Bermuda Population: 70,537

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 History
Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists heading for Virginia. Self-governing since 1620, Bermuda is the oldest and most populous of the British overseas territories. Vacationing to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be important to the island's economy, although international business has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has also developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on independence from the UK was soundly defeated in 1995.

 Geography
Consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by the US Government from 1941 to 1995
Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of South Carolina (US)
Geographic coordinates: 32 20 N, 64 45 W
Area: total: 54 sq km
land: 54 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: about one-third the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 103 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Land use: agricultural land: 14.8% arable land 14.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0% forest: 20%
other: 65.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)
Current Environment Issues: sustainable development
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 People
Nationality: noun: Bermudian(s)
adjective: Bermudian
Ethnic groups: black 53.8%, white 31%, mixed 7.5%, other 7.1%, unspecified 0.6% (2010 est.)
Languages: English (official), Portuguese
Religions: Protestant 46.2% (includes Anglican 15.8%, African Methodist Episcopal 8.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 6.7, Pentecostal 3.5%, Methodist 2.7%, Presbyterian 2.0 %, Church of God 1.6%, Baptist 1.2%, Salvation Army 1.1%, Brethren 1.0%, other Protestant 2.0%), Roman Catholic 14.5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.3%, other Christian 9.1%, Muslim 1%, other 3.9%, none 17.8%, unspecified 6.2% (2010 est.)
Population: 70,537 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.17% (male 6,122/female 5,989)
15-24 years: 12.15% (male 4,311/female 4,258)
25-54 years: 37.87% (male 13,380/female 13,331)
55-64 years: 15.38% (male 5,109/female 5,741)
65 years and over: 17.43% (male 5,194/female 7,102) (2016 est.)
Median age: total: 43.2 years
male: 41.4 years
female: 45.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.47% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 11.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 100% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.19% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: HAMILTON (capital) 10,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.3 years male: 78.1 years
female: 84.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.94 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Education expenditures: 1.7% of GDP (2015)
Literacy:
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 35.7% male: 34.8%
female: 36.5% (2012 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bermuda
former: Somers Islands
etymology: the islands making up Bermuda are named after Juan de BERMUDEZ, an early 16th century Spanish sea captain and the first European explorer of the archipelago
Government type: parliamentary democracy (Parliament); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
Capital: name: Hamilton
geographic coordinates: 32 17 N, 64 47 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May
Constitution: several previous (dating to 1684); latest entered into force 8 June 1968; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
Legal system: English common law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor John RANKIN (since 5 December 2016)

head of government: Premier Michael DUNKLEY (since 20 May 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (11 seats; members appointed - 3 by the governor, 5 by the premier, and 3 by the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Assembly (36 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve up to 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 17 December 2012 (next to be held not later than 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party - OBA 51.7%, PLP 46.1%, other 2.2%; seats by party - OBA 19, PLP 17
Judicial branch: highest resident court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and at least 2 justices); Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 4 puisne judges, and 1 associate justice); note - the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, in London, is the court of final appeal judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal justice appointed by the governor; justice tenure by individual appointment; Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission and appointed by the governor; judge tenure based on terms of appointment

subordinate courts: commercial court (began in 2006); magistrates' courts
Political parties and leaders: One Bermuda Alliance or OBA [Thad HOLLIS] Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Marc BEAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Association of Bermuda Insurers and Reinsurers or ABIR [Bradley KADING] Association of Bermuda International Companies or ABIC [George HUTCHINGS] Bermuda Employer's Council [Keith JENSEN] Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Chris Furbert] Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Kevin GRANT and Ed BALL] Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]
International organization participation: Caricom (associate), ICC (NGOs), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ITUC (NGOs), UPU, WCO
National symbol(s): red lion
National anthem: name: "Hail to Bermuda"
lyrics/music: Bette JOHNS

note: serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Consul General Mary Ellen KOENIG (since 27 November 2015)
consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3
mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, US Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300
telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, 296-9233
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 Economy
Tourism accounts for about 5% of Bermuda's GDP, but a much larger share of employment. Over 80% of its visitors come from the US. The sector struggled in the wake of the global recession of 2008-09. International business, which consists primarily of reinsurance and other financial services, is the real bedrock of Bermuda's economy, consistently accounting for about 85% of the island's GDP. Even this sector, however, has lost roughly 5,000 high-paying expatriate jobs since 2008, weighing heavily on household consumption and retail sales. Bermuda must import almost everything. Agriculture and industry are limited due to the small size of the island. Bermuda's economy entered its seventh straight year of recession in 2015. Unemployment is 9%, public debt is growing and exceeds $2.3 billion, the government pension fund faces a $2.4 billion shortfall, and the economy has not attracted significant amounts of new foreign investment. Bermuda's FY 2015-16 budget projects a 12% larger deficit than FY14/15. The government announced it would borrow $125 million in 2015 to meet current operating expenses. Still, Bermuda enjoys the fourth highest per capita income in the world, about 70% higher than that of the US. Tourism accounts for about 5% of Bermuda's GDP, but a much larger share of employment. Over 80% of its visitors come from the US. The sector struggled in the wake of the global recession of 2008-09. International business, which consists primarily of reinsurance and other financial services, is the real bedrock of Bermuda's economy, consistently accounting for about 85% of the island's GDP. Even this sector, however, has lost roughly 5,000 high-paying expatriate jobs since 2008, weighing heavily on household consumption and retail sales. Bermuda must import almost everything. Agriculture and industry are limited due to the small size of the island. Bermuda's economy entered its seventh straight year of recession in 2015. Unemployment is 9%, public debt is growing and exceeds $2.3 billion, the government pension fund faces a $2.4 billion shortfall, and the economy has not attracted significant amounts of new foreign investment. Bermuda's FY 2015-16 budget projects a 12% larger deficit than FY14/15. The government announced it would borrow $125 million in 2015 to meet current operating expenses. Still, Bermuda enjoys the fourth highest per capita income in the world, about 70% higher than that of the US.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $5.198 billion (2013 est.) $5.331 billion (2012 est.) $5.6 billion (2011 est.) GDP (purchasing power parity): $5.198 billion (2013 est.) $5.331 billion (2012 est.) $5.6 billion (2011 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $5.198 billion (2013 est.) GDP (official exchange rate): $5.198 billion (2013 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -2.5% (2013 est.) -4.8% (2012) -3.5% (2011 est.) -2.5% (2013 est.) -4.8% (2012) -3.5% (2011 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $85,700 (2013 est.) $85,400 (2012 est.) $86,000 (2011 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $85,700 (2013 est.) $85,400 (2012 est.) $86,000 (2011 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 53.4%
government consumption: 15.3%
investment in fixed capital: 10.9%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 41.8%
imports of goods and services: -21.3% (2016 est.) household consumption: 53.4% government consumption: 15.3% investment in fixed capital: 10.9% investment in inventories: -0.1% exports of goods and services: 41.8% imports of goods and services: -21.3% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 53.4%
government consumption: 15.3%
investment in fixed capital: 10.9%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 41.8%
imports of goods and services: -21.3% (2016 est.) household consumption: 53.4% government consumption: 15.3% investment in fixed capital: 10.9% investment in inventories: -0.1% exports of goods and services: 41.8% imports of goods and services: -21.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products, honey bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products, honey
Industries: international business, tourism, light manufacturing international business, tourism, light manufacturing
Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2016 est.) 2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 33,490 (2014 est.) 33,490 (2014 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 2%
industry: 15%
services: 83% (2013 est.) agriculture: 2% industry: 15% services: 83% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate: 9% (2014 est.) 7% (2013) 9% (2014 est.) 7% (2013)
Population below poverty line: 11% (2008 est.) 11% (2008 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $960.1 million
expenditures: $1.154 billion (2016 est.) revenues: $960.1 million expenditures: $1.154 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 18.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 18.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 43% of GDP (FY14/15) 43% of GDP (FY14/15)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.2% (2016 est.) 1.4% (2015 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.2% (2016 est.) 1.4% (2015 est.)
Exports: $19 million (2016 est.) $19 million (2015 est.) $19 million (2016 est.) $19 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: reexports of pharmaceuticals reexports of pharmaceuticals
Exports - partners: US 14.4%, Iceland 13.7%, Spain 6.8%, UK 5.8%, Mauritius 5.6% (2015) US 14.4%, Iceland 13.7%, Spain 6.8%, UK 5.8%, Mauritius 5.6% (2015)
Imports: $887.3 million (2016 est.) $934 million (2015 est.) $887.3 million (2016 est.) $934 million (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: clothing, fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals clothing, fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals
Imports - partners: South Korea 49.5%, US 14.6%, Germany 11.4%, China 9%, Turkmenistan 5.2% (2015) South Korea 49.5%, US 14.6%, Germany 11.4%, China 9%, Turkmenistan 5.2% (2015)
Debt - external: $2.435 billion (2015 est.) $1.4 billion (2012 est.) $2.435 billion (2015 est.) $1.4 billion (2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $2.641 billion (2014 est.) $2.664 billion (2013 est.) $2.641 billion (2014 est.) $2.664 billion (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $889 million (2014 est.) $NA (2013 est.) $889 million (2014 est.) $NA (2013 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $1.85 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $1.601 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $1.467 billion (31 December 2013 est.) $1.85 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $1.601 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $1.467 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Bermudian dollars (BMD) per US dollar - 1 (2016 est.) 1 (2015 est.) 1 (2014 est.) 1 (2013 est.) 1 (2012 est.) Bermudian dollars (BMD) per US dollar - 1 (2016 est.) 1 (2015 est.) 1 (2014 est.) 1 (2013 est.) 1 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 600 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 600 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 167,400 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 98.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1.8% of total installed capacity note: the Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility turns waste to electric energy (2014 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 3,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 889.3 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 600,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 59,500 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 85 (July 2014 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: a good, fully automatic digital telephone system with fiber-optic trunk lines

domestic: the system has a high fixed-line teledensity coupled with a mobile-cellular teledensity of roughly 125 per 100 persons

international: country code - 1-441; landing points for the GlobeNet, Gemini Bermuda, CBUS, and the Challenger Bermuda-1 (CB-1) submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 (2015)
Broadcast media: 3 TV stations; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; roughly 13 radio stations operating (2012)
Internet country code: .bm
Internet users: total: 69,000 percent of population: 98.3% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 1 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 447 km
paved: 447 km

note: 225 km public roads; 222 km private roads (2010)
Merchant marine: total 139

by type: bulk carrier 22, chemical tanker 3, container 14, liquefied gas 43, passenger 27, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 19, refrigerated cargo 9

foreign-owned: 105 (France 1, Germany 14, Greece 8, Hong Kong 4, Ireland 1, Israel 3, Japan 2, Monaco 2, Nigeria 11, Norway 5, Sweden 14, UK 14, US 26)

registered in other countries: 241 (Bahamas 15, Cyprus 1, France 5, Greece 3, Hong Kong 20, Isle of Man 7, Liberia 4, Malta 15, Marshall Islands 35, Netherlands 1, Norway 24, Panama 27, Philippines 47, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Singapore 25, UK 6, US 5) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Hamilton, Ireland Island, Saint George
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of the UK
Military branches: Bermuda Regiment (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18-45 years of age for voluntary male or female enlistment in the Bermuda Regiment; males must register at age 18 and may be subject to conscription; term of service is 38 months for volunteers or conscripts (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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