.75 billion (2011) $9.88 billion (2010)
Exports - commodities: crude oil, natural gas, garments
Exports - partners: Japan 46.5%, South Korea 15.5%, Australia 9.3%, India 7%, NZ 6.7% (2012)
Imports: $3.02 billion (2011 est.) $2.73 billion (2010 est.)
Imports - commodities: iron and steel, motor vehicles, machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
Imports - partners: Singapore 26.3%, China 21.3%, UK 21.3%, Malaysia 11.8% (2012)
Debt - external: $0 (2005)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (BND) per US dollar - 1.2496 (2012 est.) 1.2579 (2011 est.) 1.3635 (2010 est.) 1.45 (2009)
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Electricity - production: 3.723 billion kWh (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 125
Electricity - consumption: 3.391 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 894,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 166,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 155,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 14,720 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 14,640 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 1,016 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 11.8 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 2.97 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 8.83 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 390.8 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 8.271 million Mt (2010 est.)
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Telephones in use: 79,800 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 151
Cellular Phones in use: 443,200 (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: service throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US

domestic: every service available

international: country code - 673; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network provides new links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media: state-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 5 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite and cable systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks and broadcasts on multiple frequencies; British Forces Broadcast Service (BFBS) provides radio broadcasts on 2 FM stations; some radio broadcast stations from Malaysia are available via repeaters (2009)
Internet country code: .bn
Internet hosts: 49,457 (2012)
Internet users: 314,900 (2009)
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Airports: 1 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 213
Airports (paved runways): total 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 3 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 33 km; condensate/gas 86 km; gas 628 km; oil 492 km (2013)
Roadways: total 3,029 km
paved: 2,425 km
unpaved: 604 km (2010)
Waterways: 209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m; the Belait, Brunei, and Tutong rivers are major transport links) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 9

by type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 8

foreign-owned: 2 (UK 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Muara
oil/gas terminal(s): Lumut, Seria
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Military branches: Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age for voluntary military service; non-Malays are ineligible to serve; recruits from the army, navy, and air force all undergo 43-week initial training (2013)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 112,688
females age 16-49: 117,536 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 95,141
females age 16-49: 99,386 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 3,572
female: 3,465 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 2.4% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; nonetheless, Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Louisa Reef
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 21,009 (2012); note - thousands of stateless persons, often ethnic Chinese, are permanent residents and their families have lived in Brunei for generations; obtaining citizenship is difficult and requires individuals to pass rigorous tests on Malay culture, customs, and language; stateless residents receive an International Certificate of Identity, which enables them to travel overseas; the government is considering changing the law prohibiting non-Bruneians, including stateless permanent residents, from owning land
Illicit drugs: drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty
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